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Full text of "The Deipnosophists; or, Banquet of the learned, of Athenaeus. Literally translated by C.D. Yonge, B.A. With an appendix of poetical fragments, rendered into English verse by various authors, and a general index"

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By C. D. YONGE, B. A. 




r^ * 

VOL. I. 







The author of the Deipnosophists was an Egyptian, horn 
in Naucratis, a town on the left side of the Canopic Mouth 
of the Nile. The age in which he lived is somewhat 
uncertain, but his work, at least the latter portion of it, 
must have been written after the death of Ulpian the lawyer, 
which happened a.d. 228. 

Athenseus appears to have been imbued with a great love 
of learning, in the pursuit of which he indulged in the most 
extensive and multifarious reading; and the principal value 
of his work is, that by its copious quotations it preserves 
to us large fragments from the ancient poets, which would 
otherwise have perished. There are also one or two curious 
and interesting extracts in prose ; such, for instance, as the 
account of the gigantic ship built by Ptolemseus Philopator, 
extracted from a lost work of Callixenus of Rhodes. 

The work commences, in imitation of Plato's Phsedo, with 
a dialogue, in which Athenseus and Timocratcs supply the 
place of Phsedo and Echecrates. The former relates to his 
friend the conversation which passed at a banquet given at 
the house of Laurentius, a noble Roman, between some of 
the guests, the best known of whom are Galen and Ulpian. 


The first two books, aud portions of the third, eleventh, 
and fifteenth, exist only in an Epitome, of which both the 
date and author are unknown. It soon, however, became 
more common than the original work, and eventually in 
a great degree superseded it. Indeed Bentley has proved 
that the only knowledge which, in the time of Eustathius, 
existed of Athenseus, was through its medium. 

Athenseus was also the author of a book entitled, " On the 
Kings of Syria," of which no portion has come down to us. 

The text which has been adopted in the present transla- 
tion is that of Schweigh'auser. 

C. D. Y. 



The Character of Laurentius — Hospitable and Liberal Men — Those who 
have written about Feasts — Epicures — The Praises of Wine — Names 
of Meals — Fashions at Meals — Dances — Games — Baths — Partiality 
of the Greeks for Amusements — Dancing and Dancers — Use of some 
Words— Exercise— Kinds of Food — Different kinds of Wine — The 
Produce of various places — Different Wines 1 — 57 


Wine — Drinking — The evils of Drunkenness — Praises of Wine — Water — 
Different kinds of Water — Sweetmeats — Couches and Coverlets — 
Names of Fruits — Fruit and Herbs. — Lupins — Names of Plants — 
Eggs — Gourds — Mushrooms — Asparagus — Onions — Thrushes — 
Brains — The Head — Pickle — Cucumbers — Lettuce — The Cactus— The 
Nile. 57—121 


Cucumbers — Figs — Apples — Citrons — Limpets — Cockles — Shell-fish — 
Oysters — Pearls — Tripe — Pigs' Feet — Music at Banquets — Puns on. 
Words — Banquets — Dishes at Banquets — Fish — Shell-fish — Fish — 
Cuttle-fish — Bread — Loaves — Fish — Water Drinking— Drinking 
Snow — Cheesecakes — XovSoos 121— 210 


Feast of Caranus— Supper of Iphicrates— Cooks — Dancing at Banquets 
— The Attic Banquet — Athenian Feasts— The Copis — The Phiditia — 
Cleomenes — Persian Banquets — Alexander the Great — Cleopatra — 
Banquets at Phigalea — Thracian Banquets — Celtic Banquets — ltomau 
Banquets — Gladiatorial Combats — Temperance of the Lacedaemonians 
— The Theory of Euxithcus — Lentils — Spare Livers-r-PersEeus— Dio- 
dorus — Extravagance — Luxury of the Tarentines -Extravagance of 
Individuals — Cooks' Apparatus — Use of Certain Words — Tasters — 
The Delphians — Musical Instruments — Kinds of Flutes — Wind 
Instruments 210—287 



Banquets — Baths — Banquets — The Banquets described by Horner — 
Banquets — The Palaces of Homer's Kings — Conversation at Ban- 
quets — Customs in Homer's Time — Attitudes of Guests — Feast given 
by Antiochus — Extravagance of Antiochus- Ptelemy Philadelphus — 
Procession of Ptolemy Philadelphus— A large Ship built by Ptolemy 
— The Ship of Ptolemy Philopator — Hiero's Ship — Banquet given by 
Alexander — Athenio — The Valour of Socrates — Plato's account of 
Socrates — Socrates— The Gorgons 287 — 352 


Tragedy — Fishmongers — Misconduct of Fishmongers — Use of parti- 
cular Words — Use of Silver Plate — Silver Plate — Golden Trinkets — 
Use of Gold in different Countries — Parasites— Gynajconoini — Para- 
sites—Flatterers of Dionysius — Flatterers of Kings — Flattery of the 
Athenians— Flatterers — The Tyrants of Chios— The Conduct of Philip 
—Flatterers and Parasites — The Mariandyni — Slaves — Drimacus 
— Condition of Slaves— Slaves — Banquets — The Effects of Hunger 
— The Mothaces — Slaves nnder the Eomans — The Fannian 
Law 353—402 




The first two Boohs, and a portion of the third, as is known to the scholar, 
exist only in Epitome. 


1. is the author of this book; and in it he is 
discoursing with Timocrates : and the name of the book is 
the Deipnosophists. In this work Laurentius is introduced, a 
Roman, a man of distinguished fortune, giving a banquet in 
his own house to men of the highest eminence for every kind 
of learning and accomplishment; and there is no sort of 
gentlemanly knowledge which he does not mention in the 
conversation which he attributes to them; for he has put 
down in his book, fish, and their uses, and the meaning of 
their names ; and he has described divers kinds of vegetables, 
and animals of all sorts. He has introduced also men who 
have written histories, and poets, and, in short, clever men of 
all sorts; and he discusses musical instruments, and quotes 
ten thousand jokes : he talks of the different kinds of drinking 
cups, and of the riches of kings, and the size of ships, and 
numbers of other things which I cannot easily enumerate, 
and the day would fail me if I endeavoured to go through 
them separately. 

And the arrangement of the conversation is an imitation 
of a sumptuous banquet ; and the plan of the book follows 
the arrangement of the conversation. This, then, is the 
delicious feast of words which this aclmirablc master of the 

1 We have adopted the conventional title, "Banquet of the Learned ;" 
but it may, perhaps, be more accurate to translate it, "The Contrivers 
Bf Feasts." Vide Smith's Biographical Dictionary, roc. Athenians. 

VOL. I. ATI!. B 



feast, Athenaeus, has prepared for us ; and gradually sur- 
passing himself, like the orator at Athens, as he warms with 
his subject, he bounds on towards the end of the book in 
noble strides. 

2. And the Deipnosophists who were present at this 
banquet were, Masyrius, an expounder of the law, and one 
who had been no superficial student of every sort of learning ; 
Magnus . . . [Myrtilus] a poet, a man who in other branches 
of learning was inferior to no one, and who had devoted 
himself in no careless manner to the whole circle of arts and 
learning ; for in everything which he discussed, he appeared 
as if that was the sole thing which he had studied; so great 
and so various was his learning from his childhood. And he 
Avas an iambic poet, inferior to no one who has ever lived 
since the time of Archilochus. There were present also 
Plutarchus, and Leonidas of Elis, and JEmiliavMs the Mauri- 
tanian, and Zuilus, all the most admirable of grammarians. 

And of philosophers there were present Pontianus and 
Democritus, both of Nicomeclia; men superior to all their 
contemporaries in the extent and variety of their learning ; 
and Pluladelphus of Ptolemais, a man who had not only 
been bred up from his infancy in philosophical speculation, 
but who was also a man of the highest reputation in every 
part of his life. Of the Cynics, there was one whom he 
calls Cynulcus, who had not only two white dogs following 
him, as they did Telemachus when he went to the assembly, 
but a more numerous pack than even Acteeon had. And of 
rhetoricians there was a whole troop, in no respect inferior to 
the Cynics. And these last, as well, indeed, as every one else 
who ever opened his mouth, were run clown by Uppianus 
the Tyrian, who, on account of the everlasting questions 
which he keeps putting every hour in the streets, and walks, 
and booksellers' shops, and baths, has got a name by which 
he is better known than by his real one, Ceitouceitus. This 
man had a rule of his own, to eat nothing wuthout saying 
Ki'iTtu ; ;} ov kutui ; In this way, " Can we say of the word 
(opu, that it m'itcii, or is applicable to any part of the day 1 
And is the word pedurTog, or drunk, applicable to a man I 
Can the word pjrpa, or paunch, be applied to any eatable 
food 1 Is the name avaypoq a compound word applicable to 
a boar?" — And of physicians there were present Daphnus 


the Ephcsian, a man holy both in his art and by his manners, 
a man of no slight insight into the principles of the Academic 
school; and Galenus of Pergamos, who has published such 
numbers of philosophical and medical works as to surpass all 
those who preceded him, and who is inferior to none of the 
guests in the eloquence of his descriptions. And Rufinw > , 
Mylsea. — And of musicians, Alcides of Alexandria, was present. 
So that the whole party was so numerous that the catalogue 
looks rather like a muster-roll of soldiers, than the list of a 
dinner party. 

3. And Athenseus dramatises his dialogue in imitation of 
the manner of Plato. And thus he begins : — 


Tim. Were you, Athenams, yourself present at that de- 
lightful party of the men whom they now call Deipnosophists ; 
which has been so much talked of all over the city ; or is it 
only from having heard an account of it from others that you 
spoke of it to your companions 1 

AtJi. I was there myself, Timocrates. 

Tim. I wish, then, that you would communicate to us also 
some of that agreeable conversation which you had over your 
cups ; 

Make your hand perfect by a third attempt, 

as the bard of Cyrene 1 says somewhere or other ; or must we 
k some one else 1 

4. Then after a little while he proceeds to the praises of Lau- 
rentius, and says that he, being a man of a munificent spirit, 
and one who collected numbers of learned men about him, 
feasted them not only with other things, but also with con- 
versation, at one time proposing questions deserving of in- 
vestigation, and at another asking for information himself; 
not suggesting subjects without examination, or in any random 
manner, but as far as was possible with a critical and Socratic 
discernment ; so that every one marvelled at the systematic 
character of his questions. And he says, too, that he was 
appointed superintendant of the temples and sacrifices by that 
best of all sovereigns Marcus ; 2 and that he was no less con- 
versant with the literature of the Greeks than with that of 

1 Callimachus. 2 Marcus Aurclius. 



his own countrymen. And he calls him a sort of Asteropams, 1 
equally acquainted with both languages. And he says that 
he was well versed in all the religious ceremonies instituted 
by Romulus, who gave his name to the city, and by Numa 
Pompilius ; and that he is learned in all the laws of politics ; 
and that he has arrived at all this learning solely from the 
study of ancient decrees and resolutions ; and from the col- 
lection of the laws which (as Eupolis, the comic writer, says 
of the poems of Pindar) are already reduced to silence by 
the disinclination of the multitude for elegant learning. He 
had also, says he, such a library of ancient Greek books, as to 
exceed in that respect all those who are remarkable for such 
collections ; such as Polycrates of Samos, and Pisistratus who 
was tyrant of Athens, and Euclides who was himself also an 
Athenian, and Nicorrates the Samian, and even the kings of 
Pergamos, and Euripides the poet, and Aristotle the philoso- 
pher, and Nelius his librarian ; from whom they say that our 
countryman Ptolemseus, surnamed Philadelphus, bought them 
all, and transported them with all those which he had collected 
at Athens and at Rhodes to his own beautiful Alexandria. So 
that a man may fairly quote the verses of Antiphanes and 
apply them to him : — 

You court the heav'nly muse with ceaseless zeal, 

And seek to open all the varied stores 

Of high philosophy. 

And as the Theban lyric poet 2 says : — 

Nor less renown'd his hand essays 
To wake the muse's choicest lays, 
Such as the social feast around 
Full oft our tuneful band inspire. 

And when inviting people to his feasts, he causes Rome to be 
looked upon as the common country of all of them. For 
who can regret what he has left in his own country, while 
dwelling with a man who thus opens his house to all his 
friends. For as Apollodorus the comic poet says : — 
"Whene'er you cross the threshhold of a friend, 
How welcome you may be needs no long time 
To feel assured of; blithe the porter looks, 

' Asteropreus was one of the Trojan heroes who endeavoured to 
fight Achilles, being armed with two spears. 
2 Pindar. 01. i. 22, — See Moore's translation. 


The house-dog wags his tail, and rubs his nose 
Against your legs ; and servants hasten quick, 
Unbidden all, since their lord's secret wish 
Is known full well, to place an easy chair 
To rest your weary limbs. 

5. It would be a good thing if other rich men were like 
him ; sinco when a man acts in a different manner, people are 
apt to say to him, ""Why are you so mean 1 Your tents are 
full of wine." 

Call the ciders to the feast, 

Such a course befits you best. 

Such as this was the magnanimity of the great Alexander. 
And Conon, after he had conquered the Lacedaemonians in 
the sea-fight off Cnidus, and fortified the Pirams, sacrificed a 
real hecatomb, which deserved the name, and feasted all the 
Athenians. And Alcibiades, who conquered in the chariot 
race at the Olympic games, getting the first, and second, and 
fourth prizes, (for which victories Euripides wrote a triumphal 
ode,) having sacrificed to Olympian Jupiter, feasted the whole 
assembly. And Leophron did the same at the Olympic 
games, Simonides of Ceos writing a triumphal ode for him. 
And Empedocles of Agrigentum, having gained the victory in 
the horse race at the Ohympic games, as he was himself a 
Pythagorean, and as such one who abstained from meat, 
made an image of an ox of myrrh, and frankincense, and the 
most expensive spices, and distributed it among all who came 
to that festival. And Ion of Chios, having gained the tragic- 
crown at Athens, gave a pot of Chian wine to every Athenian 
citizen. For Antiphanes says : — 

For why should any man wealth desire," 1 

And seek to pile his treasures higher, 

If it were not to aid his friends in their need, 

And to gain for himself love's and gratitude's meed ? 

For all can drink and all can eat, 

And it is not only the richest meat, 

Or the oldest wine in the well-chased bowl 

Which can banish hunger and thirst from the soul. 

And Xenophanes of Chalcedon, and Speusippus the Axademio 
philosopher, and Aristotle, have all written drinking songs. 

And in the same manner Gellias of Agrigentum, being a 
very hospitable man, and very attentive to all his guests, gave 
a tunic and cloak to every one of five hundred horsemen who 
once came to him from Oela in the winter season. 


6. The sophist uses the word Diunerchaser, on which 
Clearchus says that Chamius the Syracusan adopted some 
little versicles and proverbs very neatly to whatever was put 
on the table. As on seeing a fish, he says : — 
1 come from the salt depths of /Egeus' sea. 

And when he saw some ceryces he said — 

Hail holy heralds (/cvjpu/ces), messengers of Jove. 
And on seeing tripe, 

Crooked ways, and nothing sound. 
When a well-stuffed cuttlefish is served up, 

Good morrow, fool. 
When he saw some pickled char, 

charming sight ; hence with the vulgar crowd. 

And on beholding a skinned eel, 

Beauty when unadorn'd, adorn'd the most. 

Many such men then as these, he says, were present at 
Laurentius's supper; bringing books out of their bags, as 
their contribution to the picnic. And he says also that 
Charmus, having something ready for everything that was 
served up, as has been already said, appeared to the Massenians 
to be a most accomplished man ; as also did Calliphanes, who 
was called the son of Parabrycon, who having copied out the 
beginnings of many poems and other writings, recollected 
three or four stanzas of each, aiming at a reputation for 
extensive learning, And many other men had in their 
mouths turbots caught in the Sicilian sea, and swimming 
eels, and the trail of the tunny-fish of Pachynum, and kids 
from Melos, and mullets from Symsethus. And, of dishes of 
less repute, there were cockles from Pelorum, anchovies from 
Lipara, turnips from Mantinea, rape from Thebes, and beet- 
root from the Ascreeans. And Cleanthes the Tarentine, as 
Clearchus says, said everything while the drinking lasted, in 
metres. And so did Pamphilus the Sicilian, in this way : — 

Give me a cup of sack, that partridge leg, 
Likewise a pot, or else at least a cheesecake. 

Being, says he, men with fair means, and not forced to earn 
their dinner with their hands, — 
Brinsrinrr baskets full of votes. 


7. Arcliestratus the Syracusan or Geloan, in his work to 
which Chrysippus gives the title of Gastronomy, but Lynceus 
and Callimachus of Hedypathy, that is Pleasure, and which 
Clearchus calls Deipnology, and others Cookery, (but it is an 
epic poem, beginning. 

Here to all Greece I open wisdom's store ;) 

A numerous party may sit round a table, 

But not more than three, four, or five on one sofa ; 
For else it would be a disorderly Babel, 

Like the hireling piratical baud of a rover. 

But he does not know that at the feast recorded by Plato 
there were eight and twenty guests present. 

How keenly they watch for a feast in tlie town, 
And, asked or not, they arc sure to go down ; 

says Antiphanes ; and he adds — 

Such are the men the state at public cost 
Should gladly feed ; 

and always 

Treat them like flies at the Olympic games 
And hang them up an ox to feast upon. 

8. Winter produces this, that summer bears ; 

says the bard of Syracuse. 1 So that it is not easy to put all 
sorts of things on the table at one time ; but it is easy to 
talk of all kinds of subjects at any time. Other men have 
written descriptions of feasts ; and Tinachidas of Rhodes has 
done so in an epic poem of eleven books or more ; and Nurac- 
nius the Heraclean, the pupil of Dieuchas the physician ; and 
Metreas of Pitane, the man who wrote parodies ; and Hegemon 
of Thasos, surnamed Phace, whom some men reckon among 
the writers of the Old Comedy. And Artemidorus, the false 
Aristophanes, collected a number of sayings relating to 
cookery. And Plato, the comic writer, mentions in his Pinion 
the banquet of Philoxenus the Leucadian. 

A. But I have sought Ibis tranquil solitude, 
To ponder deeply on this wondrous book. 

B. I pray you, what's the nature of its treasures? 

A. "Sauce for the million," by Philoxenus. 

B. Oh, let me taste this wisdom. A. Listen then; 
" I start wilh onions, and with tunnies end." 

1 Epicharmus. 


B. With tunnies 1 Surely, then, he keeps the best 

And choicest of his dishes for the last. 
A. Listen. In ashes first your onions roast 

Till they are brown as toast, 

Then with sauce and gravy cover; 

Eat them, you'll be strong all over. 

So much for earth ; now list to me, 

While I speak of the sons of the sea. 

And presently he says : — 

A good large flat dish is not bad, 

But a pan is better when 'tis to be had. 

And presently again : — 

Never cut up a sardine 

Or mackarel of silv'ry sheen, 

Lest the gods should scorn a sinner 

Such as you, and spoil your dinner ; 

But dress them whole and serve them up, 

And so you shall most richly sup. 

Good sized polypus in season 

Should be boil"d, — to roast them's treason ; 

But if early and not big, 

Eoast them ; boil'd ain't worth a fig. 

Mullets, though the taste is good, 

Are by far too weakening food ; 

And the ills it brings to master 

You will need a scorpion plaster. 

0. And it is from this Philoxenus that the Philoxenean 
cheesecakes arc named ; and Chrysippus says of him, " I know 
an epicure, who carried his disregard of his neighbours to such 
an extent, that he -would at the bath openly put in his hand 
to accustom it to the warm water, and who would rinse out 
his mouth with warm water, in order to be less affected by 
heat. And they said that he used to gain over the cooks to 
set very hot dishes before him, so that he might have them 
all to himself, as no one else could keep up with him. And 
they tell the same story about Philoxenus of Cythera, and 
aboxit Archytas, and many more, one of whom is represented 
by Cromjlus, the comic writer, as saying: — 

I've fingers Idaean 1 to take up hot meat, 

And a throat to devour it too ; 
Curries and devils are my sweetest treat, 

Not more like a man than a flue. 

1 There is a pun here that is untranslatcable. Ao.ktv\os is a finger; 
but the a<xkti/Ao! 'iScuoi were also priests of Cybele in Crete, and are 
the people to whom the discovery of iron, and the art of working it by 
fire, is ascribed. 

C. 10.] EPICURES. 9 

But Clearchus says that Philoxenus would, after he had 
Lathed, both when in his own country and in other cities, go 
round to men's houses, with his slaves following him, carrying 
oil, and wine, and pickle juice, and vinegar, and other condi- 
ments ; and that so, going into other persons' houses, he would 
season what was dressed for them, putting in whatever was 
requisite; and then, when he had finished his labours, he 
would join the banquet. He, having sailed to Ephesus, find- 
ing the market empty, asked the reason ; and learning that 
everything had been bought up for a wedding feast, bathed, 
and without any invitation went to the bridegroom's house, 
and then after the banquet he sang a wedding song, which 
began — 

Marriage, greatest of the gods, 
in such a manner as to delight every one, for he was a dithy- 
rambic poet. And the bridegroom said, " Philoxenus, are you 
going to dine here to-morrow ?" " Certainly," said he, " if no 
one sells any meat in the market." 

10. But Theophilus says : — "We should not act like Phi- 
loxenus, the son of Eryxis; for he, blaming, as it seems, the 
niggardliness of nature, wished to have the neck of a crane for 
the purposes of enjoyment. But it would be better still to wish 
to be altogether a horse, or an ox, or a camel, or an elephant ; 
for in the case of those animals the desires and pleasures are 
greater and more vehement; for they limit their enjoyments 
only by their power. And Clearchus says that Melanthius 
did pray in this way, saying, "Melanthius seems to have been 
wiser than Tithonus ; for this last, having desired immortality, 
is hung up in a basket; being deprived of every sort of plea- 
sure by old age. But Melanthius, being devoted to pleasure, 
prayed to have the neck of an ostrich, in order to dwell as 
long as possible on sweet things." 

The same Clearchus says that Pithyllus, who was called 
Tenthes, not only had a covering to his tongue made of skin, 
but that he also wrapped up his tongue for the sake of luxury, 
and then that he rubbed it clean again with the skin of a fish. 
And he is the first of the epicures who is said to have eaten 
his meat with fingerstalls on, in order to convey it to his 
mouth as warm as possible. And others call Philoxenus 
Philicthus; 1 but Aristotle simply calls him Philodeipnus,- 
1 <j>l\ixOvs, fond of fish. 2 (pi\6otnrvos, fond of feasting. 


writing in this way : — " Those who make harangues to the 
multitude, spend the whole day in looking at jugglers and 
mountebanks, and men who arrive from the Phasis or the 
Borysthenes; having never read a book in their lives except 
The Banquet of Philoxenus, and not all of that." 

1 1. But Phanias says that Philoxenus of Cythera, a poet, 
being exceedingly fond of eating, once when he was supping with 
Dionysius, and saw a large mullet put before him and a small 
one before himself, took his up in his hands and put it to his 
ear; and, when Dionysius asked him why he did so, Philoxenus 
said that he was writing Galatea, and so he wished to ask the 
fish some of the news in the kingdom of Nereus; and that 
the fish which he was asking said that he knew nothing about 
it, as he had been caught young; but that the one which was 
set before Dionysius was older, and was well acquainted with 
ever} T thing which he wished to know. On which Dionysiiib 
laughed, and sent him the mullet which had been set before 
himself. And Dionysius was very fond of drinking with 
Philoxenus, but when he detected him in trying to seduce 
Galatea, whom he himself was in love with, he threw him 
into the stone quarries ; and while there he wrote the Cyclops, 
constructing the fable with reference to what had happened 
to himself; representing Dioirysius as the Cyclops, and the 
flute-player as Galatea, and himself as Ulysses. 

12. About the time of Tiberius there lived a man named 
Apicius; very rich and luxurious; from whom several kinds 
of cheesecakes are called Apician. He spent myriads of 
drachms on his belly, living chiefly at Minturna?, a city- of 
Campania, eating very expensive crawfish, which are found 
in that place superior in size to those of Smyrna, or even to 
the crabs of Alexandria. Hearing too that they were very 
large in Africa, he sailed thither, without waiting a single day. 
and suffered exceedingly on his voyage. But when he came 
near the place, before he disembarked from the ship, (for his 
arrival made a great noise among the Africans,) the fishermen 
came alongside in their boats and brought him some very 
fine crawfish ; and he, when he saw them, asked if they had 
any finer; and when they said that there were none finer 
than those which they brought, he, recollecting those at Min- 
turnse, ordered the master of the ship to sail back the same 
way into Italy, without going near the laud. But Aristoxenus, 

C. 14.] EPICURES. 11 

viie philosopher of Gyrene, a real devotee of the philosophy 
of his country, (from whom, hams cured in a particular 
way are called Aristoxeni,) out of his prodigious luxury used 
to syringe the lettuces which grew in his garden with mead 
in the evening, and then, when he picked them in the morn- 
ing, he would say that he was eating green cheesecakes, which 
were sent up to him by the Earth. 

13. When the emperor Trajan was in Parthia, at a distance 
of many days' journey from the sea, Apicius sent him fresh 
oysters, which he had kept so by a clever contrivance of his 
own; real oysters, not like the sham anchovies which the 
cook of Nicomedes, king of the Bithynians, made in imitation 
of the real fish, and set before the king, when he expressed a 
wish for anchovies, (and he too at the time was a long way from 
the sea.) And in Euphron, the comic writer, a cook says : — 

A. I am a pupil of Soterides, 

Who, when his king was distant from the sea 

Full twelve days' journey, and in winter's depth, 

Fed him with rich anchovies to his wish, 

And made the guests to marvel. 

B. How was that ? 
A. He took a female turnip, shred it fine 

Into the figure of the delicate fish ; 

Then did he pour on oil and savoury salt 

With careful hand in due proportion. 

On that he strew'd twelve grains of poppy seed, 

Food which the Scythians love ; then boil'd it all. 

And when the turnip touch'd the royal lips, 

Thus spake the king to the admiring guests : 

" A cook is quite as useful as a poet, 

And quite as wise, and these anchovies show it." 

1 4. Archilochus, the Parian poet, says of Pericles, that he 
would often come to a banquet without being invited, after 
the fashion of the Myconians. But it seems to me that the 
Myconians are calumniated as sordid and covetous bei 

of their poverty, and because they live in a barren island. 
At all events Cratinus calls Ischomachus of Mycouos sordid. 

A. But how can you be generous, if the son 
Of old Ischomachus of Mycouos 1 

B. I, a good man, may banquet with the good, 

For friends should have all their delights in common. 

Archilochus says : — 

You come and drink full cups of Chian wine, 
And yet give no return for them, nor wait 


To be invited, as a friend would do. • 
Your belly is your god, and thus misleads 
Your better sense to acts of shamelessness. 

And Eubulus, the comic writer, says somewhere : — 

We have invited two unequall'd men, 

Philocrates and eke Philocrates. 

Tor that one man I always count as two, 

I don't know that I might not e'en say three. 

They say that once when he was ask'd to dinner, 

To come when first the dial gave a shade 

Of twenty feet, he with the lark uprose, 

Measuring the shadow of the morning sun. 

Which gave a shade of twenty feet and two. 

Off to his host he went, and pardon begg'd 

For having been detain'd by business ; 

A man who came at daybreak to his dinner ! 

Amphis, the comic writer, says : — 

A man who comes late to a feast, 

At which he has nothing to pay, 
Will be sure if in battle he's press'd, 

To run like a coward away. 

And Chrysippus says: — 

Never shun a banquet gay, 

Where the cost on others falls ; 
Let them, if they like it, pay 

For your breakfasts, dinners, balls. 

And Antiphanes says: — 

More blest than all the gods is he, 
Whom every one is glad to see, 
Who from all care and cost is free. 

And again : — 

Happy am I, who never have cause 

To be anxious for meat to put in my jaws. 

I prepared all these quotations beforehand, and so came to the 
dinner, having studied beforehand in order to be able to pay 
my host a rent, as it were, for my entertainment. 

For bards make offerings which give no smoke. 
The ancients had a word, povotpayuv, applied to those who eat 
alone. And so Antiphanes says : — 

But if you sulk, fj.ovofa.ywi>, 

Why must I, too, eat alone ] 

And Ameipsias says : — 

And if she's a /xovofdyos, plague take her, 
I'd guard against her as a base housebreaker. 

C. 15.] EPICURES. 13 

15. Dioscorides, with respect to the laws praised in Homer, 
says, " The poet, seeing that temperance was the most desirable 
virtue for young men, and also the first of all virtues, and 
one which was becoming to every one; and that which, as it 
were, was the guide to all other virtues, wishing to implant 
it from, the very beginning in every one, in order that men 
might devote their leisure to and expend their energies on 
honourable pursuits, and might become inclined to do good 
to, and to share their good things with others ; appointed a 
simple and independent mode of life to every one; consider- 
ing that those desires and pleasures which had reference to 
eating and drinking were those of the greater power, and of 
the highest estimation, and moreover innate in all men ; and 
that those men who continued orderly and temperate in 
respect of them, would also be temperate and well regulated 
in other matters. Accordingly, he laid down a simple mode 
of life for every one, and enjoined the same system in- 
differently to kings and private individuals, and young men 
and old, saying ; — 

The tables in fair order spread, 

They heap the glittering canisters with bread, 

Viands of simple kinds allure the taste, 

Of wholesome sort, a plentiful repast.' 

Their meat being all roasted, and chiefly beef; and he never 
sets before his heroes anything except such dishes as these, 
either at a sacred festival, or at a marriage feast, or at any 
other sort of convivial meeting. And this, too, though he 
often represents Agamemnon as feasting the chiefs. And 
Menelaus makes a feast en the occasion of the marriage of 
his daughter Hermione; and again on the occasion of the 
marriage of his son; and also when Telemachus comes to him — 

The table groan'd beneath a chine of beef, 

With, which the hungry heroes (mell'd their grief. 2 

For Homer never puts rissoles, or forcemeat, or cheesecakes, 
or omelettes before his princes, but meat such as was calcu- 
lated to make them vigorous in body and mind. And so too 
Agamemnon feasted Ajax after his single combat with Hector, 
on a rumpsteak; and in the same way he gives Nestor, who 
was now of advanced age, and Phoenix too, a roast sirloin of 

' Odyss. iv. 54. The poetical translations are from the corresponding 
passages in Pope's Homer. - lb. iv. 65. 


beef. And Homer describes Alcinous, who was a man of a 
very luxurious way of life, as having the same dinner ; wishing 
by these descriptions to turn us away from intemperate indul- 
gence of our appetites. And when Nestor, who was also a 
king and had many subjects, sacrificed to Neptune on the 
sea-shore, on behalf of his own clearest and most valued 
friends, it was beef that he offered him. For that is the 
holiest and most acceptable sacrifice to the gods, which is 
offered to them by religious and well-disposed men. And 
Alcinous, when feasting the luxurious Phaeacians, and when 
entertaining Ulysses, and displaying to him all the arrange- 
ments of his house and garden, and showing him the 
general tenor of his life, gives him jnst the same dinner. 
And in the same way the poet represents the suitors, though 
the most insolent of men and wholly devoted to luxury, 
neither eating fish, nor game, nor cheesecakes ; but embracing 
as ' far as he could all culinary artifices, and all the most 
stimulating food, as Menander calls it, and especially such as 
are called amatory dishes, (as Chrysippus says in his Treatise 
on Honour and Pleasure,) the preparation of which is some- 
thing laborious. 

16. Priam also, as the poet represents him, reproaches his 
sons for looking for unusual delicacies ; and calls them 

The wholesale murderers of lambs and kids. 1 
Philochorus, too, relates that a prohibition was issued at 
Athens against any one tasting lamb which had not been 
shorn, on an occasion when the breed of sheep appeared to be 
failing. And Homer, though he speaks of the Hellespont as 
abounding in fish, and though he represents the Phaeacians as 
especially addicted to navigation, and though he knew of many 
harbours in Ithaca, and many islands close to it, in which 
there were large flocks of fishes and of wild birds; and though 
he enumerates among the riches of the deep the fact of its 
producing fish, still never once represents either fish or game 
as being put on the table to eat. And in the same way he 
never represents fruit as set before any one, although there 
was abundance of it ; and although he is fond of speaking of 
it, and although he speaks of it as being supplied without end. 
For he says, " Pears upon pears," and so on. Moreover, he 
does not represent his heroes as crowned, or anointed, or using 
1 Iliad, xxiv. 262. 


perfumes ; but be portrays even his kings as scorning all such 
things, and devoting themselves to the maintenance of free- 
dom and independence. 

In the same way he allots to tbe gods a very simple way of 
life, and plain food, namely, nectar and ambrosia; and he 
represents men as paying them honour with the materials of 
their feasts ; making no mention of frankincense, or myrrh, 
or garlands, or luxury of this sort. And he does not describe 
them as indulging in even this plain food to an immoderate 
extent; but like the most skilful physicians he abhors satiety. 
But when their thirst and hunger were appeased ;* 

then, having satisfied their desires, they went forth to athletic 
exercises ; amusing themselves with quoits and throwing of 
javelins, practising in their sport such arts as were capable of 
useful application. And they listened to harp players who 
celebrated the exploits of bygone heroes with poetry and song. 
17. So that it is not at all wonderful that men who lived in 
such a way as they did were healthy and vigorous both in 
mind and body. And he, pointing out how wholesome and 
useful a thing moderation is, and how it contributes to the 
general good, has represented Nestor, the wisest of the Greeks, 
as bringing wine to Machaon the physician when wounded in 
the right shoulder, though wdne is not at all good for inflam- 
mations ; and that, too, was Pramnian wine, which we know 
to be very strong and nutritious. And lie brings it to him 
too, not as a relief from thirst, but to drink of abundantly; 
(at all events, when he lias drank a good draught of it, he 
recommends him to repeat it.) 

Sit now, and drink your fill, 
says he; and then he cuts a slice of goat-milk cheese, and 
then an onion, 

A shoeing-horn for further draughts of wine ; 2 
though in other places he docs say that wine relaxes and 
i .1- rvates the strength. And in the case of Hector, Hecuba, 
thinking that then lie will remain in the city all the rest of 
the day, invites him to drink and to pour libations, encourag- 
ing him to abandon himself to pleasure. But he, as he is 
going out to action, puts off the drinking. And she, indi i d, 
praises wine without ceasing; but he, when he conies in out 
1 Iliad, i. 469. 2 lb. xi. 0129. 


of breath, will not have any. And she urges him to pour a 
libation and then to drink, but he, as he is all covered with 
blood, thinks it impiety. 

Homer knew also the use and advantages of wine, when 
he said that if a man drank it in too large draughts it did 
harm. And he was acquainted, too, with many different 
ways of mixing it. For else Achilles would not have bade 
his attendants to mix it for him with more wine than usual, 
if there had not been some settled proportion in which it 
was usually mixed. But perhaps he was not aware that wine 
was very digestible without any admixture of solid food, 
which is a thing known to the physicians by their art ; and, 
therefore, in the case of people with heartburn they mix 
something to eat with the wine, in order to retain its power. 
But Homer gives Machaon meal and cheese with his wine ; 
and represents Ulysses as connecting the advantages to be 
derived from food and wine with one another when he says — 

Strengthen'd with wine and meat, a man goes forth : l 
and to the reveller gives sweet drink, saying — 

There, too, were casks of old and luscious -wine. 2 

18. Homer, too, represents the virgins and women washing 
the strangers, knowing that men who have been brought up 
in right principles will not give way to undue warmth or 
violence ; and accordingly the women are treated with proper 
respect. And this was a custom of the ancients ; and so too 
the daughters of Cocalus wash Minos on his arrival in Sicily, 
as if it was a usual thing to do. On the other hand, the poet, 
wishing to disparage drunkenness, represents the Cyclops, 
great as he was, destroyed through inebriety by a man of 
small stature, and also Eurytian the Centaur. And he 
relates how the men at Circe's court were transformed into 
lions and wolves, from a too eager pursuit of pleasure. But 
Ulysses was saved from following the advice of Mercury, by 
means of which he comes off unhurt. But he makes 
Elpenor, a man given to drinking and luxury, fall down a 
precipice. And Antinous, though he says to Ulysses — 

Luscious wine will be your bane, 3 
could not himself abstain from drinking, owing to which he 
was wounded and slain while still having hold of the goblet. 
1 Iliad, xxii. 427. 2 Odyss. ii. 340. = lb. xxi. 2<J3. 

C. 19.] NAMES OF MEALS. 17 

He represents the Greeks also as drinking hard when sailiii" 
away from Troy, and on that account quarrelling with one 
another, and in consequence perishing. And he relates that 
iEneas, the most eminent of the Trojans for wisdom, was led 
away by the manner in which he had talked, and bragged, and 
made promises to the Trojans, while engaged in drinking, 
so as to encounter the mighty Achilles, and w T as nearly killed. 
And Agamemnon says somewhere about drunkenness — 

Disastrous folly led me thus astray, 

Or wine's excess, or madness sent from Jove : 

placing madness and drunkenness in the same boat. And 
Dioscorides, too, the pupil of Isocrates, quoted these verses 
with the same object, saying, "And Achilles, when reproach- 
ing Agamemnon, addresses him — 

Tyrant, with sense and courage qucll'd by wine." 

This was the way in which the sophist of Thessalia argued, 
from whence came the term, a Sicilian proverb, and Athenreus 
is, perhaps, playing on the proverb. 

19. As to the meals the heroes took in Homer, there was 
first of all breakfast, which he calls apioroj/, which he mentions 
once in the Odyssey, 

Ulysses and the swineherd, noble man, 
First lit the fire, and breakfast then began. 1 

And once in the Iliad, 

Then quickly they prepared to break their fast. 2 
But this was the morning meal, which we call aKpanar/jLuc, 
because we soak crusts of bread in pure wine (taparoe), and 
eat them, as Antiphanes says — 

While the cook the Ixpiarot/ prepares. 
And afterwards he says — 

Then when you have done your business, 

Come and share my aKpaTia/xus. 

And Cantharus says — 

A. Shall we, then, take our axpaTiaixhs there] 

B. No ; at the Isthmus all the slaves prepare 
The sweet ipiarov, — 

using the two words as synonymous. Aristomcncs says — 

I'll stop awhile to breakfast, then I'll come, 
When I a slice or two of bread have eaten. 

But Philemon says that the ancients took the following 
1 Odyss. xv. 499. 2 Iliad, xxiv. 12-i. 

VOL. I. — ATII. C 


meals— ck-paria/jct, upioTar, icrTrtpuxfja, or the afternoon meal, 
and h'nvvov, supper ; calling the ch;pariiTiu6c breakfast, and 
apifT-ov 1 luncheon, and hlvvev the meal which came after 
luncheon. And the same order of names occur in ^Eschylus, 
■where Palamedes is introduced, saying — 

The different officers I then appointed, 
And bade them recollect the soldiers' meals, 
In number three, first breakfast, and then dinner, 
Supper the third. 

And of the fourth meal Homer speaks thus — 

And come thou SeieAnjVas. 2 
That which some call hiXtvov is between what we call 
apiGTor and ceiirvov; and apia-ov in Homer, that which is 
taken in the morning, Seiwvov is what is taken at noon, which 
we call apioTov, and l6ptrov is the name for the evening meal. 
Sometimes, then, apiarov is synonymous with Binrrov ; for 
somewhere or other Homer says — 

SZnvvov tbey took, then arm'd them for the fray. 
For making their Zfmvov immediately after sunrise, they then 
advance to battle. 

20. In Homer they eat sitting down ; but some think that 
a separate table was set before each of the feasters. At all 
events, they say a polished table was set before Mentes when 
he came to Telemachus, arriving after tables were already 
laid for the feast. However, this is not very clearly proved, 
for Minerva may have taken her food at Telemachus's table. 
But all along the banqueting-room full tables were laid out, 
as is even now the custom among many nations of the 

Laden with all dainty dishes, 

as Anacreon says. And then when the guests have departed, 
the handmaidens 

Bore off the feast, and clear' d the lofty hall, 
liemoved the jroblets and the tables all. 

1 Vide Liddell and Scott, in voc, who say, "In Homer it is taken at 
sunrise; and so ." ... A<r. 331, later breakfast was called dKp&Tifffm, and 
then &piarov was the midday meal, our luncheon, the Koman prandium, 
as may be seen from Theoc. iv. 90 — 7, 8;" and 25 : translate iairfpicr^a 
supper, and (inSopnls a second course of sweetmeats. 

'-'■ Odyss. xvii. 599. This word is found nowhere else ; waiting till 
evening, Buttman Lexic. s. v. 8tt\n, 12, explains it, having taken an 
afternoon meal.— L. & S. v. Call. Fr. 190. 

C. 21.] NAMES OF MEALS. 19 

The feast which he mentions as taking place in the palace 
of Menelaus is of a peculiar character ; for there lie repre- 
sents the guests as conversing during the banquet ; and then 
they wash their hands and return to the board, and proceed 
to supper after having indulged their grief. But the line h> 
the last book of the Iliad, which is usually read, 

He cat and drank, while still the table stood, 
should be read, 

He eat and drank still, while the table stood, 
or else there would be blame implied for what Achilles was 
doing at the moment; for how could it be decent that a table 
should be laid before Achilles, as before a party of revellers, 
down the whole length of a banqueting-room 1 Bread, then, 
was ])laced on the table in baskets, and the rest of the meal 
consisted wholly of roast meat. But Homer never speaks of 
broth, Antiphanes says, 

lie never boil'd the legs or haunches, 
But roasted brains and roasted paunches, 
As did his sires of old. 

21. And portions of the meat were then distributed among 
the guests ; from which ciroumstances he speaks of " equal 
feasts," because of their equal division. And he calls suppers 
Scu/ras, from the word Sarsofxai, to divide, since not only was 
the meat distributed in that way, but the wine also. 
Their hunger was appeased, 

And strength recruited by the equal feast. 1 
And again, 

Come, then, Achilles, share this equal feast. 2 
From these passages Zenodotus got the idea that Saira 
eurqv meant a good feast; for as food is a necessary good to 
men, he says that he, by extension of the meaning of the 
word, called it eton/v. But men in the early times, as they 
had not food in sufficient abundance, the moment any 
appeared, rushed on it all at once, and tore it to pieces with 
violence, and even took it away from others who had it ; and 
this disorderly behaviour gave rise to bloodshed. And it is 
from this that very probably the word aracrOaXia originated, 
because it was in OdXiax, another name for banquets, thai men 
first offended against one another. But when, by the bounty 

1 Odyss. viii. 98. ■ Iliad, h. 



of Ceres, food became abundant, then they distributed an 
equal portion to each individual, and so banquets became 
orderly entertainments. Then came the invention of wine 
and of sweetmeats, which were also distributed equally : and 
cups, too, were given to men to drink out of, and these cups 
all held the same quantity. And as food was called Sou?, 
from SaieaOai, that is, from being divided, so he who roasted 
the meat was called Sour/ao?, because it was he who gave each 
guest an equal portion. We must remark that the poet uses 
the word Sat? only of what is eaten by men, and never applies 
it to beasts ; so that it was out of ignorance of the force of 
this word that Zenodotus, in his edition writes : — 

aiirovs Se £\wpia TeD^e Kvyeff<nv 
olccvo?cri Te Scuto., 1 

calling the food of the vultures and other birds by this name, 
though it is man alone who has come to an equal division 
after his previous violence, on which account it is his food 
alone that is called Sals, and the portion given to him is 
called [jLOLpa. But the feasters mentioned in Homer did not 
carry home the fragments, but when they were satisfied they 
left them with the givers of the feast ; and the housekeeper 
took them in order, if any stranger arrived, to have some- 
thing to give him. 

22. Now Homer represents the men of his time as 
eating fish and birds : at all events, in Sicily the companions 
of Ulysses catch 

All fish and birds, and all that come to hand 

With barbed hooks. 2 

But as the hooks were not forged in Sicily, but were brought 
by them in their vessel; it is plain that they were fond 
of and skilful in catching fish. And again, the poet com- 
pares the companions of Ulysses, who were seized by Sylla, 
to fish caught with a long rod and thrown out of doors ; and 
he speaks more accurately concerning this act than those who 
have written poems or treatises professedly on the subject. I 
refer to Ca:cilius of Argos, and Numenius of Heraclea, and 
Pancrates the Arcadian, and Posidonius the Corinthian, and 
Oppianus the Cilician, who lived a short time ago; for we 

1 The real reading is Olmrourt re iruai, Iliad, i. 5. " He made them 
the prey of dogs and of all bird?." 2 Odyss. xii. 322. 


know of all those men as writers of heroic poems about 
fishing. And of prose essayists on the subject we have 
Seleucus of Tarsus, and Leonidas of Byzantium, and Agatho- 
cles of Atracia. But he never expressly mentions such food 
at his banquets, just as he also forbears to speak of the meat 
of young animals, as such food was hardly considered suitable 
to the dignity of heroes of reputation. However, they did 
eat not only fish, but oysters ; though this sort of food is 
neither very wholesome nor very nice, but the oysters lie at 
the bottom of the sea, and one cannot get at them by an- 
other means, except by diving to the bottom. 

An active man is he, and dives with ease ;' 
as he says of a man who could have collected enough to satisfy 
many men, while hunting for oysters. 

23. Before each one of the guests in Homer is placed a 
separate cup. Demodocus has a basket and a table and a cup 
placed before him, 

To. drink whene'er his soul desired. 2 

Again the goblets are crowned with drink; that is to say, they 
are filled so that the liquor stands above the brim, and the 
cups have a sort of crown of wine on them. Now the cup- 
bearers filled them so for the sake of the omen ; and then they 
pour out 

the word ttuo-iv referring not to the cups but to the men. 
Accordingly Alcinous says to Pontonous, 

Let all around the duo libation pay 

To Jove, who guides the wanderer on his way ; 4 

and then he goes on, 

All drink the juice that glads the heart of man. 

And due honour is paid at those banquets to all the most 
eminent men. Accordingly, Tydides is honoured with great 
quantities of meat and wine; and Ajax receives the compli- 
ment of a whole chine of beef. And the kings are treated 
in the same way : — 

A rump of beef they set before the king : 5 

1 Iliad, xvi. 745. 2 Odyss. vii. 70. 3 Iliad, i. 471. 

* Odyss. vii. 179. ' 5 II. iv. •:.". 


that is, before Menelaus. And in like manner lie honours 
Idomeneiis and Agamemnon 

With ever brimming cups of rosy wine. 1 

And Sarpedon, among the Lycians, receives the same respect, 
and has the highest seat, and the most meat. 

They had also a way of saluting in chinking one another's 
health ; and so even the gods, 

In golden goblets pledged each other's health ; 

that is, they took one another by the right hand while drink- 
ing. And so some one BeCteicr 'AxiXXe'a, which is the same 
as if he had said eSc&outo, that is, took him by the right hand. 
He drank to him, proffering him the goblet in his right hand. 
They also gave some of their own portion to those to whom 
they wished to show attention ; as, Ulysses having cut off 
a piece of chine of beef which was set before himself, sent it 
to Demodocus. 

24. They also availed themselves at their banquets of the 
services of minstrels and dancers ; as the suitors did, and in 
the palace of Menelaus 

A band amid the joyous circle sings 
High airs attempered to the vocal strings ; 
While, warbling to the varied strain, advance 
Two sprightly youths to form the bounding dance. 2 

And though Homer uses poXirri, warbling, here, he is really 
speaking only of the exercise of the dance. But the race of 
bards in those days was modest and orderly, cultivating 
a disposition like that of philosophers. And accordingly 
Agamemnon leaves his bard as a guardian and counsellor 
to Clytaemnestra : who, first of all, going through all the 
virtues of women, endeavoured to inspire her with an ambi- 
tion of excelling in virtuous and ladylike habits; and, after 
that, by supplying her with agreeable occupation, sought 
to prevent 'her inclinations from going astray after evil 
thoughts : so that ^Egisthus could not seduce the woman till 
he had murdered the bard on a desert island. And the same 
is the character of that bard who sings under compulsion 
before the suitors ; who bitterly reproached them for laying- 
plots against Penelope. We find too that using one general 

1 Iliad, iv. 3. 2 Odyss. iv. IS. 

C. 25;] DANCES. 23 

term, Homer calls all bards objects of veneration among 

Therefore the holy Muse their honour guards 

In every land, and loves the race of bards. 1 

And Demodocus the bard of the Phajacians sings of the in- 
trigue between Mars and Venus; not because he approves of 
such behaviour, but for the purpose of dissuading his hearers 
from the indulgence of such passions, knowing that they have 
been brought up in a luxurious way, and therefore relating to 
them tales not inconsistent with their own manners, for the 
purpose of pointing out to them the evil of them, and per- 
suading them to avoid such conduct. And Phemius sings 
to the suitors, in compliance with their desire, the tale of 
the return of the Greeks from Troy ; and the sirens sing to 
Ulysses what they think will be most agreeable to him, saying 
what they think most akin to his own ambition and extensive 
learning. We know, say they, 

Whate'er beneath the sun's bright journey lies, 
Oh stay and learn new wisdom from the wise. 2 

25. The dances spoken of in Homer are partly those of 
tumblers and partly those of ball- players; the invention of winch 
last kind Agallis, the Corey rean authoress, who wrote on gram- 
mar, attributes to Nausicaa, paying a compliment to her own 
countrywoman; but Dicsearchus attributes it to the Sicyo- 
nians. But Hippasus gives the credit of both this and gymnastic 
exercises to the Lacedaemonians. However, Nausicaa is the 
only one of his heroines whom Homer introduces playing at 
ball. Demoteles, the brother of Theognis the Chian sophist, 
was eminent for his skill in this game ; and a man of the 
name of Clnerephanes, who once kept following a debauched 
young man, and did not speak to him, but prevented him 
from misbehaving. And when he said, " Chserephanes, you 
may make your own terms with me, if you will only desist 
from following me ; " '•' Do you think," said he, " that I want 
to speak to you?" " If you do not," said he, " why do you 
follow me 1 " "I like to look at you," he replied, " but I do 
not approve of your conduct." 

The thing called 4>ovXXi.kXov, which appears to have been a 
kind of small ball, was invented by Alliens tin' Neapolitan, 
the tutor in gymnastics of the great Pompey. And in the 
1 O.lyss. vii. 431. - [b. xii. 101. 


game of ball the variation called apTracrrov used to be called 
^atvtVSa, and I think that the best of all the games of ball. 

26. There is a great deal of exertion and labour in a game 
of ball, and it causes great straining of the neck and shoulders. 
Antiphanes says, 

Wretch thai I am, my neck 's so stiff; 
and again Antiphanes describes the ^aivivZa thus : — 

The player takes the ball elate, 

And gives it safely to his mate, 

Avoids the blows of th' other side, 

And shouts to see them hitting wide ; 

List to the cries, " Hit here," "hit there,"' 

" Too far," " too high," " that is not fair," — 

See every man with ardour burns 

To make good strokes and quick returns. 

And it was called '<$>aivivoa from the rapid motion of those 
who played, or else because its inventor, as Juba the Mauri- 
tanian says, was Phecnestius, a master of gymnastics. And 

To play Phaminda at Phamestius' school. 
And those who played paid great attention to elegance of 
motion and attitude ; and accordingly Denioxenus says : — 

A youth I saw was playing ball, 

Seventeen years of age and tall ; 

Prom Cos he came, and well I wot 

The Gods look kindly on that spot. 

Por when he took the ball or threw it, 

So pleased were all of us to view it, 

"We all cried out ; so great his grace, 

Such frank good humour in his face, 

That every time he spoke or moved, 

All felt as if that youth they loved. 

Sure ne'er before had these eyes seen, 

Nor ever since, so fair a mien ; 

Had I staid long most sad my plight 

Had been to lose my wits outright, 

And even now the recollection 

Disturbs my senses' calm reflection. 
Ctesibius also of Chalcis, a philosopher, was no bad player. 
And there were many of the friends of Antigonus the king 
who used to take their coats off and play ball with him. 
Timocrates, too, the Lacedaemonian, wrote a book ou playing 

27. But the Phaeacians in Homer had a dance also uncon- 

C. 27.] DANCES. 2o 

nected with ball playing ; and they danced very cleverly, alter- 
nating in figures with one another. That is what is meant 
by the expression, 

In frequent interchanges, 
while others stood by and made a clapping noise with their 
fore-fingers, which is called XrjKeiv. The poet was acquainted 
also with the art of dancing so as to keep time with singing. 
And while Demodocus was singing, youths just entering on 
manhood were dancing ; and in the book which is called the 
Manufacture of the Arms, a boy played the harp, 

Danced round and sung in soft well measured tune. 
And in these passages the allusion is to that which is called 
the hyporchematic ' style, which flourished in the time of 
Xenodemus and Pindar. And this kind of dance is an imita- 
tion of actions which are explained by words, and is what the 
elegant Xenophon represents as having taken place, in his 
Anabasis, at the banquet given by Seuthes the Thracian. 
He says: 

" After libations were made, and the guests had sung a 
pa?an, there rose up first the Thracians, and danced in arms 
to the music of a flute, and jumped up very high, with light 
jumps, and used their swords. And at last one of them 
strikes another, so that it seemed to every one that the man 
was wounded. And he fell down in a very clever manner, 
and all the bystanders raised an outcry. And he who struck 
him having stripped him of his arms, went out singing Sitalces. 
And others of the Thracians carried out his antagonist as if 
he were dead; but in reality, he was not hurt. After this 
some iEnianians and Magnesians rose up, who danced the 
dance called Carpsea, they too being in armour. And the 
fashion of that dance was like this: One man, having laid 
aside his arms, is sowing, and driving a yoke of oxen, con- 
stantly looking round as if he were afraid. Then there comes 
up a robber; but the sower, as soon as- he sees him, snatches 
up his arms and fights in defence of his team in regular time 
to the music of the flute. And at last the robber, having 

1 " {mopxnua, a hyporcheme or choral hymn to Apollo, near akin to 
the Pwan. It was of a very lively character, accompanied with dancing 
(whence the name) and pantomimic action; and is compared by 
Athenaras to the «op5a£ (630 E). Pindar's Fragments, 71—82, arc 
remains of hyporchemes." — Liddell & Scott, in voc. vTrupxVH- a - 


bound the man, carries off the team; but sometimes the 
sower conquers the robber, and then binding him alongside 
his oxen, he ties his hands behind him, and drives him for- 
ward. And one man," says he, " danced the Persian dance, 
and rattling one shield against another, fell down, and rose 
up again : and he did all this in time to the music of a flute. 
And the Arcadians rising up, all moved in time, being clothed 
in armour, the flute-players playing the tune suited to an 
armed march; and they sung the pa^an, and danced." 

28. The heroes used also flutes and pipes. At all events Aga- 
memnon hears " the voice of flutes and pipes," which howevei 
he never introduced into banquets, except that in the Manu- 
facture 1 of Arms, he mentions the flute on the occasion of a 
marriage-feast. But flutes he attributes to the barbarians. 
Accordingly, the Trojans had " the voice of flutes and pipes," 
and they made libations, when they got up from the feast, 
making -them to Mercury, and not, as they did afterwards, to 
Jupiter the Finisher. For Mercury appears to be the patron 
of sleep : they drop libations to him also on their tongues 
when they depart from a banquet, and the tongues are 
especially allotted to him, as being the instruments of 

Homer was acquainted also with a variety of meats. At 
all events he uses the expression " various meats," and 

Meats such as godlike kings rejoice to taste. 
He was acquainted, too, with everything that is thought 
luxurious even in our age. And accordingly the palace of 
Menelaus is the most splendid of houses. And Polybius 
describes the palace of one of the Spanish kings as being some- 
thing similar in its appointments and splendour, saying that 
he was ambitious of imitating the luxury of the Pha)acians, 
except as far as there stood in the middle of the palace 
huge silver and golden goblets full of wine made of barley. 
But Homer, when describing the situation and condition of 
Calypso's house, represents Mercury as astonished; and in his 
descriptions the life of the Phceacians is wholly devoted to 
pleasure : 

We ever love the banquet rich, 
The music of the lyre, 

1 That is to say, in the eighteenth book of the Iliad, which relates the 
making of the arms for Achilles by Vulcan. 

C. 29.] GAMES. 27 

and so on. And 

How goodly seems it, etc. etc. 

lines which Eratosthenes says ought to stand thus : — 

How goodly seems it ever to employ 

Far from all ills man's social days in joy, 

The plenteous board high heap'd with cates divine, 

While tuneful songs bid flow the generous wine. 1 

When he says " far from all ills," he means where folly is not 
allowed to exhibit itself; for it would be impossible for the 
Phreacians to be anything but wise, inasmuch as they are 
very dear to the gods, as Nausicaa says. 

29. In Homer, too, the suitoi'S amused themselves in front 
of the doors of the palace with dice ; not having learnt how 
to play at dice from Diodorus of Megalopolis, or from Theo- 
doras, or from Leon of Mitylene, who was descended from 
Athenian ancestors : and was absolutely invincible at dice, 
as Phanias says. But Apion of Alexandria says that he had 
heard from Cteson of Ithaca what sort of game the game of 
dice, as played by the suitors, was. For the suitors being 
a hundred and eight in number, arranged their pieces oppo- 
site to one another in equal numbers, they themselves also 
being divided into two equal parties, so that there were on 
each side fifty-four ; and between the men there was a small 
space left empty. And in this middle space they placed one 
man, which they called Penelope. And they made this the 
mark, to see if any one of them could hit it with his man ; 
and then, when they had cast lots, he who drew the lot aimed 
at it. Then if any one hit it and drove Penelope forward out 
of her place, then he put down his own man in the place of 
that which had been hit and moved from its place. After 
which, standing up again, he shot his other man at Penelope in 
the place in which she was the second time. And if he hit 
her again without touching any one of the other men, he won 
the game, and had great hopes that he should be the man to 
marry her. He says too that Eurymachus gained the greatest 
number of victories in this game, and was very sanguine about 
his marriage. And in consequence of their luxury the suitors 
had such tender hands that they were not able to bend the 
bow; and even their servants were a very luxurious set. 

1 Odyss. ix. 7. 


Homer, too, speaks of the smell of perfumes as something 
very admirable : — 

Spirit divine ! whose exhalation greets 

The sense of gods with more than mortal sweets. 1 

He speaks, too, of splendid beds ; and such is the bed which 
Arete orders her handmaids to prepare for Ulysses. And 
Nestor makes it a boast to Telemachus«that he is well provided 
with such things. 

30. But some of the other poets have spoken of the habits 
of expense and indolence of their own time as existing also at 
the time of the Trojan war; and so iEschylus very improperly 
introduces the Greeks as so drunk as to break their vessels 
about one another's heads; and lie says — 

This is the man who threw so well 
The vessel with an evil smell, 
And miss'd me not, but dash'd to shivers 
The pot too full of steaming rivers 
Against my head, which now, alas ! sir, 
Gives other smells besides macassar. 

And Soj)hocles says in his banquet of the Greeks, 

He in his anger threw too well 
The vessel with an evil smell 
Against my head, and fill'd the room 
With something not much like perfume ; 
So that I swear I nearly fainted 
With the foul steam the vessel vented. 

But Eupolis attacks the man who first mentioned such a 
thing, saying— 

I hate the ways of Sparta's line, 
And would rather fry my dinner ; 
He who first invented wine 
Made poor man a greater sinner, 
And through him the greater need is 
Of the arts of Palamedes. 2 

But in Homer the chiefs banquet in Agamemnon's tent in 
a very orderly manner ; and if in the Odyssey Achilles and 
Ulysses dispute and Agamemnon exults, still their rivalry 
with one another is advantageous, since what they are dis- 
cussing is whether Tro} r is to be taken by stratagem, or by 
open-hand fighting. And he does not represent even the 

1 Iliad, xiv. 1 73. 

2 Sehweighauser says here that the text of this fragment of Eupolis 
is corrupt, and the sense and metre undiscoverable. 

C. 32.] BATHS. 29 

suitors as drunk, nor has he ever made his heroes guilty of 
such disorderly conduct as ^Eschylus and Sophocles have, 
though he does speak of the foot of an ox heing thrown at 

31. And his heroes sit at their banquets, and do not lie 
down. And this was sometimes the case at the feasts of Alex- 
ander the king, as Dures says. For he once, when giving a 
feast to his captains to the number of six thousand, made 
them sit upon silver chairs and couches, having covered them 
with purple covers. And Hegesander says that it was not the 
custom in Macedonia for any one to lie down at a banquet, 
unless he had slain a boar which had escaped beyond the line 
of nets; but with that exception, every one sat at supper. 
And so Cassander, when he was thirty-five years of age, supped 
with his father in a sitting posture, not being able to perform 
the above-mentioned exploit, though he was of man's estate, 
and a gallant hunter. 

But Homer, who has always an eye to propriety, has not 
introduced his heroes feasting on anything except meat, and 
that too they dressed for themselves. For it caused neither 
ridicule nor shame to see them preparing and cooking their 
own food : for they studied to be able to wait upon them- 
selves ; and they prided themselves, says Chrysippus, on their 
dexterity in such matters. And accordingly Ulysses boasts of 
being a better hand than any one else at making a fire and 
cutting up meat. And in the book of the Iliad called The 
Prayers, 1 Patroclus acts as cupbearer, and Achilles prepares 
the supper. And when Mcnelaus celebrates a marriage feast, 
Megapenthes the bridegroom acts as cupbearer. But now we 
have come to such a pitch of effeminacy. as to lie down while 
at our meals. 

32. And lately baths too have been introduced; things which 
formerly men would not have permitted to exist inside a city. 
And Antiphanes points out their injurious character: 

Plague take the bath ! just see the plight 

la which the thing has left me ; 
It seems t'.have'boil'd me up, and quite 

Of strength and nerve bereft me. 
Don't touch me, curst was he who taught a 
Man to soak in boiling water. 

The Ninth Book. 


And Hermippus says, 

As to mischievous habits, if you ask my vote, 

I say there are two common kinds of self-slaughter, 

One, constantly pouring strong wine down your throat, 
T'other plunging in up to your throat in hot water. 

But now the refinements of cooks and perfumers have in- 
creased so much, that Alexis says that even if a man could 
bathe in a bath of perfume he would not be content. And 
all the manufactories of sweetmeats are in great vigour, and 
such plans are devised for intercourse between people, that 
some have proposed even to stuff the sofas and chairs with 
sponge, as on the idea that that will make the occupiers more 
amorous. And Theophrastus says that some contrivances are 
of wondrous efficacy in such matters ; and Phylarchus con- 
firms him, by reference to some of the presents which San- 
drocottus, the king of the Indians, sent to Seleucus; which 
were to act like charms in producing a wonderful degree of 
affection, while some, on the contrary, were to banish love. 
Music, too, has been cultivated now, in a way which is a great 
perversion of its legitimate use : and extravagance has de- 
scended even to our clothes and shoes. 

33. But Homer, though he was well acquainted with the 
nature of perfume, has never introduced any of his heroes as 
perfumed except Paris; when he says, "glittering with 
beauty," as in another place he says that Venus — 

With every beauty every feature arms, 

Bids her cheeks glow, and lights up all her charms. 1 

Nor does he ever represent them as wearing crowns, although 
by some of his similes and metaphors he shows that he knew 
of garlands. At all events he speaks of 

That lovely isle crown'd by the foaming -waves, 2 
And again he says — 

For all around the crown of battle swells. 3 

We must remark, too, that in the Odyssey he represents his 
characters as washing their hands before they partake of food. 
But in the Iliad there is no trace of such a custom. For the 
life described in the Odyssey is that of men living easily and 
luxuriously owing to the peace ; on which account the men 
1 Odyss. xviii. 191. 2 lb. x. 105. 3 Iliad, xiii. 736. 


of that time indulged tLeir bodies with baths and washings. 
And that is the reason why in that state of things they play 
at dice, and dance, and play ball. But Herodotus is mistaken 
when he says that those sports were invented in the time of 
Atys to amuse the people during the famine. For the heroic 
times are older than Atys. And the men living in the time 
of the Iliad are almost constantly crying out — 

Kaise the battle cry so clear, 
Prelude to the warlike spear. 

34. Now to go back to what we were saying before. The 
Athenians made Aristonicus the Carystian, who used to play 
at ball with Alexander the king, a freeman of their city on 
account of his skill, and they erected a statue to him. And 
even in later times the Greeks considered all handicraft trades 
of much less importance than inventions which had any refe- 
rence to amusement. And the people of Histiaaa, and of 
Oreum, erected in their theatre a brazen statue holding a die 
in its hand to Theodoras the juggler. And on the same 
principle the Milesians erected one to Archelaus the harp- 
player. But at Thebes there is no statue to Pindar, though 
there is one to Cleon the singer, on which there is the 
inscription — 

Stranger, thou seest Pytheas' tuneful son, 

While living oft with vict'ry's garlands crown' d, 

Sweet singer, though on earth his race is run, 
E'en the high heavens with his name resound. 

Polemo relates that when Alexander razed Thebes to the 
ground, one man who escaped hid some gold in the garments 
of this statue, as they were hollow ; and then when the city 
was restored he returned and recovered his money after a 
lapse of thirty years. But Herodotus, the logomime as he 
was called, and Archelaus the dancer, according to Hege- 
sander, were. more honoured by Antiochus the king than any 
others of his friends. And Antiochus his father made the 
sons of Sostratus the flute-player his body gui 

35. And Matreas, the strolling player of Alexandria, was ad- 
mired by both Greeks and Romans ; and he said that he was 
cherishing a beast which was eating itself. So that even now 
it is disputed what that beast of Matreas's was. He used to 
propose ridiculous questions in parody of the doubts raised by 
Aristotle, and then he read them in public ; as " Why is the 


sun said to set, and not to dive 1 " " why are sponges said to 
suck up, and not to drink V and " why do we say of a tetra- 
drachm that it KaraWaTTerai, 1 when we never speak of its 
getting in a passion 1 " And the Athenians gave Pothimos 
the puppet-master the use of the very stage on which Euri- 
pides had exhibited his noble dramas. And they also erected 
a statue of Euripides in the theatre next to the statue ofiEs- 
chylus. Xenophon the conjuror, too, was very popular among 
them, who left behind him a pupil of the name of Cratis- 
thcnes, a citizen of Phlias ; a man who used to make fire 
spout up of its own accord, and who contrived many other 
extraordinary sights, so as almost to make men discredit the 
evidence of their own senses. And Nymphodorus the con- 
juror was another such ; a man who having quarrelled with 
the people of Rhegium, as Duris relates, was the first man 
who turned them into ridicule as cowards. And Eudicus the 
buffoon gained great credit by imitating wrestlers and boxers, 
as Aristoxenus relates. Straton of Tarentum, also, had many 
admirers ; he was a mimic of the dithyrambic poets ; and so 
had CEnonas the Italian, who mimicked the harp-players ; 
and who gave representations of the Cyclops trying to sing, 
and of Ulysses when shipwrecked, speaking in a clownish 
fashion. And Diopeithes the Locrian, according to the ac- 
count of Phanodemus, when he came to Thebes, fastened round 
his waist bladders full of wine and milk, and then, squeezing 
them, pretended that he was drawing up those liquids out of 
his mouth. And Noemon gained a great reputation for the 
same sort of tricks. 

There were also in Alexander's court the following jugglers, 
who had all a great name. Scymnus of Tarentum, and Phi- 
listides of Syracuse, and Heraclitus of Mitylene. And there 
were too some strolling players of high repute, such as 
Cephisodorus and Pantaleon. And Xenophon makes mention 
also of Philip the buffoon. 

3G. Pome may fairly be called the nation of the world. And 
he will not be far out who pronounces the city of the Romans 
an epitome of the whole earth ; for in it you may see every 
other city ai'ranged collectively, and many also separately ; 
for instance, there you may see the golden city of the Alex- 

1 This is a pun which cannot be rendered in English, KaTaWaWojuaj 
meaning to be changed, of money ; and to be reconciled, of enemies. 


andrians, the beautiful metropolis of Antioch, the surpassing 
beauty of Nicomedia ; and besides all these that most glorious 
of all the cities which Jupiter has ever displayed, I mean 
Athens. And not only one day, but all the days in an entire 
year, would be too short for a man who should attempt to 
enumerate all the cities which might be enumerated as dis- 
cernible in that urauopolis of the Romans, the city of Rome ; 
so numerous are they. — For indeed some entire nations are 
settled there, as the Cappadocians, the Scythians, the people of 
Pontus, and many others. And all these nations, being so to 
say the entire population of the world, called the dancer who 
was so famous in our time Memphis, comparing him, on 
account of the elegance of his movements, to the most royal 
and honourable of cities ; a city of which Bacchylides sings — 

Memphis, which winter dares not to assail, 
And lotus-crowned Nile. 

As for the Pythagorean philosophy, Athenseus explains 
that to us, and shows us everything in silence more intelligibly 
than others who undertake to teach the arts which require 

37. Now of tragic dancing, as it was called, such as it existed 
in his time, Bathyllus of Alexandria was the first introducer ; 
whom Seleucus describes as having been a legitimate dancer. 
This Bathyllus, according to the account of Aristonicus, and 
Pylades too, who has written a treatise on dancing, composed 
the Italian dance from the comic one which was called KopSaf, 
and from the tragic dance which was called e/x/xe'Aeia, and 
from the Satyric dance which was called criWvis, (from which 
also the Satyrs were called cn/awio-rat,) the inventor of which 
was a barbarian named Sicinnus, though some say that Siein- 
nus was a Cretan. Now, the dance invented by Pylades was 
stately, pathetic, and laborious ; but that of Bathyllus was in 
a merrier style ; for he added to his a kind of ode to Apollo. 
But Sophocles, in addition to being eminent for personal 
beauty, was very accomplished in music and dancing, having 
been instructed in those arts while a boy by Lamprus, and 
after the naval victory of Salamis, he having no clothes on, 
but only being anointed with oil, danced round the trophy 
erected on that occasion to the music of the lyre, but some 
say that he had his tunic on ; and when he exhibited his 
Thamyris he himself played the harp; and he also played at 

vol. I. — ATII. D 


ball with great skill when he exhibited his Nausicaa. And 
Socrates the Wise was very fond of the dance Memphis ; and 
as he was often caught dancing, as Xenophon relates, he said 
to his friends that dancing was a gymnastic exercise for every 
limb ; for the ancients used the word op^co/mi for every sort 
of motion and agitation. Anacreon says — 

The fair-hair' d maids of mighty Jove 
Danced lightly in the mystic grove ; 

and Ion has the expression — 

This strange occurrence makes my heart to dance. 
3S. And Hermippus says, that Theophrastus used to come to 
the walks at a regular hour, carefully and beautifully dressed ; 
and that then he would sit down and enter upon an argument, 
indulging in every sort of motion and gesture imaginable ; 
so that once while imitating an epicure he even put out his 
tongue and licked his lips. 

Those men were very careful to put on their clothes neatly ; 
and they ridiculed those who did not do so. Plato, in the 
Thesetetus, speaks of "a man who has capacity to manage every- 
thing cleverly and perfectly, but who has no idea how to piit 
on even proper clothes like a gentleman, and who has no 
notion of the propriety of language, so as to be able to cele- 
brate the life of gods and men in a becoming manner." And 
Sappho jests upon Andromeda : — 

Sure by some milkmaid you 've been taught 

To dress, whose gown is all too short 
To reach her sturdy ancles. 

And Philetcerus says — 

Don't let your gown fall down too low, 
Nor pull it up too high to show 
Your legs in clownish fashion. 

And Hermippus says, that Theocritus of Chios used to blame 
the way in which Anaximenes used to wrap his cloak round 
him as a boorish style of dressing. And Callistratus the pupil 
of Aristophanes, in one of his writings, attacked Aristarchus 
severely for not being neatly dressed, on the ground, that at- 
tention to those minutiae is no trifling indication of a man's 
abilities and good sense. On which account Alexis says— 

'Tis a sure sign of a degraded nature, 

To walk along the street in sloven's guise ; 

Having the means of neatness : which costs nothing ; 


Is subject to no tax ; requires no change; 
And creditable is to him who uses it, 
And pleasant to all those who witness it. 
Who then would ever disregard this rule, 
That wishes to be thought a man of sense % 

39. But iEschylus was not only the inventor of becoming and 
dignified dress, which the hierophants and torch-bearers of the 
sacred festivals imitated ; but he also invented many figures 
in dancing, and taught them to the dancers of the chorus. 
And Chamseleon states that he first arranged the choruses, 
not using the ordinary dancing-masters, but himself arranging 
the figures of the dancers for the chorus ; and altogether that 
he took the whole arrangement of his tragedies on himself. 
And he himself acted in his own plays very fairly. And accord- 
ingly, Aristophanes (and we may well trust the comic writers 
in what they say of the tragedians) represents ^Eschylus him- 
self as saying — 

I myself taught those dances to the chorus, 

Which pleased so much when erst they danced before us. 

And again, he says, " I recollect that when I saw ' The Phry- 
gians,' when the men came on who were uniting with Priam in 
his petition for the ransom of his son, some danced in this 
way, some in that, all at random." Telesis, or Telestes, (which- 
ever was his right name,) the dancing-master, invented many 
figures, and taught men to use the action of their hands, so as 
to give expression to what they said. Phillis the Delian, a musi- 
cian, says, that the ancient harp-players moved their counte- 
nances but little, but their feet very much, imitating the march 
of troops or the dancing of a chorus. Accordingly Aristotle 
says, that Telestes the director of ^Eschylus's choruses was so 
great a master of his art, that in managing the choruses of the 
Seven Generals against Thebes, he made all the transactions 
plain by dancing. They say, too, that the old poets, Thespis, 
Pratinas, Carcinus, and Phrynichus, were called dancing 
poets, because they not only made their dramas depend upon 
the dancing of the chorus, but because, besides directing the 
exhibition of their own plays, they also taught dancing to all 
who wished to learn. ButiEschylus was often drunk when lie 
wrote his tragedies, if we may trust Chamaoleon : and accord- 
ingly Sophocles reproached him, saying, that even when he 
did what was right he did not know that he was doing so. 


40. Now the national dances are the following : — the Lace- 
daemonian, the Trcezenian, the Epizephyrian, the Cretan, the 
Ionian, the Mantinean, which Aristoxenus considers as the best 
of all, on account of its movement of the hands. And dancing 
was considered so creditable an employment, and one requir- 
ing so much talent, that Pindar calls Apollo a dancer : — 

Prince of dancers, prince of grace, 
Hail, Phoebus of the silver quiver. 

And Homer too, or one of the Horneridse, in one of the hymns 

to Apollo, says — 

How deftly Phoebus strikes the golden lyre, 

While strength and grace each moving limb inspire ! 

and Eumelus, or Arctinus, the Corinthian, somewhere or other 
introduces Jupiter himself as dancing, saying — 

And gracefully amid the dancing throng, 
The sire of gods and mortals moved along. 

But Theophi-astus says that Andron of Catana, a flute-player, 
was the first person who invented motions of the body keep- 
ing time to music, while he played on the flute to the dancers ; 
from whom dancing among the ancients was called Sicelizing. 
And that he was followed by Cleophantus of Thebes. Among 
the dancers of reputation there was Bidbus, mentioned by 
Cratinus and Callias ; and Zeno the Cretan, who w r as in high 
favour wdth Artaxerxes, mentioned by Ctesias. Alexander 
also, in his letter to Philoxenus, mentions Theodorus and 

41. The Temple of the Muses is called by Timon the 
Phliasian, the satiric writer, the basket, by which term he 
means to ridicule the philosophers who frequent it, as if they 
were fattened up in a hen-coop, like valuable birds : — 

iEgypt has its mad recluses, 

Book-bewilder'd anchorites, 
In the hen-coop of the Muses 

Keeping up their endless fights. 

.... till these table orators got cured of their diarrhoea of 
words ; a pack of men, who from their itch for talking 
appear to me to have forgotten the Pythian oracle, which 
Chamteleon quotes — 

Three weeks ere Sirius burns up the wheat, 
And three weeks after, seek the cool retreat 
Of shady house, and better your condition 
By taking Bacchus for your sole physician. 

C. 42.] USE OF SOME WORDS. 37 

And so Mnesitheus the Athenian says that the Pythia en- 
joined the Athenians to honour Bacchus the physician. But 
AIccgus, the Mitylensean poet, says — 

Steep your heart in rosy wine, for see, the dogstar is in view ; 
Lest by heat and thirst oppress'd you should the season's fury rue. 

And in another place he says — 

Fill me, hoy, a sparkling cup ; 
See, the dogstar 's coming up. 

And Eupolis says that Callias was compelled to drink by 
Protagoras, in order that his lungs might not be melted away 
before the dogdays. But at such a time I not only feel my 
lungs dried up, but I may almost say my heart too. And 
Antiphanes says — 

A. Tell me, I pray you, how you life define. 

B. To drink full goblets of rich Chian wine. 
You see how tall and fine the forest grows 
Through which a sacred river ceaseless flows ; 
While on dry soils the stately beech and oak 
Die without waiting for the woodman's stroke. 

And so, says he, they, disputing about the dogstar, had 
plenty to drink. Thus the word /?pex w > *° moisten or soak, is 
often applied to drinking. And so Antiphanes says — 

Eating much may bring on choking, 
Unless you take a turn at soaking. 

And Eubulus has — 

A. I Sicon come with duly moisten'd claj r . 

B. What have you drunk then? A. That you well may say. 

42. Now the verb avaTrUrw, meaning to fall back, has pro- 
perly reference to the mind, meaning to despair, to be out of 
heart. Thucydides says in his first book, " When they are 
defeated they are least of all people inclined to droirnmtv." 
And Cratinus uses the same expression of rowers — 

Ply your oars and bend your backs. 
And Xenophon in his (Economics says, " Why is it that 
rowers are not troublesome to one another, except because 
they sit in regular order, and bend forward in regular order, 
and (avaTj-i7TTov(Tiv) lean back in regular order?" — The word 
upaKcicr&u is properly applied to a statue, on which account 
they used to laugh at those who used the word of the guests 
at a feast, for whom the proper expression was KaraKfifiai. 


Accordingly Diphilus puts into the mouth of a man at a 
feast — 

I for a while sat down (dveKeijATiv) : 

and his friend, not approving of such an expression, says, 
'AvuKciao. And Philippines has — 

I supped too dvaKei/jiivos in his house. 
And then the other speaker rejoins — 

"What, was he giving a dinner to a statue 1 
But the Word KaTaKeiaOaL is used, and also KaraKeKXiaOu-i, of 
reclining at meals : as Xenophon and Plato prove in their 
essays called the Banquet. Alexis too says — 

'Tis hard before one's supper to lie down, 

For if one does one cannot go to sleep ; 

Nor give much heed to aught that may be said ; 

One's thoughts being fix'd on what there '11 be to eat. 

Not but what the word dvaKeio-Qai is used in this sense, 
though rarely. The satyr in Sophocles says — 

If I catch fire I'll leap with a mighty 
Spring upon Hercules, as avaxtnai. 

And Aristotle says, when speaking of the laws of the Tyr- 
rhenians, " But the Tyrrhenians sup, dva/cei^eVoi with the 
women under the same covering." Theopompus also says — 

Then we the goblets fill'd with mighty wine, 
On delicate couches /caro/cei/xeVos, 
Singing in turn old songs of Telamon. 

And Philonides says— 

I have been here KaraKiifXivos a long time. 

And -Euripides says in the Cyclops — 

'Aveneae (which is the same as av&iceiTo) 
Breathing forth long and deep and heavy breath. 

And Alexis says — 

After that I bade her avaireaiiv by my side. 
43. The ancients, too, used the word Tj-daaadac for to taste. 

And so Phoenix says to Achilles, " You would not Trao-avdai 

anything in any one else's house. And in another place we 

When they endaravTo the entrails : 

for they only taste the entrails, so that a great multitude 

C. 44.] EXERCISE. 39 

might have a taste of what exists in but a small quantity. 
And Priam says to Achilles — 

Now I have tasted food, (■KaadiJ.riv.) 
For it was natural for a man suffering under such calamities 
as his, only just to taste food, for his grief would not permit 
him to go so far as to satisfy his hunger. And therefore, he 
who did not touch food at all is called " fasting," airaaro?. 
But the poet never uses the word irdo-ao-dau of those who eat 
their fill; but in their case he uses words which express 
satiety : — 

But -when their minds were pleased (rdpcpdev) with wholesome food ; 

When they had ceased to wish for meat and drink. 

But more modern writers use the word iracnxjOai for being 
satisfied. Calhmachus says — 

I should like to satiate 
(TTumffQai) myself with thyme ; 

and Eratosthenes — 

They roasted their game in the ashes and ate it, 
(iwdiravTo) at least they all did who could get it. 

44. We find in the Theban bard the expression, "glueing them 
together as one would glue one piece of wood to another." 

Seleucus says that the expression so common in Homer, 
Salra 0d\eiav, is the same as SiWa by a slight alteration of the 
arrangement of the letters ; for he thinks that is too violent 
a change to consider it as derived from Sa«rao-#ai. 

Carystius of Pergamos relates that the Corcyrean women 
sing to this day when playing at ball. And in Homer, it is 
not only men who play, but women also. And they used to 
play at quoits also, and at throwing the javelin, with some 
grace : — 

They threw the quoit, and hurl'd the playful spear. 
For any amusement takes away the feeling of ennui. And 
young men prosecute hunting as a sort of practice against the 
dangers of war ; and there is no sort of chase which they 
avoid ; and the consequence is that they are more vigorous 
and healthy than they otherwise would be. 

As when they stand firm as unshaken towers, 
And face the foe, and pour forth darts in showers. 


The men of those times were acquainted with baths also of 
all sorts, as a relief from fatigue. Refreshing themselves after 
toil by bathing in the sea ; which of all baths is the best for 
the sinews; and having relaxed the excessive strains of their 
muscles in the bath, they then anointed themselves with oint- 
ment, in order to prevent their bodies from becoming too 
rigid as the water evaporated. And so the men who returned 
from a reconnoissance, 

Wash'd off their heat in Neptune's briny tides, 
And bathed their heads, and legs, and brawny sides. 1 

And then — 

They to the polish'd marble baths repair, 
Anoint with fresh perfumes their flowing hair, 
And seek the banquet hall. 

There was another way, too, of refreshing themselves and 
getting rid of their fatigue, by pouring water over the head : — 

Then o'er their heads and necks the cooling stream 
The handmaids pour'd ; 2 

for baths, in which the whole body is immersed, as the 
water surrounds all the pores on every side, prevents the 
escape of the perspiration, just as if a sieve were thrown into 
the water. For then nothing goes through the sieve, unless 
you lift it up out of the water, and so allow its pores, if one 
may call them so, to open, and make a passage through ; as 
Aristotle says in his problems of natural philosophy, when 
he asks, " Why do men in a perspiration, when they come into 
warm or cold water no longer perspire, until they leave the 
bath again 1 " 

45. Vegetables also were set before the ancient heroes when 
they supped. And that they were acquainted with the use 
of vegetables is plain from the expression, 

He went clown to the furthest bed 
In the well-order'd garden. 

And they used onions too, though they have a very disagree- 
able smell : — 

There was the onion, too, to season wine. 

Homer represents his heroes also as fond of the fruit of 
trees : — 

Figs after figs grow old, pears after pears. 

1 Iliad, x. 572. 2 Odyss. x. 362. 

C. 46.] KINDS OF FOOD. 41 

On which account also he calls those trees which bear fruit 
beauteous : — 

There many a beauteous tree appears — 
Pomegranates, apples, figs, and pears. 

And those which are adapted for being cut down for timber 
he calls tall, distinguishing the epithets which he applies to 
each by their respective uses : — - 

There tall trees adorn the grove, 
The ash, and pine that towers above. 

And the use of these trees was older than the Trojan war. 
And Tantalus, even after he is dead, is not cured of his fancy 
for these fruits ; as the god, to punish him. waves such 
before his eyes (just as men lead on irrational animals by 
holding branches in front of them), and then prevents him 
from enjoying them, the moment he begins to entertain a 
hope of doing so. And Ulysses reminds Laertes of what he 
gave him when he was a child : " You gave me thirteen pears " 
— and so on. 

46. And that they used to eat fish, Sarpedon proves plainly, 
when he compares the being taken prisoner to fish caught in 
a large net. Yet Eubulus, jesting in the way that the comic 
writers allow themselves, says — 

I pray you, where in Homer is the chief 
Who e'er eat fish, or anything but beef? 
And, though so much of liberty they boasted, 
Their meat was never anything but roasted. 

Nor did those heroes allow the birds the free enjoyment of 
the air ; setting traps and nets for thrushes and doves. And 
they practised the art of taking birds, and, suspending a dove 
by a small string to the mast of a ship, then shot arrows 
at it from a distance, as is shown in the book describing the 
funeral games. But Homer passed over the use of vegetables, 
and fish, and birds, lest to mention them should seem like 
praising gluttony, thinking besides there would be a want 
of decorum in dwelling on the preparation of such things, 
which he considered beneath the dignity of gods and heroes. 
But that they did in reality eat their meat boiled as well as 
roasted, he shows when he says — 

But as a caldron boils with melting fat 
Of well-fed pig ; 


and the foot of the ox which was thrown at Ulysses proves it 
too, for no one ever roasts oxen's feet. And the line too — 

Then many a well-fill'd dish was duly set 
On the full board, with every kind of meat ; 

as this not only speaks of the variety of meats, such as birds, 
pigs, kids, and beef ; but it also speaks of the way in which 
they were dressed as having varied, and not having been all 
of one kind, but carefully arranged. So that you may see 
here the origin of the Sicilian and Sybaritic and Italian 
ways of giving feasts, and the Chian fashion also. For the 
Chians are reported not to have been less studious than 
the other nations just mentioned in the art of dressing their 
meat. Timocles says — 

The Chians 
Are splendid hands at dressing viands. 

And in Homer, not only the young men, but the old men too, 
such as Phoenix and Nestor, sleep with the women; and 
Menelaus is the only man who has no woman allotted to him, 
inasmuch as he had collected the whole expedition for the 
sake of his wife, who had been carried away from him. 
47. Pindar praises 

Ancient wine and modern songs. 

And Eubulus says — 

Inconsistent it seems for a fair one to praise 
Old wine, and to say that such never can cloy ; 

But bring her a man who has seen his best days, 
And she'd rather put up with a whiskerless boy. 

And Alexis says very nearly the same thing word for word ; 
only using the word little instead of never. Though in 
reality old wine is not only more pleasant, but also better for 
health ; for it aids digestion more ; and being thinner it is 
itself more digestible ; it also invigorates the body ; and 
makes the blood red and fluid, and produces untroubled 
sleep. But Homer praises that wine most which will admit 
of a copious admixture of water ; as the Maronean. And old 
wine will allow of more water being added to it, because its 
very age has added heat to it. And some men say, that 
the 'flight of Bacchus to the sea is emblematic of the making 
of wine, as it was practised long ago ; because wine is very 


sweet when sea-water is poured into it. And Homer praising 
dark-coloured wine, often calls it alOoij/. For the dark- 
coloured wine is the strongest, and it remains in the system of 
the drinkers of it longer than any other. But Theopompus 
says, that black wine was first made among the Chians ; and, 
that the Chians were the first people who imparted the know- 
ledge of planting and tending vines to the rest of mankind, 
having learnt it from (Enopion the son of Bacchus, who was 
the original colonizer of their island. But white wine is weak 
and thin ; but yellow wine is very digestible, being of a more 
drying nature. 

48. Respecting the Italian wines, Galen is represented by this 
sophist as saying, that the Falernian wine is fit to drink from 
the time that it is ten or fifteen years old, till it is twenty ; but 
after that time it falls off, and is apt to give headaches, and 
affects the nervous system. There are two kinds of Falernian 
wine, the dry and the sweet. The sweet wine is made when 
the south wind blows through the vineyard ; which also 
makes it darker in colour. But that which is not made at 
this time is dry and yellow. Of the Alban wine there are 
also two kinds, one sweet and one sour; and both are in 
their prime after they are fifteen years old. The wine of 
Surrentum begins to be drinkable when five-and-twenty years 
old ; for as it has no oil of any sort in it, and is very thin, it 
is a long time ripening : and when it is old it is nearly the 
only wine that is wholesome to be drunk for a continuance. 
But the Rhegian wine, being richer than the Surrentine, may 
be used as soon as it is fifteen years old. The wine of Priver- 
num too is very good, being thinner than the Rhegian wine, and 
one which does not take much effect on the head. And the 
Formian wine is like it ; and is a wine which soon comes to its 
prime ; it is, howevci*, a richer wine than the other. But the 
Trifoline wine is slower ripening, and has a more earthy taste 
than the Surrentine. The Setine is a wine of the first class, 
like the Falernian wine, but lighter, and not so apt to make 
a man drunk. The wine of Tibur is thin, and evaporates 
easily, being at its best as soon as it is ten years old. Still it 
is better as it gets older. The Labican wine is sweet and 
oily to the taste, being something between the Falernian and 
the Alban : and you may drink that when it is ten years old. 
There is the Gauran wine too, a scarce and very fine wine, and 


likewise very powerful and oily ; more so indeed than the 
wine of Prseneste or of Tibur. The Marsic is a very dry 
■wine ; and very good for the stomach. Around Cumce in 
Campania there is a wine made which is called Ulban, a light 
wine, fit to be drunk when five years old. The wine of An- 
cona is a fine wine, and rather oily. The Buxentine is like 
the Alban, as far as being rather sour ; but it is a strong 
wine, and good for the stomach. The Veliternian wine is very 
sweet to drink and good for the stomach ; but it has this 
peculiarity, that it does not taste like a pure wine, but always 
has an appearance as if some other was mixed with it. The 
Calenian wine is light, and better for the stomach than the 
Falernian. The Ceecuban is a noble wine, full of strength 
and easily affecting the head ; but it does not come to its 
prime till after many years. The Fundan wine is strong, and 
nutritious, and affects the head and stomach, on which ac- 
count it is not much used at banquets. But the Sabine 
wine is lighter than any of these, and is fit to be drunk from 
the time that it is seven years old till it is fifteen ; and the 
Signine wine is available at six yeai-s old, but as it gets older 
it is far more valuable. The wine of Nomentum gets in 
season very eai'ly, and can be drunk as soon as it is five years 
old ; it is not very sweet, and not very thin ; but that of 
Spoletum is very sweet to the taste, and has a golden colour. 
The wine of Capua is in many respects like the Surrentine 
wine. The Barbine is very dry and continually improving. 
The Caucine too is a noble wine, and resembles the Falernian. 
The wine of Venafrum is good for the stomach, and light. The 
Trebellian wine, which is made round Naples, is of moderate 
strength, good for the stomach, and pleasant to the taste. 
The Erbulian wine is at first dark coloured, but in a few 
years it becomes white ; and it is a very light and delicate 
wine. That of Marseilles is a fine wine, but it is scarce, 
and thick, with a good deal of body. The Tarentine, and 
all the other wines of that district, are delicate wines, with- 
out very much strength or body, sweet, and good for the 
stomach. The Mamertine is a foreign wine, made out of 
Italy. There is also another wine made in Sicily, and called 
Iotaline ; it is a sweet wine and light, but there is some 
strength in it. 

Among the Indians a deity is worshipped, according to the 


account of Chares of Mitylene, who is called Soroadeus : 
which name, as interpreted in Greek, means Winemaker. 

49. Antiphanes, that witty man, catalogues all the things 
which are peculiar to each city thus : — 

Cooks come from Elis, pots from Argos, 
Corinth blankets sends in barges, 
Phlius wine, and Sicyon fish, 
While cheese is a Sicilian dish. 
iEgium sends flute-playing maids; 
Perfumers ply their dainty trades 
At Athens, under Pallas' eye ; 
Bceotia sends us eels to fry. 

And Hermippus says, 

Tell me, ye Muses, who th' Olympic height 

Cheer with your holy songs and presence bright ; 

Tell mc what blessings Bacchus gave to man, 

Since first his vessel o'er the waters ran. 

Ox-hides from Libya's coasts, and juicy kail : 

The narrow sea, still vocal with the wail 

Of lost Leander's bride, the tunny sends, 

And our first meal with kippcr'd salmon mends. 

Groats come from Italy, and ribs of beef; 

While Thrace sends many a lie and many a thief. 

Still do the Spartans scratch their sides in vain, 

Mad with the itching of th' Odrysian pain. 

Then Syracuse gives cheese and well-fed pigs ; 

Pair Athens olives sends, and luscious figs. 

Cursed of all islands let Corcyra be, 

Where no especial excellence we see. 

Sails come from Egypt, and this paper too ; 

Incense from Syria ; Crete upholds to view 

The cypress tall ; and, dear to mighty Jove, 

In Paphlagonia grows the almond grove. 

The elephant sends its teeth from Afric's sands ; 

Pears and fat sheep grow on Euboea's lands ; 

Rhodes sends us raisins, and beguiles the night 

With figs that make our dreams and slumbers light ; 

Prom Phrygia slaves, allies from Area's land; 

The Pagasaian ports their hirelings brand ; 

Phoenicia sends us dates across the billows, 

.Jnd Carthage, carpets rich, and well-stufl'd pillows. 

50. Pindar too, in the Pythian ode addressed to Hiero, says, 

Give me the noble Spartan hound 
With whose deep voice Eurotas' banks resound ; 

While the dark rocks 
Of Scyrus give the choicest flocks, 


Of milky goats ; and, prompt at war's alarms, 
Brave Argos burnishes the well-proved arms, 
The Sicels build the rapid car, 
And the fierce Thebans urge the chariot to the war. 1 

Critias tells us — 

Know ye the land of the fair Proserpine, 
Where the cottabus splashes the ominous wine ; 
Where the lightest and handsomest cars .... 

And what can for tired limbs compare 

With the soft and yielding Thessalian chair ] 

But no town with Miletus vies 

In the bridal bed's rich canopies. 

But none the golden bowl can chase, 

Or give to brass such varied grace, 

As that renowned hardy race 

That dwells by Arno's tide ; 
Phoenicia, mother of the arts, 
Letters to learned men imparts ; 

Thebes scaled the mountain's side, 
Bade the tough ash its trunk to yield, 
And fill'd with cars the battle-field ; 
While Carians, masters of the seas, 
First launch'd the boat to woo the breeze- 
Offspring of clay and furnace bright, 
The choicest porcelain clear and light 
Boasts, as its birth-place, of the towers 
Which Neptune's and Minerva's powers 

From ills and dangers shield ; 
Which beat back war's barbaric wave 
When Mede and Persian found a grave 

In Marathon's undying field. 

And indeed the pottery of Attica is deservedly praised. But 
.Eubulus says, " Cnidian pots, Sicilian platters, and Megarian 
jars." And Antiplianes enumerates " mustard, and also 
scammony juice from Cyprus ; cardamums from Miletus ; 
onions from Samothrace; cabbages, kail, and assafoetida from 
Carthage ; thyme from Hymettus, and marjoram from 

51. The Persian king used to drink no other wine but that 
called the Chalybonian, which Posidonius says is made in 
Damascus of Syria, from vines which were planted there by 
the Persians ; and at Issa, which is an island in the Adriatic, 
Agatharchides says that wine is made which is superior to 
every other wine whatever. The Chian and Thasian wines 

' This is no part of Pyth. 1 or 2, but a fragment of another ode. 


are mentioned by Epilycus ; who says that " the Chian and 
the Thasian wine must be strained." And also, — 

For all the ills that men endure, 

Thasian is a certain cure ; 

For any head or stomach ache, 

Thasian wine I always take, 
And think it, as I home am reeling, 
A present from the God of healing. 

Clearchus speaks of " Lesbian wine, which Maro himself 
appears to me to have been the maker of." 
And Alexis says — 

All wise men think 
The Lesbian is the nicest wine to drink. 

And again he says — 

His whole thoughts every day incline 
To drink what rich and rosy wine 
From Thasos and from Lesbos comes, 
And dainty cakes and sugarplums. 

And again — 

Hail, Bacchus, ever dear, 

You who from Lesbos drove dull care 

With sparkling rosy wine ; 
He who would give one glass away, 
Too vile on cheerful earth to stay, 

Shall be no friend of mine. 

And Ephippus sings — 

Oh how luscious, oh how fine 
Is the Pramnian Lesbian wine ! 
All who 're brave, and all who 're wise, 
Much the wine of Lesbos prize. 

And Antiphanes — 

There is good meat, and plenteous dainty cheer ; 
And Thasian wine, perfumes, and garlands here ; 
Venus loves comfort ; but where folks are poor, 
The merry goddess ever shuns their door. 

And Eubulus — 

In Thasian wine or Chian soak your throttle, 
Or take of Lesbian an old cobwebb'd bottle. 

He speaks too of Psithian wine — 

Give me some Psithian nectar, rich and neat, 
To cool my thirst, and quench the burning heat. 

And Anaxandrides mentions " ajar full of Psithian wine." 


52. Thesmophorius of Troezene entitles the second ©ccr/xo- 
<f>opia£,ovaai of Aristophanes ©ecr/xo^optao-acrat. In that play 
the poet speaks of Peparethian wine : — 

Shun, my boy, the Pramnian cup, 

Nor Thasian drink, nor Chian sup ; 

Nor let your glass with Peparethian brighten — 

For bachelors that liquor 's too exciting. 

Eubulus says — 

As sweet as 
Wine from Leucas or Miletus. 

Archestratus, the author of " The Art of giving a Banquet," 
says — 

When a libation to the gods you make, 

Let your wine worthy be, and ripe and old ; 
Whose hoary locks droop o'er his purple lake, 

Such as in Lesbos' sea-girt isle is sold. 
Phoenicia doth a generous liquor bear, 

But still the Lesbian I would rather quaff; 
For though through age the former rich appear, 

You'll find its fragrance will with use go off. 

But Lesbian is the true ambrosial juice, 
And so the gods, whose home 's Olympus, think it ; 

And if some rather the Phoenician choose, 

Let them, as long as they don't make you drink it. 

The Thasian isle, too, noble wine doth grow, 

When passing years have made its flavour mellow, 

And other places too ; still all I know 
Is that the Lesbian liquor has no fellow. 

I need not stop to tell you all the names 
Of towns which in the generous contest vie, 

Each for itself the vict'ry hotly claims ; 
But still the Lesbian wine beats all, say I. 

53. Ephippus, too, mentions the Phoenician wine, saying, 
" Nuts, pomegranates, dates, and other sweetmeats, and small 
casks of Phoenician wine." And again, — ■ 

A cask of good Phoenician wine was tapp'd. 
Xenophon, too, mentions it in his Anabasis. The Mendecan 
wine is mentioned by Cratinus : — 

When a man tastes Mendfcan wine, 
How rich, says he, how sweet, how fine ! 
I wonder where it can be bought, or 
What's the right quantity of water. 

And Hermippus somewhere introduces Bacchus as mentioning 
several different kinds of wine : — 


Mendaean wine such as the gods distil, 
And sweet Magnesian, cures for every ill, 
And Thasian, redolent of mild perfume ; 
But of them all the most inviting bloom 
Mantles above old Homer's Chian glass ; 
That wine doth all its rivals far surpass. 
There is a wine, which Saprian they call, 
Soon as the seals from whose rich hogshead fall, 
Violets and roses mix their lovely scent, 
And hyacinths, in one rich fragrance blent ; 
You might believe Jove's nectar sparkled there, 
With such ambrosial odour recks the air. 
This is the wine I'll to my friends disclose ; 
The Peparethian trash may suit my foes. 

And Phanias the Eresian poet says that the Menda^ans are 
in the habit of syringing the grapes with opening medicine, 
even while still on the vine ; and that this makes the wine soft. 

54. Themistocles received from the king of Persia Lamp- 
sacns, to supply him with wine ; Magnesia, for bread ; Myus, for 
meat ; and Percope and Palaoscepsis were to provide him with 
bedclothes and garments. The king moreover enjoined him 
to wear a cloak such as is worn by the barbarians, as he had 
previously bade Demaratus do ; and he gave him the same 
presents as he had formerly given to Demaratns, and added 
also a robe such as is worn by the sons-indaw of the king, on 
condition of his never reassuming the Greek attire. And 
Cyrus the Great gave Pytharchus of Cyzicus, being a friend of 
his, seven cities, as is related by Agathocles of Babylon; namely, 
Pedasus, and Olympius, and Cama, and Tium, and Sceptra, 
and Artypsus, and Tortyra. But he, being made insolent and 
having his head turned by this liberality, attempted to make 
himself tyrant of his country, and collected an army for that 
purpose. On which the people of Cyzicus went out to battle 
against him, and attacked him eagerly, and so preserved their 

Among the people of Lampsacus Priapus is held in 
high honour, being the same as Bacchus, and having this 
name Priapus only as an epithet, just as Thriambus and 
Dithyrambus are. 

The Mitylenocans have a sweet wine which they call irpo- 
8po/xo<;, and others call it 7rpoTpo7ros. 

55. The Icarian wine, too, is held in high estimation, as 
Amphis says : — 



Thurium gives the olive juice, 

Lentils Gela's fields produce ; 

Icarian wine well merits praise, 

And figs which the Cirnolians raise. 
The Pramnian wine, too, according to Eparchides, is pro- 
duced in Icarus. It is a peculiar kind of wine; and it is 
neither sweet nor thick, but dry and hard, and of extraordi- 
nary strength; and Aristophanes says that the Athenians did 
not like it, for that " the Athenian people did not like hard 
and sour poets, nor hard Pramnian wines, which contract the 
eyebrows and the stomach; but they prefer a fragrant wine, 
ripe, and flavoured like nectar." For Senilis says that there 
is in Icarus a rock called the Pramnian rock ; and near it is 
a great mountain, from which the Pramnian wine has its 
name, and some call it a medicinal wine. Now Icarus used 
formerly to be called the Fishy Icarus, from the number of 
fish around it; just as the Echinades had their name from 
the sea-urchins, and the promontory Sepias from the number 
of cuttle-fish which are taken near it. And in like manner 
the Lagussse islands are so called from Aayws, a hare, as being 
full of hares. And other islands are called Phycussse, and 
Lopadussse, for simdar reasons. And according to Eparchides. 
the vine which produces the Icarian Pramnian wine, is called 
by the strangers the Holy vine, and by the people of (Enoe the 
Dionysiac vine. And (Enoe is a city in the island. 

But Didymus says that the Pramnian wine comes from 
a vine called Pramnian; and some say that the name means 
merely dark-coloured. But others affirm that it is a generic 
name for wine suitable for long keeping, as being Trapa/xevios, 
that is to say, such as can be kept. And some say that it is 
so called from irpabvuv to fievos, mollifying anger; because 
those who drink it become good-humoured. 

56. Amphis praises also the wine which comes from the 
city of Acanthus, saying, — 

A . Whence do you come, friend ] speak. 

B. From Acanthus I. 

A. Acanthus? then I trow, 
Since you're a countryman of wine so strong, 
You must be fierce yourself ; 
Your country's name is thorny, 1 but I hope 
Your manners are not quite so rough and prickly. 

1 "Aicayda is Greek for a thorn. 


And Alexis mentions Corinthian wine as a harsh wine — 

And foreign wine was there ; for that from Corinth 
Is painful drinking. 

He speaks, too, of wine from Euboea — 

Drinking deep draughts of harsh Euboean wine. 

The Naxian wine is compared by Archilochus to nectar. And 
he says in some one of his poems — 

My spear finds corn, my spear finds wine, 
From Ismarus ; on my spear I dine, 
And on it, when fatigued, recline. 

But Strattis praises the wine of Sciathus — 

The black Sciathian wine mix'd half and half, 
Invites the traveller to halt and quaff. 

And Achseus praises the Bibline wine — 

He pledged him in a cup of Bibline wine. 

While it has its name from some district which is called by 
a similar appellation. And Philyllius says, — 

I'll give you Lesbian, Chian wine, 
Thasian, Mendsean, and Bibline; 
Sweet wines, but none so strong and heady 
As that you shall next day feel seedy. 

But Epicharmus says that it is named from some moun- 
tains of a similar name. And Armenidas says that there is 
a district of Thrace called the Biblian, the same which was 
afterwards called Tisara, and CEsyma. And it was very natural 
for Thrace to be admired as a country producing fine wines; 
and indeed all the adjacent country deserves the same 

Full of rich wine the ships from Lemnos came. 

But Hippias the Bhegian says that the wine called the 
creeper was also called Biblian; and that Pollis the Argive, 
who was king of Syracuse, was the first person who brought 
it to Syracuse from Italy. And if that be true, probably tho 
sweet wine which among the Sicilians is called Pollian, is the 
same as the Bibline wine. There is an ancient oracle : — 

Drink wine where lees abound, since Fate has not 
Placed you amid Anthedon's flowery plains, 
Or in the streets of sacred Hypera, 
Where purer wine abounds. 


And there was a vine among the people of.Trcezenc, (as Aris- 
totle says, in his book on their polity,) called Anthedonian, and 
another called Hyperian ; from men of the name of Anthus 
and Hyperus, just as the Althephian vine is named after a man 
of the name of Althephias, one of the descendants of Alphe us. 

57. Alcman somewhere speaks of a wine as free from 
fire, and smelling of flowers, which is produced from the 
Five Hills, a place about seven furlongs from Sparta. And 
he mentions another wine which comes from Denthiades, 
a small fortress, and another from (Enus, and another from 
Onogla3 and Stathmi. And these places ai*e all near Pitane. 
Accordingly, he says, " And wine from (Enus, or from Denthis, 
or from Carystus, or from Onoglse, or from Stathmi." The 
Carystian wine is that which comes from Carystus in Laconia, 
on the borders of Arcadia. And he calls it " free from fire," 
as not having been boiled ; for they often used boiled wines. 
Polybius says that there was an admirable wine made at 
Capua ; which was called avaSevS/n'r)??, to which no other 
wine was at all comparable. But Alciphron of the Mseander 
says, that there was a mountain village near the Ephesian 
territories, which was formerly called Latona's, but is now 
called Latorea, from Latorea the Amazon ; and that there 
also Pramnian wine is made. Timachidas the Rhodian 
calls a wine made at Rhodes vtt6)(vto<;, or the adulterated 
tvine, being near akin to sweet wine. But that wine is called 
y\u£i<; which goes through no process of decoction. 

There is also a Rhodian wine, which Polyzelus calls aurrr?}? :' 
and another which Plato the comic writer calls Kcrn-via? f and 
this wine is made in the greatest perfection at Beneventum, 
a city in Italy. But the wine Amphis is spoken of as a 
very poor wine by Sosicrates. The ancients used also a 
certain wine made of spices, which they called rpifx^a. But 
Theophrastus, in his History of Plants, says, that a wine is 
made in Herrea in Arcadia which, when it is drunk, drives 
men out of their senses, and makes women inclined to preg- 
nancy : and that around Cerunia in Achaia there is a kind 
of vine, from which a wine is made which has a tendency to 
cause abortion in pregnant women ; and if they eat the 
grapes too, says he, they miscarry ; — and the Trcezenian wine, 
he says, makes those who drink it barren : and at Thasos, 
1 KIt{tt\s, by itself, i.e. unmixed. 2 Kawias, i.e.. smoky. 


says be, they make a wine which produces sleep, and another 
which causes those who drink it to keep awake. 

58. But concerning the manufacture of scented wine, Phanias 
of Eresus says, " There is infused into the wine one portion 
of sea-water to fifty of wine, and that becomes scented wine." 
And again he says, " Scented wine is made stronger of young 
than of old vines ;" and he subjoins, " Having trodden on the 
unripe grapes they put the wine away, and it becomes scented." 
But Theophrastus says, that " the wine at Thasos, which is 
given in the prytaneum, is wonderfully delicious ; for it is 
well seasoned ; for they knead up dough with honey, and put 
that into the earthen jars ; so that the wine receives fra- 
grance from itself, and sweetness from the honey." And he 
proceeds to say, " If any one mixes harsh wine which has no 
smell with soft and fragrant wine, such, for instance, as the 
Heraclean wine with that of Erythrse, softness is derived from 
the one, and wholesomeness from the other." And the Myr- 
tite or Myrrhine wine is spoken of by Posidippus : — 

A tasteless, dry, and foolish wine 
I consider the myrrhine. 

Hermes, too, is mentioned by Strattis as the name of a 
drink. And CliEereas says, that a wine is made in Babylon 
which is called nectar. 
The bard of Ceos says — 

'Tis not enough to mix your wiue with taste, 
Unless sweet converse seasons the repast ; 
And Bacchus' gifts well such regard deserve, 
That we should e'en the stones of grapes preserve. 

59. Now of wines some are white, some yellow, and some red. 
The white is the thinnest in its nature, diuretic, and warm ; 
and being a promoter of digestion it causes a heat in the head; 
for it is a wine which has a tendency to move upwards. But 
of red wine that which is not sweet is very nutritious, and is 
astringent ; but that which is sweet (as is the case with even 
white and yellow wine also) is the most nutritious of all : 
for it softens all the ducts and passages, and thickens the 
fluid parts of the body, and does not at all confuse the head. 
For in reality the nature of sweet wine lingers about the ribs, 
and engenders spittle, as Diodes and Praxagoras assert. But 
Mnesitheus the Athenian says, " Red wine is the most nutri- 
tious; but white is the most diuretic and the thinnest; and the 


yellow is a dry wine, and that which most assists in the diges- 
tion of the food." 

Now the wines which have been very carefully prepared 
with sea-water never cause headaches ; and they open the 
bowels, and sometimes gripe the stomach, and produce flatu- 
lency, and assist in the digestion of food. Of this character 
is the Myndian wine, and that of Halicamassus. And so 
Menippus the Cynic calls Myndus " brine-drinking." The 
Coan wine too has a good deal of sea-water in it. The Rho- 
dian has not so much sea-water ; but a great deal of that 
wine is good for nothing. Wine made in the islands is very 
good to drink, and not at all ill-calculated for daily use. But 
Cnidian wine makes blood, is nutritious, and keeps the bowels 
in a healthy state ; though if it is drunk in great quantities it 
relaxes the stomach. The Lesbian wine is less astringent, and 
more diuretic. But the Chian is a nicer wine ; and of all the 
Chian wine, that called the Aryusian is the best. And of this 
there are three varieties : for there is a dry kind, and a 
sweet kind ; and that the flavour ©f which is between the two 
is called autocratic, that is, self-mixed. Now the dry kind is 
pleasant to the taste, nutritious, and more diuretic than the 
others ; but the sweet kind is nutritious, filling, and apt to 
soften the bowels. The autocratic wine in its effects also is 
something between the two. But, generally speaking, the Chian 
wine is digestible, nutritious, a producer of good blood, mild, 
and filling, inasmuch as it has a great deal of body. But the 
nicest of all wines are the Alban and Falernian wines of Italy ; 
but these, if they have been kept a length of time and are old, 
acquire a medicinal effect, and rapidly produce a sensation of 
heaviness. But the wine called Adrian relieves any oppression 
of the breath, is very digestible, and wholly free from all 
unpleasant consequences; but these wines require to be made 
with rapidity, and then to be set in an open place, so as to 
allow the thicker portions of their body to evaporate. But 
the best wine to keep a length of time is the Corcyrean. 
The Zacynthian and Leucadian wines also are apt to be bad 
for the head, because they contain chalk. There is a wine from 
Cilicia, called Abates, which has no effect except that of relax- 
ing the bowels. But hard water, such as that from springs, 
or from rain if it is filtered, and has stood some time, agrees 
very well with Coan and Myndian and Halicarnassian wine, 


and indeed with every wine which has plenty of salt-water in 
it. And accordingly these wines are of the greatest use at 
Athens and Sicyon, because the waters in those cities are 
harsh. But for those wines which have no sea-water, and 
which are of a more astringent nature, especially for the Chian 
and Lesbian wine, the purest water is the most suitable. 

Oh thou my tongue, •whom silence long hath bound, 
How wilt thou bear this tale of thine t' unfold 1 
Hard is their fate to whom compulsion stern 
Leaves no alternative ; which now compels thee 
To open what thy lord would fain conceal. 

These are the words of Sophocles. 

60. The Mareotic wine, which comes from Alexandria, had 
its name from a fountain in the district of Alexandria called 
Marea ; and from a town of the same name which was close 
to it ; which was formerly a place of great importance, but is 
now reduced to a petty village. And the fountain and town 
derived their name from Maro, who was one of the companions 
of Bacchus in his expedition. And there are many vines in 
that country, which produce grapes very good to eat when raw, 
and the wine which is made from them is excellent. For it is 
white, and sweet, and good for the breath, and digestible, and 
then, it never pi-oduces any ill effect on the head, and is diuretic. 
And still better than this is the wine called Tseniotic. The 
word raivca means a riband ; and there is in that district a long- 
narrow riband of land, the wines produced from which are of 
a slightly green colour, with something oily in them, which is 
quickly dissolved when it is mixed with water ; just as the 
Attic honey is dissolved by the same process. This Tseni- 
otic wine, in addition to being sweet, has something aromatic 
in it, of a slightly astringent character. But there are vines 
near the Nile in great quantities as far as the river extends ; 
and there arc many peculiarities in those vines, both as to their 
colour and as to their use. However, the best of all the wines 
made in that district is that made near the city of Antylla 
(which is not far from Alexandria), the revenues from which 
the kings of those ages, both the Egyptian and Persian kings, 
used to give to their wives for pin-money. But the wine which 
is niaae in the Thebais, especially that near the city Coptos, 
is light, and easy of digestion, and also so great an assistant in 


the digestion of the rest of one's food, that it is given to 
people in fevers without injury. 

You praise yourself, as does Astyd?.mas, woman ! 

(Astydamas "was a tragic poet.) 

61. Theopompus the Chian says, that the vine is found at 
Olympia, near the Alpheus ; and that there is a place about 
eight furlongs from Elis where the natives at the time of the 
Dionysian games close up three empty brazen vessels, and 
seal them in the presence of all the people round about ; and 
at a subsequent time they open them and find them full 
of wine. But Hellanicus says, that the vine was first dis- 
covered in Plinthina, a city of Egypt ; on which account 
Dion, the academic philosopher, calls the Egyptians fond of 
wine and fond of drinking : and also, that as subsidiary to 
wine, in the case of those who, on account of their poverty, 
-could not get wine, there was introduced a custom of drinking 
beer made of barley ; and moreover, that those who drank 
this beer were so pleased with it that they sung and danced, 
and did everything like men drunk with wine. Now Aristotle 
says, that men who are drunk with wine show it in their 
faces ; but that those who have drunk too much beer fall 
back and go to sleep ; for wine is stimulating, but beer has a 
tendency to stupefy. 

62. Now that the Egyptians really are fond of wine this is a 
proof, that they are the only people among whom it is a custom 
at their feasts to eat boiled cabbages before all the rest of their 
food ; aud even to this very time they do so. And many people 
add cabbage seed to potions which they prepare as preventives 
against drunkenness. And wherever a vineyard has cabbages 
growing in it, there the wine is weaker. On which account 
the citizens of Sybaris also, as Timseus says, used to eat 
cabbages before drinking. And so Alexis says — 

Last evening you were drinking deep, 
So now your head aches. Go to sleep ; 
Take some boil'd cabbage when you wake ; 
And there's an end of your headache. 

And Eubulus says, somewhere or other — 

Wife, quick ! some cabbage boil, of virtues healing, 
That I may rid me of this seedy feeling. 

C. 1.] WINE. 57 

For the ancients used to call cabbage pd<f>avoc. And so 
Apollodorus of Carystus expressly says — 

We call it f>a<pavos, and strangers Kpa^y) ; 

But sure to women they must both the same be. 

And Anaxandrides says — 

If you butter and cabbage eat, 

All distempers you will beat.. 

Driving oft" all headaches horrid, 

And clouds which hover round your forehead. 

And Nicochares says — 

Instead of cabbage, acorns boil to-morrow, 
Which equally rid you of all your sorrow. 

And Amphis tells us — 

When one's been drunk, the best relief I know 
Is stern misfortune's unexpected blow ; 
For that at once all languor will dispel, 
As sure as cabbage. 

And Theophrastus also speaks of the effect which the cabbage 
produces, saying that the vine as long as it lives always turns 
away from the smell of cabbage. 


1. The conversation which you reported to me did not allow 
me to give up a considerable portion of the day to sleep, as 
it was of a very varied nature. 

Nicander of Colophon says that wine, oiVos, has its name 
from GGneus : — 

CEneus pour'd the juice divine 

In hollow cups, and call'd it wine. 

And Melanippides of Melos says — 

'Twas CEneus, master, gave his name to wine. 
But Hecatams of Miletus says, that the vine was discovered 
in iEtolia ; and adds, " Orestheus, the son of Deucalion, came 
to yEtolia to endeavour to obtain the kingdom ; and while 
he was there, a bitch which he had brought forth a stalk : 
and he ordered it to be buried in the ground, and from it 


there sprang up a vine loaded with grapes. On which 
account he called his son Phytius. And he had a son named 
CEneus, who was so called from the vines : for the ancient 
Greeks," says he, " called vines ohm. Now CEneus was the 
father of iEtolus." But Plato in his Cratylus, inquiring into 
the etymology of the word oTvos, says, that it is equivalent to 
olovovs, as filling the mind, vovs, with 01770-15, or self-conceit. 
Perhaps, however, the word may be derived from oVr/cn?, 
succour. For Homer, giving as it were the derivation of the 
word, speaks nearly after this fashion — 

And then you will be succour'd (oWjcreai) if you drink. 
And he too constantly calls food oVeiVa, because it supports us. 

2. Now the author of the Cyprian poems, whoever he was, 
says — 

No better remedies than wine there are, 
king, to drive away soul-eating care. 

And Diphilus the comic poet says — 

Bacchus, to all wise men dear, 
How very kind you do appear ; 
You make the lowly-hearted proud, 
And bid the gloomy laugh aloud ; 
You fill the feeble man with, daring, 
And cowards strut and bray past bearing. 

And Philoxenus of Cythera says — 

Good store of wine which makes men talk. 
But Cheeremon the tragedian says, that wine inspires those 
who use it with 

Laughter and wisdom and prudence and learning. 

And Ion of Chios calls wine 

Youth of indomitable might, 
With head of bull ; the loveliest wight 
Who ever rank'd as Love's esquire, 
Pilling men with strength and fire. 

And Mensitheus says — 

Great was the blessing, when the gods did show 
Sweet wine to those who how to use it know ; 
But where bad men its righteous use pervert, 
To such, I trow, it will be rather hurt. 
For to the first it nourishment supplies, 
Strengthens their bodies, and their minds makes wise ; 
A wholesome physic 'tis when mix'd with potions, 
Heals wounds as well as plasters or cold lotions. 

C. 3.] DRINKING. 59 

Wine to our daily feasts brings cheerful laughter, 
When mix'd with proper quantities of water; 
Men saucy get if one-third wine they quaff; 
While downright madness flows from half-and-half; 
And neat wine mind and body too destroys ; 
While moderation wise secures our joys. 
And well the oracle takes this position, 
That Bacchus is all people's best physician. 

3. And Eubulus introduces Bacchus as saying — 

Let them three parts of wine all duly season 

With nine of water, who'd preserve their reason ; 

The first gives health, the second sweet desires, 

The third tranquillity and sleep inspires. 

These are the wholesome draughts which wise men please, 

Who from the banquet home return in peace. 

From a fourth measure insolence proceeds; 

Uproar a fifth, a gixth wild licence breeds ; 

A seventh brings black eyes and livid bruises, 

The eighth the constable next introduces ; 

Black gall and hatred lurk the ninth beneath, 

The tenth is madness, arms, and fearful death; 

For too much wine pour'd in one little vessel, 

Trips up all those who seek with it to wrestle. 

And Epicharmus says — 

A. Sacrifices feasts produce, 
Drinking then from feasts proceeds. 

B. Such rotation has its use. 

A. Then the drinking riot breeds ; 
Then on riot and confusion 
Follow law and prosecution j 
Law brings sentence ; sentence chains ; 
Chains bring wounds and ulcerous pains. 

And Panyasis the epic poet allots the first cup of wine to the 
Graces, the Hours, and Bacchus; the second to Venus, and 
again to Bacchus; the third to Insolence and Destruction. 
And so he says — 

O'er the first glass the Graces three preside, 
And with the smiling Hours the palm divide ; 
Next Bacchus, parent of the sacred vine, 
And Venus, loveliest daughter of the brine, 
Smile on the second cup, which cheers the heart, 
And bids the drinker home in peace depart. 
But the third cup is waste and sad excess, 
Parent of wrongs, denier of redress ; 
Oh, who can tell what evils may befall 
When Strife and Insult rage throughout the hall? 


Content thee, then, my friend, with glasses twain ; 

Then to your home and tender wife again ; 

"While your companions, with unaehing heads, 

By your example taught, will seek their beds. 

But riot will be bred by too much wine, 

A mournful ending for a feast divine ; 

While, then, you live, your thirst in bounds confine. 

And a few lines afterwai'ds he says of immoderate drinking — 

For Insolence and Ruin follow it. 
According to Euripides, 

Drinking is sire of blows and violence. 

From which some have said that the pedigree of Bacchus and 
of Insolence were the same. 

4. And Alexis says somewhere — 

Man's nature doth in much resemble wine : 
For young men and new wine do both need age 
To ripen their too warm unseason'd strength, 
And let their violence evaporate. 
But when the grosser portions are worked off, 
And all the froth i* skimm'd, then both are good|; 
The wine is drinkable, the man is wise, 
And both in future pleasant while they last. 

And according to the bard of Cyrene — 

Wine is like fire when 'tis to man applied, 

Or like the storm that sweeps the Libyan tide ; 

The furious wind the lowest depths can reach, 

And wine robs man of knowledge, sense, and speech. 

But in some other place Alexis says the contrary to what 
I have just cited : — 

A . Man in no one respect resembles wine : 
For man by age is made intolerable ; 
But age improves all wine. 

B. Yes ; for old wines cheer us, 
But old men only snarl, abuse, and jeer us. 

And Panyasis says — 

Wine is like fire, an aid and sweet relief, 
Wards off all ills, and comforts every grief; 
Wine can of every feast the joys enhance, 
It kindles soft desire, it leads the dance. 
Think not then, childlike, much of solid food, 
But stick to wine, the only real good. 


And again — 

Good wine 's the gift which God has given 

To man alone beneath the heaven ; 

Of dance and song the genial sire, 

Of friendship gay and soft desire ; 

Yet rule it with a tighten'd rein. 

Nor moderate wisdom's rules disdain ; 

For when uncheck'd there's nought runs faster, — 

A useful slave, hut cruel master. 

5. Timseus of Tanromenium relates that there was a certain 
house at Agrigentum called the Trireme, on this account : — 
Some young men got drunk in it, and got so mad when 
excited by the wine, as to think that they were sailing in a 
trireme, and that they were being tossed about on the sea in 
a violent storm ; and so completely did they lose their 
senses, that they threw all the furniture, and all the sofas 
and chairs and beds, out of window, as if they were throwing 
them into the sea, fancying that the captain had ordered them 
to lighten the ship because of the storm. And though a 
crowd collected round the house and began to plunder what 
was thrown out, even that did not cure the young men of 
their frenzy. And the next day, when the proetors came to 
the house, there were the young men still lying, sea-sick as 
they said ; and, when the magistrates questioned them, they 
replied that they had been in great danger from a storm, and 
had consequently been compelled to lighten the ship by 
throwing all their superfluous cargo into the sea. And while 
the magistrates marvelled at the bewilderment of the men, 
one of them, who seemed to be older than the rest, said, " I, 
Tritons, was so frightened that I threw myself down under 
the benches, and lay there as low down and as much out of 
sight as I could." And the magistrates forgave their folly, 
and dismissed them with a reproof, and a warning not to 
indulge in too much wine in future. And they, professing 
to be much obliged to them, said, " If we arrive in port after 
having escaped this terrible storm, we will erect in our own 
country statues of you as our saviours in a conspicuous place, 
along with those of the other gods of the sea, as having 
appeared to us at a seasonable time." And from this circum- 
stance that house was called the Trireme. 

6. But Philochorus says that men who drink hard do not 
only show what sort of disposition they themselves are of, but 


do also reveal in their chattering the characters of every one 
else whom they know. Whence comes the proverb, 

Wine and truth s 1 
and the sentence, 

Wine lays bare the heart of man. 
And so in the contests of Bacchus the prize of victory is a 
tripod : and we have a proverb of those who speak truth, 
that " they are speaking from the tripod ; " in which, the 
tripod meant is the cup of Bacchus. For there were among 
the ancients two kinds of tripods, each of which, as it hap- 
pened, bore the name of Ac'/J^s, or bowl; one, which was used 
to be put on the fire, being a sort of kettle for bathing, as 
^Eschylus says — 

They pour'd the water in a three-legg'd bowl, 

Which always has its place upon the fire : 

and the other is what is also called Kparyp, a goblet. Homer 
says — 

And seven tireless tripods. 
And in these last they mixed wine ; and it is this last tripod 
that is the tripod of truth ; and it is considered appropriate 
to Apollo, because of the truth of his prophetic ail ; and to 
Bacchus, because of the truth which people speak when 
drunk. And Semus the Delian says — " A brazen tripod, not 
the Pythian one, but that which they now call a bowl. And 
of these bowls some were never put on the fire, and men 
mixed their wine in them ; and the others held water for 
baths, and in them they warmed the water, putting them on 
the fire ; and of these some had ears, and having their 
bottom supported by three feet they were called tripods." 
Ephippus says somewhere or other — 

A . That load of wine makes you a chatterer. 

B. That 's why they say that drunken men speak truth. 
And Antiphanes writes — 

There arc only two secrets a man cannot keep, 
One when he's in love, t'other when he's drunk deep : 
For these facts are so proved by his tongue or his eyes, 
That we see it more plainly the more he denies. 

7. And Philochorus relates that Amphictyon, the king of 
the Athenians, having learnt of Bacchus the art of mixing wine, 
1 We find something like this in Theoc. xxix. 1. 

Oivos, Si <pi\e tto.7, Xsyerai Kcd aAaflea. ; 


was the first man who ever did mis it : and that it is owing 
to him that men who have been drinking on his system can 
walk straight afterwards, when before they used to blunder 
about after drinking sheer wine : and on this account he 
erected an altar to the Straight Bacchus in the temple of the 
Seasons ; for they ai*e the Nymphs who cherish the fruit Oj. 
the vine. And near it he built also an altar to the Nymphs, 
as a memorial to all who use mixed drink ; for the Nymphs 
are said to have been the nurses of Bacchus. And he made 
a law to bring an unmixed wine after meals only just enough 
to taste, as a token of the power of the Good Deity. But the 
rest of the winej was puVon the table ready mixed, in what- 
ever quantity any one chose. And then he enjoined the 
guests to invoke in addition the name of Jupiter the Saviour, 
for the sake of instructing and reminding the drinkers that 
by drinking in that fashion they would be preserved from 
injury. But Plato, in his second book of the Laws, says that 
the use of wine is to be encouraged for the sake of health. 
But on account of the look which habitual drunkards get, 
they liken Bacchus to a bull ; and to a leopard, because he 
excites drunkards to acts of violence. And Alcteus says — 

Wine sometimes than honey sweeter, 
Sometimes more than nettles bitter. 

Some men, too, are apt to get in a rage when drunk; and they 
are like a bvdl. Euripides says — 

Fierce bulls, their passion with their horns displaying. 
And some men, from their quarrelsome disposition when 
drunk, are like wild beasts, on which account it is that 
Bacchus is likened to a leopard. 

8. Well was it then that Ariston the Chian said that that 
was the most agreeable drink which partook at the same time 
of both sweetness and fragrance ; for which reason some people 
prepare what is called nectar about the Olympus which is in 
Lyclia, mixing wine and honeycombs and the most fragrant 
flowers together. Though I am aware indeed that Anaxan- 
drides says that nectar is not the drink, but the meat of 
the gods : — 

Nectar I eat, and well do gnaw it ; 

Ambrosia drink, (you never saw it) ; 

I act as cupbearer to Jove, 

And chat to Juno — not of love ; 


And oftentimes I sit by Venus, 

With marplot none to come between us. 

And Alcman says — 

Nectar they eat at will. 
And Sappho says — ■ 

The goblets rich were with ambrosia crown' il, 

Which Hermes bore to all the gods around. 

But Homer was acquainted with nectar as the drink of the 
gods. And Ihycus says that ambrosia is nine times as sweet 
as honey; stating expressly that honey has just one-ninth 
part of the power of ambrosia as far as sweetness goes. 

9. One fond of wine must be an honest man ; 
For Bacchus, for his double mother famed, 
Loves not bad men, nor uninstructcd clowns, 
says Alexis. He adds, moreover, that wine makes all men 
who drink much of it fond of talking. And the author of 
the Epigram on Cratinus says — 

If with water you fill up your glasses, 

You '11 never write anything wise 
But wine is the horse of Parnassus, 

That carries a bard to the skies. 
And this was Cratinus's thought, 

Who was ne'er with one bottle content, 
But stuck to his cups as he ought, 

And to Bacchus his heart and voice lent. 
His house all with garlands did shine, 

And with ivy he circled his brow, 
To show he nought worshipp'd but wine, 

As, if he still lived, he 'd do now. 

Polemo says that in Munychia a hero is honoured of the 
name of Acratopotes : ' and that among the Spartans statues 
of the heroes Matton and Ceraon were erected by some cooks 
in the hall of the Phiditia. 2 And in Achaia a hero is honoured 
called Deipneus, having his name from Setirvoi', a supper. But 
from a dry meal there arise no jokes, nor extempore poems, 
though, on the other hand, such an one does not cause any 
boasting or insolence of mind; so that it is well said — 
Where are the empty boasts which Lemnos heard 
When season'd dishes press'd the ample board, 
When the rich goblets overflow'd with wine] 

1 'AKpaT07roTr)s, drinker of unmixed wine. 

2 4>ei5iVia was the Spartan name for the avaa'ma.. Vide Smith, 
Diet. Ant. p. 928. b. 

C. 11.] PRAISES OF WINE. 65 

though Aristarchus the grammarian put a mark against the 
line which represents the Greeks as getting insolent through 
much eating. For he said that it was not every sort of cheer- 
fulness and satiety which engendered boasting and jesting 
and ridiculous actions; but that these things proceeded only 
from such revelling as made men beside themselves, and in- 
clined them to falsehood, — from drunkenness, in fact. 

10. On which account Bacchylides says: — 

Sweet force, from wine proceeding, 

Now warms my soul with love, 
And on my spirit leading-, 

With hopes my heart does move. 
It drives dull care away, 

And laughs at walls and towers; 
And bids us think and say, 

That all- the world is ours. 
The man who drinks plenty of wine, 

Will never for wealth be wishing; 
For his cellar 's a ceaseless mine, 

And an undisturb'd heart he is rich in. 

And Sophocles says — ■ 

Drinking is a cure for woe. 
And other poets call wine — 

Fruit of the field, which makes the heart to leap. 
And the king of all poets introduces Ulysses saying — 

Let generous food supplies of strength produce, 

Let rising spirits flow from sprightly juice, 

Let their warm heads with scenes of battle glow, 1 

and so on. 

11. It is in consequence of wine that both comedy and 
tragedy were discovered in Icarium, a village of Attica ; and 
it was at the time of the grape harvest that these inventions 
were first introduced, from which comedy was at first called 


Euripides, in the Bacchco, says that Bacchus 

Gave men the wine which every grief dispels ; 
Where wine is not, there Venus never dwells, 
Nor any other thing which men hold dear. 

And Astydamas says that Bacchus 

Gave men the vine which cures all mortal grief, 
Parent of genial wine. 

" For," says Antiphanes, " a man who continually fills 

1 Iliad, xvii. 180. 


himself with wine becomes indifferent and careless ; but he 
who drinks but little is very meditative." And Alexis says — ■ 
I'm not beside myself with drink ; nor have I so much taken 
As not to be quite understood by those to whom I'm speaking. 
But Seleucus says that it was not an ancient custom to in- 
didge in wine or any other luxury to excess, except, indeed, 
on the occasion of some sacred festival; which is the origin 
of the names OdZvcu, and OaXiai, and fxiOai. — ©oirai meaning 
that men thought it right Sia $eows olvovaOai, to drink wine 
on account of the gods; OaXtai meaning that x^P iV ^ e ^ v 
■f]\[£,ovTo, they assembled and met together in honour of the 
gods. And this comes to the same as the Homeric expression 
Salra QdXeiav. And Aristotle says that the word jxeOveiv is 
derived from the fact that men used wine //.era to 6vav, after 

12. Euripides says that it is possible that 

Those who with humble gifts approach the gods, 

May often holier be, than those who load 

The groaning altars with whole hecatombs ; 
and the word tcAos, which he employs in the first line, means 
" sacrifice." And Homer uses the same word when he says — 

God holds no sacrifice in more esteem, 

Than hearts where pious joy and pleasure beam. 1 
And we call those festivals which ai'e of greater magnitude 
and which are celebrated with certain mysterious traditions, 
reXerat, on account of the expense which is lavished on them. 
For the word reAew means to spend. And men who spend 
a great deal are called t?o\vt£k€i% and those who spend but 
little are called cvreAeTs. Alexis says — 

Those who with fair prosperity are bless'd, 

Should always keep themselves before the world ; 

Glad to display the bounty of the gods. 

For they, the givers of all good, deserve 

A holy gratitude; and they will have it. 

But if, when they their gifts have shower'd, they see 
'The objects of their bounty live like churls, 

Useless to all around them ; who can wonder 

If they recall what seems so ill bestow'd ] 

13. A man is not fond of wine who has been used from 
his earliest years to drink water. But — 

'Tis sweet, at a banquet or festival meeting, 
To chat o'er one's wine, when the guests have done eating, 
says Hesiod in his Melampodia. 

1 Odyss. ix. 6. 

C. 14.] WATER. • 67 

It has not occurred to any one of you to say a word about 
water, though wine is made of it, and though Pindar, the 
most grandiloquent of poets, has said that "water is the best of 
all things." And Homer, too, the most divine of all poets, 
recognised it as a most nutritious thing, when he spoke of a 
grove of poplars nourished by the water. He also praises its 
transparent nature — 

Four fountains flow'd with clearest water white ; l 
and the water which is of a lighter nature, and of greater 
value, he calls " lovely : " at all events he calls the Titaresius 
lovely which falls into the Peneus. And he mentions also 
some water as especially good for washing ; and Praxagoras of 
Cos, following his example, speaks of a water as beauteous — 

Beauteous it flows, to wash all dirt away. 
And he distinguishes also between sweet water and brackish 
(7rAa-n)s) water ; though when he calls the Hellespont 7r/\art'?, 
he uses the word in the sense of broad. But with respect to 
sweet water, he says — 

Near the sweet waters then our ships we stay'd. 2 
14. He was acquainted too with the effect which warm water 
has on wounds: at all events he describes Eurypylus's wounds 
as being washed with it; and yet, if the object was to stop the 
haemorrhage, cold water would have been useful, since that 
contracts and closes up wounds; but with the view of relieving 
the pain, he bathes these with warm water, which has a sooth- 
ing effect. And in Homer the word Atapos is used for what we 
call Oep/xbs, warm. And he shows that plainly enough in what 
he says about the fountains of the Scamander, saying — 

Next by Scamander's double source they bound, 
Where two famed fountains burst the parted ground ; 
This warm, through scorching clefts is seen to rise, 
With exhalations steaming to the skies. 3 

Can we call that only warm from which a steam of fire, and 
a fiery smoke arises ? But of the other source he says — 
That, the green banks in summer's heat o'erflows, 
Like crystal clear, and cold as winter's snows. 

And he often speaks of men newly wounded being bathed in 
warm water. In the case of Agamemnon lie says — 
With his warm blood still welling from the wound.* 

Odyss. v. 70. 2 lb. xii. 360. 3 Iliad, xxii. 119. * lb. xi. 26G. 


And in the case of a stag fleeing after it had been "wounded, 
he says, in a sort of paraphrase — 

While his warm blood and mighty limbs were strong. 1 
The Athenians call ^Xiapov, which is properly lukewarm, 
/u.eTaK£pa5, as Eratosthenes uses the word, saying, " Watery by 
nature, and lukewarm, //.eraKepas." 

15. And of other waters, those which come from rocks he 
calls " dark," as being quite useless ; and he prefers to all others 
the waters of springs, and those which rise to the surface from 
a great depth, and through rich soil. As also Hesiod says — 

A ceaseless spring of clear untroubled flow. 
And Pindar says — 

Ambrosial water, like fresh honey sweet, 
Which from Tilphossa's lovely fountains flows ; 

(Tilphossa is a fountain in Bceotia ;) and Aristophanes 
says that Tiresias died from drinking of it, as at his advanced 
age he was unable to bear its extreme cold. And Thcophrastus, 
in his book on Waters, says that the water of the Nile is the 
most productive and the sweetest of all waters, and that it is 
also very relaxing to the bowels of those who drink it, as it 
has in it a mixture of nitre. And again, in his book on 
Plants, he says that there is in some places water which has 
a procreative tendency; as for instance at Thespise: and at 
Pyrrha there is a water which causes barrenness. But it 
happened once when there was a drought in the district 
around the Nile, that the water of that river became unwhole- 
some, and many of the Egyptians died. Thcophrastus states, 
moreover, that not only do bitter waters sometimes change 
their nature, but that salt water does so too, and sometimes 
whole rivers do so ; as in the case of the fountain in Cithseron, 
near which there is a temple of Jupiter; and of that in 
Cairo, near which there is a temple of Neptune : and the 
reason is, that many thunderbolts fall in those countries. 

16. But there are some waters which have a good deal of 
body in them, and are of considerable weight; as that in 
Trcezen, — for that gives the mouths of those who taste it a 
feeling of fulness. And the waters near the mines in Pangseum, 
in winter, weigh ninety-six drachms to half a pint, but in 
summer they only weigh forty-six. For the cold contracts and 
condenses it j on which account that which is used in hour- 

1 Iliad, xi. 477. 

C. 17.] WATER. 69 

glasses does not make the hours in winter the same as those 
in summer, but longer ; for the flow is slower on account of 
the increased density of the water. And he says that the 
same is the case in Egypt, though the air there is softer. 
Brackish water is more earthy, and requires more working ; as 
also does sea- water, the nature of which is warmer, and which 
is not exposed to the same changes as river-water. And there 
is one salt spring which is of invincible hardness, — I mean 
that of Arethusa. But as a general rule heavy waters are 
worse, and so are hard and cold waters, for the same reason; 
for they are not so easily prepared for use, some because they 
are very earthy, and some from the excess of cold. But those 
waters which are quickly warmed are light and wholesome. 
And in Crannon there is a spring of a gentle warmth, which 
keeps wine which is mixed with it of the same temperature for 
two or three days. But flowing waters, and waters from 
aqueducts, are, as a general rule, better than stagnant ones, 
being softer because of the collisions to which they are sub- 
jected; and on this account water derived from snow appears 
to be good, because its more drinkable qualities are brought 
to the surface, and are exposed to the influence of the air ; 
and for the same reason they think it better than rain-water: 
and on the same ground, too, they prefer water from ice, because 
it is lighter; and the proof is, that ice is itself lighter than the 
rest of the water. But very cold water is hard, as being earthy ; 
but that with much body in it, when it is warmed, is suscep- 
tible of greater heat, and when it is cold, descends to a more 
intense cold. And for the same reason water on the mountains 
is better to drink than water in the plains ; for there is in 
such less admixture of earthy matter. And it is from the 
earthy particles present that waters vary in colour: at all 
events, the water of the lake at Babylon is red for some days 
after it is drawn ; and that of the Borysthenes is for some 
time of a violet or dark colour, although it is unusually thin 
in quality; and a proof of this is, that at the point where it 
meets the Hypanis its waters flow above those of the latter 
while the north winds prevail. 

17. And in many places there are fountains, some of which 
are good for drinking, and have a vinous flavour ; as for in- 
stnee, one in Paphlagonia, which they say the natives come to 
for the express purpose of drinking. Some, again, are salt, with 


a rather bitter flavour ; as some among the Sicarti in Sicily. 
A.nd in the Carthaginian dominions there is a fountain on 
which there is something which floats resembling oil, but 
darker in colour, which they skim off and make into balls, 
and use for their sheep and cattle ; and in other districts, too, 
there are fountains of a greasy nature, — like the one in 
Asia concerning which Alexander wrote a letter, saying that 
he had found a fountain of oil. And of waters which are 
warm by nature some are sweet, as that at JEgse in Cilicia, 
and that at Pagasaa, and that at Larissa in the Troas, and that 
near Magnesia, and that in Melos, and that in Lipara, and 
that in Prusa, — the Prusa, I mean, near Mount Olympus in 
Mysia, — which is called the Royal fountain. But that in Asia 
near Tralles, and those near the river Characometes, and near 
the city of Mysia, are so oily that those who bathe in them 
have no need of oil. And there is a similar fountain in the 
village of Dascylum. There is also one at Carura of an exceed- 
ing dryness and heat : and there is another near Menoscome, 
which is a village in Phrygia, of a rougher and a more nitrous 
quality ; as there is too in a village in Phrygia, called The 
Lion's Village. And there is a spring near Doryleeum, which 
is very delicious to drink; but those which are at Baiae or 
Baium, a harbour in Italy, are utterly undrinkable. 

18. I myself weighed the water which comes from the foun- 
tain called Pirene in Corinth, and found it lighter than any 
other water in Greece . For I did not believe Antiphanes the 
comic writer, who says that in many respects Attica is superior 
to all other districts, and also that it has the best water of any : 
for he says: — 

A. Have you remark'd, my friend, 

That none can with this favour'd land contend 

In honey, loaves, and figs 1 

B. Aye, figs indeed ! 
A. In myrtles, perfumes, wools, in choicest breed 

Of cattle, and in cheese ; and on what ground 

Can fountains like the Attic springs be found ] 

Eubulus, the writer of comedies, somewhere or other says 
that Chteromon the tragedian called water the body of the 
river : — 

But when we pass'd the folds, and cross'd the water, 

The river's lucid body, all our troops 

In the pure crystal bathed their weary limhs. 

X\ 20.] WATER. 71 

There is a fountain in Tenos the water of which cannot he 
mixed with wine. And Herodotus, in his fourth book, says 
that the Hypanis, at a distance of five days' journey from 
its head, is thin and sweet to the taste; but that four 
days' journey further on it becomes bitter, because some 
bitter spring falls into it. And Theopompus says that near the 
river Erigone all the water is sour ; and that those who drink 
of it become intoxicated, just like men who have drunk wine. 

19. But Aristobulus of Cassandra says that there is a foun- 
tain in Miletus called the Achillean, the stream of which is 
very sweet, while the sediment is brackish : this is the water 
in which the Milesians say that their hero bathed when he 
had slain Trambelus the king of the Leleges. And they say, 
too, that the water in Cappadocia never becomes putrid, but 
there is a great deal in that district, of an admirable quality, 
though it has no outlet unless it flows underground. And 
Ptolemy the king, in the Seventh Book of his Commentaries, 
says that as you go to Corinth through the district called 
Contoporia, when you have got to the top of the mountain 
there is a fountain whose waters are colder than snow, so that 
many people are afraid to drink of it lest they should be 
frozen ; but he says that he drank of it himself. And Phy- 
larchus states that at Cleitor there is a spring which gives 
those who drink of it a distaste for the smell of wine. And 
Clearchus tells us that water is called white, like milk; and 
that wine is called red, like nectar ; and that honey and oil are 
called yellow, and that the juice which is extracted from the 
myrtle-berry is black. Eubulus says that " water makes those 
who drink nothing else very ingenious, 

But wine obscures and clouds the mind ;" 
and Philetas borrows not only the thought, but the lines. 

20. Athenarus then, having delivered this lecture on water, 
like a rhetorician, stopped awhile, and then began again. 

Ampins, the comic writer, says somewhere or other — 
There is, I take it, often sense in wine, 
And those are stupid who on water dine. 

And Antiphanes says — 

Take the hair, it well is written, 
Of the dog by whom you're bitten. 
Work off one wine by his brother, 
And one labour with another; 


florns with horns, and noise with noise, 
One crier with his fellow's voice ; 
Insult with insult, war with war, 
Faction with faction, care with care ; 
Cook with cook, and strife with strife, 
Business with business, wife with wife. 

The ancients applied the word aKparov even to unmixed 
water. Sophron says — 

Pour unmix'd water (u'5a>p &Kpa.Tou) in the cup. 

21. Phylarchus says that Theodoras the Larissseau was a 
water-drinker ; the man, I mean, who was always so hostile to 
king Antigonus. He asserts also that all the Spaniards drink 
water, though they are the richest of all men, for they have 
the greatest abundance of gold and silver in their country. 
And he says, too, that they eat only once a day, out of 
stinginess, though they wear most expensive clothes. And 
Aristotle or Theophrastus speaks of a man named Philinus 
as never having taken any drink or solid food whatever, 
except milk alone, during the whole of his life. And Pyther- 
mus, in his account of the tyrants of Piraeus, mentions 
Glaucon as having been a water-drinker. And Hegesander 
the Delphian says that Anchimolus and Moschus, sophists 
who lived in Elis, were water-drinkers all their lives; and 
that they ate nothing but figs, and for all that, were quite as 
healthy and vigorous as any one else; but that their per- 
spiration had such an offensive smell, that every one avoided 
them at the baths. And Matris the Athenian, as long as he 
lived, ate nothing except a few myrtle-berries each day, and 
abstained from wine and every other kind of drink except 
water. Lamprus, too, the musician, was a water-drinker, 
concerning whom Phrynichus says, "that the gulls lamented, 
when Lamprus died among them, being a man who was a 
water-drinker, a subtle hypersophist, a dry skeleton of the 
Muses, an ague to nightingales, a hymn to hell." And Machon 
the comic poet mentions Moschion as a w r ater-drinker. 

22. But Aristotle, in his book on Drunkenness, says, that 
some men who have been fond of salt meat have yet not had 
their thirst stimulated by it ; of whom Archonides the Argive 
was one. And Mago the Carthaginian passed three times 
through the African desert eating dry meal and never 
drinking. And Polemo the Academic philosopher, from the 

C. 23.] WATER. 73 

time that he was thirty years of age to the day of his death, 
never drank anything but water, as is related by Antigonus 
the Carystian. And Demetrius the Scepsian says that Diocles 
of Peparethus drank cold water to the day of his death. 
And Demosthenes the orator, who may well be admitted as a 
wituess in his own case, says that he drank nothing but 
water for a considerable length of time. And Pytheas says, 
" But you see the demagogues of the present day, Demos- 
thenes and Demades, how very differently they live. For the 
one is a water-drinker, and devotes his nights to contempla- 
tion, as they say ; and the other is a debauchee, and is drunk 
every day, and comes like a great potbellied fellow, as he is, 
into our assemblies." And Euphorion the Chalcidean writes 
in this way : — " Lasyrtas the Lasionian never required drink 
as other men do, and still it did not make him different from 
other men. And many men, out of curiosity, were careful 
to watch him, but they desisted before they ascertained what 
was the truth. For they continued watching him for thirty 
da} - s together in the summer season, and they saw that he 
never abstained from salt meat, and yet that, though drinking 
nothing, he seemed to have no complaint in his bladder. 
And so they believed that he spoke the truth. And he did, 
indeed, sometimes take drink, but still he did not require it. 

A change of meat is often good, 
And men, when tired of common food, 
Redoubled pleasure often feel, 
When sitting at a novel meal. 

23. The king of Persia, as Herodotus relates in his first 
book, drank no water, except what came from the river 
Choaspes, which flows by Susa. And when he was on a 
journey, he had numbers of four-wheeled waggons drawn by 
mules following him, laden with silver vessels containing 
this water, which was boiled to make it keep. And Ctesias 
the Cnidian explains also in what manner this water was 
boiled, and how it was put into the vessels and brought to 
the king, saying that it was the lightest and sweetest of all 
waters. And the second king of Egypt, he Avho was sur- 
named Philadelphus, having given his daughter Berenice in 
marriage to Antiochus the king of Syria, took the trouble to 
.send her water from the river Nile, in order that his child 
might drink of no other river, as Polybius relates. And 


Heliodorus tells Us, that Antiochus Epiphanes, whom Polybius 
calls Epimanes, 1 on account of his actions, mixed the fountain 
at Antioch with wine ; a thing which Theopompus relates to 
have been also done by the Phrygian Midas, when he wished 
to make Silenus drunk in order to catch him. And that 
fountain is, as Bion relates, between the Maedi and the 
Pseonians, and is called Inna. But Staphylus says, that 
Melampus was the first who invented the idea of mixing 
wine with water. And Plistonicus says that water is more 
digestible than wine. 

24. Now men who drink hard before eating, are usually 
not very comfortable in their digestion, which are apt to get 
out of order by such a system, and what they eat often turns 
sour on the stomach. So that a man who has. a regard for 
his health, ought to take regular exercise, for the sake of 
promoting frequent perspiration ; and he ought also to use the 
bath regularly for the sake of moistening and relaxing his 
body. And besides this, and before he bathes, he should drink 
water, as being an excellent thing, — drinking warm water 
usually in winter and spring, and cold water in summer, in 
order not to weaken the stomach. But he should only drink 
in moderation before the bath or the gymnasium, for the sake 
of diffusing what he drinks throughout his system beforehand, 
and in order to prevent the unmixed strength of wine from 
having too much effect on his extremities. And if any one 
thinks it too much trouble to live on this system, let him 
take sweet wine, either mixed with water or warmed, espe- 
cially that which is called 7rpoTpo7ros, the sweet Lesbian wine, 
as being very good for the stomach. 

Now sweet wines do not make the head heavy, as Hippo- 
crates says in his book on Diet, which some entitle, " The 
Book on Sharp Pains ;" others, " The Book on Barley water ; " 
and others, " The Book against the Cnidian Theories." His 
words are : "Sweet wine is less calculated to make the head 
heavy, and it takes less hold of the mind, and passes through 
the bowels easier than other wine." But Posidonius says, 
that it is not a good thing to pledge one's friends as the 
Carmani do ; for they, when at their banquets they wish to 
testify their friendship for each other, cut the veins on their 
faces, and mingle the blood which flows down with the liquor, 
1 'Em>pdi/7)s, illustrious. 'E-mp-avris, mad. 


and then drink it ; thinking it the very extremest proof of 
friendship to taste one another's blood. And after pledging 
one another in this manner, they anoint their heads -with 
ointment, especially with that distilled from roses, and if they 
cannot get that, with that distilled from apples, in order to 
ward off the effects of the drink, and in order also to avoid 
being injured by the evaporation of the wine; and if they 
cannot get ointment of apples, they then use that extracted 
from the iris or from spikenard, so that Alexis very neatly 
says — ( 

His nose he anoints, and thinks it plain 

'Tis good for health with scents to feed the hrain 

25. But one ought to avoid thick perfumes, and to chink 
water which is thin and transparent, and which in respect 
of weight is light, and which has no earthy particles in it. 
And that water is best which is of a moderate heat or 
coldness, and which, when poured into a brazen or silver 
vessel, does not produce a blackish sediment. Hippocrates 
says, "Water which is easily warmed or easily chilled is 
always lighter." But that water is bad which takes a long- 
time to boil vegetables; and so too is. water full of nitre, or 
brackish. And in his book upon Waters, Hippocrates calls 
good water drinkable ; but stagnant water he calls bad, such 
as that from ponds or marshes. And most spring-water is 
rather hard. But Erasistratus says that some people test 
water by weight, and that is a most stupid proceeding. "For 
just look," says he, "if men compare the water from the 
fountain Amphiaraus with that from the Eretrian spring, 
though one of them is good and the other bad, there is 
absolutely no difference in their respective weights." And 
Hippocrates, in his book on Places, says that those waters are 
the best which flow from high ground, and from dry hills, 
" for they are white, and sweet, and are able to bear very 
little wine, and are warm in winter and cold in summer." 
And he praises those most, the springs of which break 
towards the east, and especially towards the north-east, for 
they must inevitably be clear, and fragrant, and light. Dioclcs 
says that water is good for the digestion, and not apt to cause 
flatulency, that it is moderately cooling, and good for the eyes, 
and that it has no tendency to make the head feel heavy, and 
that it adds vigour to the mind and body. And Praxagoras 


says the same ; and he also praises rain-water. But Euenor 
praises water from cisterns, and says that the best is that 
from the cistern of Amphiaraus, when compared with that 
from the fountain in Eretria. 

26. But that water is undeniably nutritious is plain from 
the fact that some animals are nourished by it alone, as for 
instance, grasshoppers. And there are many other liquids 
which are nutritious, such as milk, barleywater, and ■wine. 
At all events, animals at the breast are nourished by milk ; 
and there are many nations who drink nothing but milk. 
And it is said that Democritus, the philosopher of Abdera, 
after he had determined to rid himself of life on account of 
his extreme old age, and when he had begun to diminish his 
food day by day, when the day of the Thesmophorian festival 
came round, and the women of his household besought him 
not to die during the festival, in order that they might not 
be debarred from their share in the festivities, was persuaded, 
mid ordered a vessel full of honey to be set near him : and 
in this way he lived many days with no other support than 
honey ; and then some days after, when the honey had been 
taken away, he died. But Democritus had always been 
fond of honey ; and he once answered a man, who asked him 
how he could live in the enjoyment of the best health, that 
he might do so if he constantly moistened his inward parts 
with honey, and his outward man with oil. And bread and 
honey was the chief food of the Pythagoreans, according to 
the statement of Aristoxenus, who says that those who eat 
this for breakfast were free from disease all their lives. And 
Lycus says that the Cyrneans (and they are a people who 
live near Sardinia) are very long-lived, because they are con- 
tinually eating honey ; and it is produced in great cuiantities 
among them. 

27. When he says, men have adjourned the investigation 
into all such matters, he uses the word avand ifjLtvos instead 
of dvafiaWoixevos. 

The word avians is used in the same sense as vt/otis, i.e. 
fasting (just as we find oTa^s and ao-Ta^s) by Cratinus, 
when he says — 

For you are not the first who's come to supper 

After a lengthened fast, 

And the word o£uV«vos is used by Diphilus for hungry — 

C. 28.] SWEETMEATS. 77 

I'm glad when those who set thcui up as wise, 
Ave naked seen and hungry. 

And Antiphanes says — 

A . At all events he 's one complaint, 
For he is hungry ever. 

B. The keen Thessalian race you paint, 
Who can be sated never. 

And Eubulus says — 

Then Zethus was advised to seek the plain, 
The holy plain of Thebes ; for there men sell 
The cheapest loaves and cakes. 
Again advice came to the great Amphion, 
The sweet musician, pointing out to him 
The famous Athens for his resting-place. 
Whose sons at hunger ne'er repine, but feed 
On air and sweetest hopes. 

28. The word jxovocnTwv, eating once a day, occurs too in 
Alexis — 

When you meet with a man who takes only one meal, 
Or a poet who music pretends not to feel ; 
The man half his life, the bard half his art, loses ; 
And sound reason to call either living refuses. 

And Plato says, "he not only was not content with one meal 
a-day, but sometimes he even dined twice the same day." 

We know that men used to call sweetmeats voiyaXcvfiara. 
Araros says in the Campylion — • 

These vuyaKii^ara are very nice. 
And Alexis says — 

In Thasian feasts his friends he meets, 

And vwyaAlfci, sweetmeats eats. 

And Antiphanes, in the Busiris, says — 

Grapes, and pomegranates, and palms, 
And other vJiyaKa. 

Philonides used the word a^dcra-os for fading ; and Croby- 
lus has the word auTocm-o?, writing Trupdcrnov, avroaurov. 

Eupolis, too, used avapio-rqTo<; for without breakfast; Crates 
has the word uvayKoo-iTos, eating by force, and Nicostratus uses 

There is a youth most delicately curl'd, 
Whom I do feed by force beneath the earth. 

And Alexis has the word dpirrTocei-xvor, brealfast-d inner — 

By whom the break fast- dinner is prepared. 


29. After this we rose up and sat down again as each of 
lis pleased ; not waiting for a nomenclator to arrange us in 

Now that rooms were fitted up with couches for three, and 
with couches for four, and for seven, arid for nine, and for 
other successive numbers, in the time of the ancients, we 
may prove from Antiphanes, who says — 

I bring you, since you are but three, 
To a room with equal couches. 

And Phrynichus says — 

One room had seven couches fine, 
While another boasted nine. 

And Eubulus says — 

A . Place now a couch for seven. 

B. Here it is. 
A. And five Sicilian couches. 

B. Well, what next 

A. And five Sicilian pillows. 

And Ampins says — 

Will you not place a couch for three 1 

Anaxandrides — 

A couch was spread, 
And songs to please the aged man. 
Open the supper rooms, and sweep the house, 
And spread the couches fair, and light the fire ; 
Bring forth the cups, and fill with generous wine. 

30 And Plato the philosopher, "Men now dis- 
tinguish the couches and coverings with reference to what is 
put round the couch and what is put under it." And his name- 
sake, the comic poet, says — 

There the well-dress'd guests recline 
On couches rich with ivory feet ; 
And on their purple cushions dine, 
Which rich Sardinian carpets meet. 

For the art of weaving embroidered cloths was in great 
perfection in his time, Acesas and Helicon, natives of Cyprus, 
being exceedingly eminent for their skill in it ; and they were 
weavers of very high reputation. And Helicon was the son 
of Acesas, as Hierouymus reports : and so at Pytho there is 
an inscription on some work — : 


Fair Venus's isle did bring forth Helicon, 

Whose wondrous work you now do gaze upon ; 

And fair Minerva's teaching bade his name 

And wondrous skill survive in deathless fame. 
And Pathymias the Egyptian was a man of similar renown. 
Ephippus says — ■ 

Place me where rose-strewn couches fill the room, 

That I may steep myself in rich perfume. 
Aristophanes says — 

Oh you who press your mistress to your arms, 

All night upon sweet-scented couches lying. 

Sophron too speaks of coverlets embroidered with figures of 
birds as of great value. And Homer, the most admirable of 
all poets, calls those cloths which are spread below Aito, that 
is to say, white, neither dyed nor embroidered. But the 
coverlets which are laid above he calls "beautiful purple 

31. The Persians, according to the account of Heraclides, 
are the people who first introduced the system of having 
particular 1 servants to prepare the couches, in order that they 
might always be elegantly arranged and well made. And on 
this account Artaxerxes, having a high esteem for Timagoras 
the Cretan, or, as Phanias the Peripatetic says, for Entimus 
the Gortinian, who went up to the king in rivalry of Themis- 
tocles, gave him a tent of extraordinary size and beauty; and 
a couch with silver feet ; and he sent him also expensive 
coverlets, and a man to arrange them, saying that the Greeks 
did not know how to arrange a couch. And so completely 
had this Cretan gained the favour of the king, that he was 
invited to a banquet of the royal family, an honour which 
had never been paid to any Greek before, and never has been 
since; for it was reserved as an especial compliment for the 
king's relations. Nor was this compliment paid to Timagoras 
the Athenian, who submitted to offer adoration to the king, 
and who was held in the highest honour by him, though 
some of the things which were set before the king were sent 
to him from the royal table. The king of Persia, too, once 
took a chaplet from off his head and dipped it in perfume, 
and sent it to Antalcidas the Lacedaemonian. But he did this 
too, and many similar things, to Entimus; also, and in addi- 
tion to everything else, he invited him to a banquet . of the 
royal family. And the Persians were very indignant at this, 


thinking that it was making such an honour too common, 
and also because they thought they were on the eve of 
another expedition against Greece. He sent him also a 
couch with silver feet, and cushions for it, and a flowered tent 
surmounted with a canopy, and a silver chair, and a gilt 
parasol, and some golden vessels inlaid with precious stones, 
and a hundred large vessels of silver, and silver bowls, and a 
hundred girls, and a hundred boys, and six thousand pieces 
of gold, besides what was allowed him for his daily expenses. 

32. There were tables with ivory feet, the top slabs of 
which were made of maple wood. Cratinus says — 

Fair girls await you, and a table 
Of highly polish'd dappled maple. 

And when one of the Cynics used the word Tparous, meaning 
a table, Ulpian got indignant and said, " To-day I seem to 
have trouble coming on me arising out of my actual want of 
business ; for what does this fellow mean by his tripod, unless 
indeed he counts Diogenes' stick and his two feet, and so 
makes him out to be a tripod i At all events every one else 
calls the thing which is set before us rpd-n-e^a." 

Hesiod, in his poem on the marriage of Ceyx, (although 
indeed the sons of the Grammarians deny that that poem is 
his work, but I myself think that it is an ancient piece,) does 
call tables TpiVoSes. And Xenophon, a most accomplished 
writer, in the second book of the Anabasis, writes — " TpiVoSes 
were brought in for every one, to the number of about 
twenty, loaded with ready carved meats." And he goes on, 
" And these Tpa7re£ai were placed for the most part where the 
strangers sat." Antiphanes says — 

The Tpinovs was removed, we wash'd our hands. 
Eubulus says — 

A . Here are five TpiVo5« for you ; here five more. 

B. Why I shall be quinquagenarian. 

Epicharmus says — 

A. And what is this] 

B. A rptnovs. 

A. How is that? 

Has it not/our feet ? 'tis a rerpdirovs. 

B. It may be strictly ; but its name is rpnrovs. 
A. Still 1 can see four feet 

B. At all events 
You arc no CEdjpug, to be so pu/.zled. 

C. 33.] NAMES OF FRUITS. 81 

And Aristophanes says — 

A. Bring me one Tpdire^a more, 
With three feet, not one with four. 

B. Where can I a rpiivovs rpcwreja find ] 

33. It was a custom at feasts, that a guest when he had 
lain down should have a paper given to him, containing a bill 
of faro of what there was for dinner, so that he might know 
what the cook was going to serve up. 

We find a fruit called Damascenes. Now many of the 
ancient writers mention Damascus, a city of great reputation 
and importance ; and as there is a great quantity of plum- 
trees in the territory of the Damascenes, and as they are 
cultivated there with exceeding care, the tree itself has got to 
be called a Damascene, as being a kind of plum different from 
what is found in other countries. The fruit is more like 
prunes. And many writers speak of them, and Ilipponax 

I have a garland of damascenes and mint. 

And Alexis says — 

A. And in my sleep I thought I saw a prize. 

B. What was it 1 

A. Listen. — There came up to me, 
While still within th' arena's spacious bounds, 
One of my rivals, bringing me a crown — 
A ripe revolving crown of damascenes. 
B. Oh Hercules ! and were the damascenes ripe ] 

And again he says — • 

Did you e'er sec a sausage toasted, 
Or dish of tripe well stuff' d and roasted? 
Or damascenes stew'd in rich confection? — ■ 
Such was that gentleman's complexion. 

Nicander says — 

The fruit they call a plum, the cuckoo's prize. 
But Clearchus the Peripatetic says that the Rhodians and 
Sicilians call plums fipufivXu, and so Theocritus the Syracusan 
uses the word — 

Heavy with plums, the branches swept the ground. 
And again he says — 

Far as the apple doth the plum surpass. 
But the damascene is smaller in circumference than other 
plums, though in flavour it is very like them, except that it 
is a little sharper. Seleucus, in his Dictionary, says that 



fipdfivXa, rjXa, KOK.Kvp.-qXo., and /idSpva are all different names 
for the same thing ; and that plums are called fipdfivXa, as 
being good for the stomach, and fiopdv Ik fidXXovTa, that is, 
assisting to remove the food ; and rjXa, which is the same 
word as jxrjXa, meaning simply fruit, as Demetrius Ixion says 
in his Etymology. And Theophrastus says, KOKi<vp.rjXa *cai 
o-7roSias : cr7ro8ia.s being a kind of wild plum. And Araros 
calls the tree which bears the fruit KOKK.vp.-qXia, and the fruit 
itself KOKKvp,r]Xov. And Diphilus of Siphnos pronounces plums 
to be juicy, digestible, and easily evacuated, but not very 

34. There is another fruit, called Cherries. — Theophrastus 
says, in his book on Plants, that the Cherry-tree is a tree of a 
peculiar character, and of large size, for it grows to a height 
of four-and-twenty cubits, 1 and its leaf is like that of the 
medlar, but somewhat harder and thicker", and its bark like 
the linden ; its flower is white, like that of the pear or the 
medlar, consisting of a number of small petals of a waxy 
nature ; its fruit is red, like that of the lotus in appearance, 
and of the size of a bean ; but the kernel of the lotus is hard, 
while that of the cherry is soft. And again he says, "The 
Kparatyo?, which some call Kpa.Ta.iywv, has a spreading leaf like 
a medlar, only that is larger, and wider, and longer ; and it 
has no deep grain in it as the medlar has. The tree is neither 
very tall nor very large ; the wood is variegated, yellow, and 
strong : it has a smooth bark, like that of the medlar ; and 
a single root, which goes down very deep into the earth ; the 
fruit is round, of the size of an olive ; when fully ripe it is of 
a yellow colour, becoming gradually darker; and from its 
flavour and juice it might almost be taken for a wild medlar. 1 ' 
By which description of the cratajgus it appears to me that 
he means the tree which is now called the cherry. 

35. Asclepiades of Myrlea speaks of a tree which he calls 
the Ground-cherry, and says, " In the land of the Bithy- 
nians there is found the ground-cherry, the root of which is 
not large, nor is the tree, but like a rose-bush ; in all other 
respects the fruit is like the common cherry ; but it makes 
those who eat much of it feel heavy, as wine does, and it 
gives them head-aches." These are the words of Asclepiades. 
And it appears to me that he is speaking of the arbutus. For 

1 A cubit was about IS -l inehes. 


the tree which bears the arbutus-berry answers his descrip- 
tion, and if a man eats more than six or seven of the berries 
he gets a headache. Aristophanes says — 

And planted by no hand, the arbutus 
Makes red the sunny hills. 

Theopompus says — 

The myrtle berries and red arbutus. 

Crates says — 

Beauteous the breast of tender maid, 
As arbutus or apples red. 

And Amphis — 

Mulberries you see, my friend, are found 
On the tree which we know as the mulberry ; 
So the oak bears the acorn round, 
And the arbutus shines with its full berry. 

And Theophrastus tells us, " The /co'^apos (as he calls it) is 
the tree which 'bears the arbutus berry." 

There is question about the '■ Agen," a satyric drama, whether 
it was composed by Python, (and if by him whether he was a 
native of Catana or of Byzantium,) or by the king Alexander 

Then Laurentius says — "You, Greeks, lay claim to a 
good many things, as either having given the names to them, 
or having been the original discoverers of them. But you do 
not know that Lucullus, the Roman general, who subdued 
Mithridates and Tigranes, was the first man who introduced 
this plant into Italy from Cerasus, a city of Pontus ; and he 
it was who gave the fruit the Latin name of Cerasus, cherry, 
after the name of the city, as our historians relate." 

Then Daphnis answers — " But there was a very celebrated 
man, Diphilus of Siplmos, many years more ancient than 
Lucullus, for he was born in the time of king Lysimachus, 
(who was one of the successors of Alexander,) and he speaks 
of cherries, saying, ' Cherries are good for the stomach, 
and juicy, but not very nutritious ; if taken after drinking 
cold water they arc especially wholesome; but the red anil 
the Milesian are the best kinds, and are diuretic' " 

36. There is a fruit usually called the o-vKa/uvov, which the 
people of Alexandria call the /xopov, in which they differ from 
every one else; but it has no connexion with the Egyptian 



fig, which some call avKofiopov, and which the natives scrape 
slightly with a knife, and then leave on the tree ; and then 
when it has been tossed about by the wind, within three days 
it becomes ripe and fragrant, (especially if the wind is west.) 
and very good to eat, as there is something in it which is 
moderately cooling for people in a fever, when made up with 
oil of roses into a plaster, so as to be put upon the stomach, 
and it is no slight relief to the patient. Now the Egyptian 
sycaminus bears its fruit on the main stem, and not on the 
branches. But the sycaminus is a mulberry, a fruit men- 
tioned by iEschylus in his Phrygians, where he says of Hector, 

His heart was softer than a mulberry. 
And in his " Cretan Women " he says of the brier — 

As the full branch to earth is weigh'd 
With mulberries, 'white and black and red. 

And Sophocles has the lines — 

First you shall see the full white ear of corn, 
And then the large round rosy mulberry. 

And Nicander in his Georgics says that it is the first of all 
fruits to appear ; and he calls the tree which bears it fxopia, as 
also do the Alexandrians — 

The mulberry-tree, in which the young delight, 
Brown autumn's harbinger. 

37. Phanias of Eresus, the pupil of Aristotle, calls the 
fruit of the wild sycamine pcopov, or mulberry, being a fruit of 
the greatest sweetness and delicacy when it is ripe. And he 
writes thus : " The mulberry is a briery sort of tree, 1 and 
when the round fruit is dried it has small pips of seed, woven 
in like net-work, and the fruit is nutritious and juicy." And 
Parthanius has the following words : — ""Afipwa, that is to 
say, crwcuwa, which some call mulberries." And Salmonius 
calls the same tree fidnov, or brier. And Demetrius Ixion 
says the o-vkol/xlvov and p.6pov are the same, being a very juicy 
fruit, superior to the fig. And Diphilus of Siphnos, who was 
a physician, writes thus : " The avKapuva, which are also called 
/jLopa, are moderately fidl of good juice, but have not much 
nourishment; they are good for the stomach and easily 
digested ; and those which are not quite ripe have a peculiar 

1 The description of the mulberry given here, shows that it is rather 
a blackberry than our modern mulberry. 


quality of expelling worms." But Pythemus states, according 
to Hegesander, that in his time the mulberry-trees produced 
no fruit for twenty years, and that during that time gout 
became so epidemic, that not only men, but even boys and 
girls, and eunuchs, and women, were afflicted with it ; and 
even herds of goats were attacked with it, so that two-thirds 
of the cattle were afflicted with the same disorder. 

38. With respect to the word i<dpva, the Attic writers and 
all other prose writers call nearly all berries by the generic 
name of tcdpva, nuts. And Epicharmus calls the almond 
'• the nut," by way of distinction, as we do, saying — 

We eat roast nuts, that is, almonds. 
Philyllius says — 

Eggs, nuts, almonds. 
And Heracleon the Ephesian writes — " They called almonds 
Kcipva, and chestnuts, which we now call /cacn-aveia." The 
tree itself is called Kapva by Sophocles, who says — 

(Kapvai,) nut-frees and ash-trees. 
And Eubulus speaks of 

Beeches, nut-trees, Carystian nuts. 

There are some kinds of nuts, too, which are called p.6crrqva. 

39. With respect to Almonds. — The Naxian almonds are 
mentioned by the ancient writers ; and those in the island of 
Naxos arc superior to all others, as I am well persuaded. 
Phrynichus says — 

He knock'd out all my grinders, so that now 
A Naxian almond 1 can hardly crack. 

The almonds in the island of Cyprus also are very excellent, 
and in comparison of those which come from other quarters, 
they are very long, and slightly bent at the end. And 
Selcucus in his Dictionary says, that the Lacedaemonians call 
soft nuts p.vKrjpoi. And the Servians give that name to 
sweet nuts. But Arnexias says that it is the almond which is 
called ixvKYjpo<;. We may add, there is nothing which is a 
greater provocative of drinking than almonds when eaten 
before meals. Eupolis says in his Taxiarchs — ■ 

Give me some Naxian almonds to regale me, 
And from the Naxian vines some wine to drink. 

For there was a vine called the Naxian vine. 


And Plutarch of Chreronea says, that there was in the 
retinue of Drusus the son of Tiberius Caesar, a certain phy- 
sician who surpassed all men in drinking, and who was 
detected in always eating five or six bitter almonds before he 
drank. But when he was prevented from eating them he 
was not able to stand even a very limited quantity of wine ; 
and the cause of this was the great power of the bitterness of 
the almond, which is of a very drying nature, and which has 
the quality of expelling moisture. 

Herodian of Alexandria says, that almonds derive the 
name of djxvySaXai, because beneath their green bark they 
have many a/xuyat, or lacerations. 

Philemon says somewhere or other — 

You, like an ass, come to the husks of the dessert; 
and Nicander, in the second book of his Georgics, says — 
Beech-trees, the ornament of Pan. 

We also find the word djivyhaXov in the neuter gender. 
Diphilus says — 

" Sweetmeats, myrtle-berries, cheese-cakes, almonds," 

using the neuter djivySaXa. 

40. Now with respect to the pronunciation and accent of 
the word d/xvy8dXr], Pamphilus thinks that there ought to be 
a grave accent when it means the fruit, as it is in the case of 
dfjcvySaXov. But he wants to circumflex the word when it 
means the tree, thus, d/xvySaX-rj like poSrj. And Archilochus 
says — 

The lovely flower of the rose-tree (po&5]s). 

But Aristarchus marks the word, whether it means the fruit or 
the tree, with an acute accent indifferently ; while Philoxeiius 
would circumflex the word in either sense. Eupolis says — 

You'll ruin me, I swear it by the almond. 
Aristophanes says — 

A. Come, now, take these almonds, 
And break them 

(B. I would rather break your head,) with a stone. 

And Phrynichus says — ■ 

The almond is a good cure for a cough. 
And others speak of almonds as beautiful. But Tryphon in 
his book on Attio Prosody accents d/xuySaA??, when meaning 

G. 42.] NAMES OF FRUITS. 87 

the fruit, with a grave accent, which we use in the neuter as 
afjivy8a.\ov. But he writes a/Aw/SaXr}, with a circumflex for 
the tree ; it being as it were a possessive form derived from 
the fruit, and as such contracted and circumflexed. 

Pamphilus in his Dictionary says that the fjLVKr}p6/3arov 
is called the nut-cracker by the Lacedaemonians, when they 
mean the almond-cracker ; for the Lacedaemonians call 
almonds fj-ovi^poi. 

41. Nicander mentions also nuts of Pontus, -which some 
writers call XoTn/xa; while Hermonax and Timachidas, in the 
Dictionary, say that the acorn of Jupiter, or walnut, is what 
is called the nut of Pontus. 

But Heraclides of Tarentum asks, "Whether sweetmeats 
ought to be put on the table before supper, as is done in some 
parts of Asia and Greece ; or whether they ought to be 
brought on after supper is over." If it is decided that 
they are to be brought on at the end of supper, then it 
follows, that when a great deal of food has already been put 
into the stomach and bowels, the nuts which are eaten after- 
wards as provocatives of drinking, get entangled with the rest 
of the food, and produce flatulence, and also cause what has 
been eaten to turn on the stomach, because it is followed by 
what is by nature unmanageable and indigestible ; and it is 
from such food that indigestions and attacks of diarrhoea arise. 

42. Diodes asserts that almonds are nutritious and good for 
the stomach, and that they have a heating effect because they 
contain something like millet ; but green almonds are less 
likely to have an injurious effect than dry ones; and almonds 
soaked in water have such an effect less than those which are 
not soaked; and when toasted less than when raw. But 
walnuts, which are also called nuts of Heraclea, and acorns of 
Jupiter, are not indeed so nutritious as almonds, but still 
they have something like millet in them, and something apt 
to rise to the surface ; so, if they are eaten in any quantity 
they make the head feel heavy; thej, however, are less likely 
to produce injurious effects when green than when dry. 

Persian nuts too are as apt to produce headaches as the 
acorns of Jupiter; but they are more nutritious, though liny 
make the throat and mouth feel rough ; but when liny are 
roasted they arc less injurious, and ■when eaten with b.oney,they 
are the most digestible of all nuts. The broad Persian nuts 


have the greatest tendency to produce flatulence ; but when 
boiled they are less injurious than when raw, or even when 
roasted. But Philotimus in his treatises on Nourishment 
says, " The broad nut, and that which is called the Sardinian 
nut, are both exceedingly indigestible when raw, and are very 
slow in dissolving in the stomach, as they are kept down bv 
the phlegm in the stomach, and as they themselves are of an 
astringent nature. The Pontic nut too is oily and indiges- 
tible ; but the almond is not so indigestible as that, and 
accordingly if we eat a number of them we do not feel any 
inconvenience ; and they appear more oily, and give out a 
sweet and oily juice." 

Diphilus of Siphnos says — "There is a nut called the 
Royal nut, which causes severe headaches, and keeps rising 
in the stomach ; and there are two sorts of them, one of 
which, that which is tender and white, is the more juicy and 
the better ; but that which is roasted in ovens is not nutri- 
tious. Almonds have a tendency to make people thin, and 
are diuretic and cathartic, and far from nutritious ; and 
the dry ones are far more apt to produce flatulence and are 
far more indigestible than the green ones, which do not give 
much juice, and which are not very nutritious ; but those 
which are tender, and full, and white, being like milk, are 
more full of wholesome juice. And the Thasian and Cyprian 
nuts, being tender, are far more easily digested than dry ones. 
The nuts of Pontus are apt to produce headaches, but still 
they are not so indigestible as the Royal nuts." 

43. Moreover, Mnesitheus the Athenian, in his book on 
Comestibles, says, " The digestion of Euboean nuts or chest- 
nuts (for they are called by both names) is very difficult for 
the stomach, and is attended with a great deal of flatulence. 
And they are apt to thicken the juice, and to make people 
fat, unless their constitution is strong enough to neutralise 
them. But almonds, and likewise the nuts of Heraclea, and 
the Persian nuts, and all others of the same sort, are still 
worse than these : and it is desirable to touch absolutely none 
whatever of these things unless they are first cooked by 
fire ; with the exception of, perhaps, the green almonds. But 
one should boil some of them, and roast others ; for some of 
them are of an oily nature, as the dry almonds and the acorns 
of Jupiter; but some are hard and harsh, as the nuts of the 


beecli and all that kind. And from the oily sorts the action 
of the fire extracts the oil, which is the worst part of them : 
but those which are hard and harsh are softened, and, so to say, 
ripened, if any one cooks them over a small and gentle fire." 

But Diphilus calls chestnuts also Sardinian acorns, saying 
that they are very nutritious, and full of excellent juice ; but 
not very easy of digestion, because they remain a long time in 
the stomach ; that, however, when they are roasted they are 
less nutritious, but more digestible ; and that when boiled they 
are less apt to produce flatulence than the others, and more 

It is easily peel'd, and the Euboeans 
Call it a nut, but some people have call'd it an acorn, 

says Nicander the Colophonian, in his Georgics. But Age- 
lochus calls chestnuts n/nwra, and says, " Where the Sinopean 
nuts are produced the natives call the trees which produce 
them a^twra." 

44. With respect to Vetches. — Crobylus says — 

They took a green vetch, 
And toss'd it empty, as if playing cottabus. 
These are the sweetmeats of the wrelched monkey. 

And Homer says — 

Black beans spring up, or vetches. 

Xenophanes the Colophonian says, in his Parodies — 

These are what one should talk of near the fire, 

In winter season, on soft couch reclined, 

After a plenteous meal, drinking rich wine, 

And eating vetches. 1 Then a man may ask, 

" Who are you? How old are you, my friend? 

How many years old were you when the Mede came]" 

And Sappho says — 

Golden vetches on the sea-shore grew. 
But Theophrastus, in his book on Plants, calls some kinds of 
vetches Kpdou And Sophilus says — 

This maiden's sire is far the greatest man, 
A regular Kpuos vetch. 

And Phscnias says, in his book about Plants, — " While they 
arc green and tender, the bean and vetch take the place of 

1 Liddell and Scott quote Arist. Pac. 1136, to show that iptfrivQoi were 
eaten roasted like chestnuts, and sometimes raw, for dessert. 


sweetmeats ; but -when, they are dry they are usually eaten 
boiled or roasted." Alexis says — 

My husband is a poor old man, and I 

Am an old woman, and I have a daughter 

And a young son, 

And this good girl besides — we're five in all — 

And three of them are now at supper, 

And we two who here remain share with them 

A little maize ; and when we have nothing 

To eat, we utter a wail unsuited to the lyre. 

And as we never have any meat for dinner, 

Our countenance is become pale. These are the parts, 

And this is the arrangement of our life : 

Beans, lupins, cabbages, rape, 

Pulse, morepulse, mastnuts, onions. 

Grasshoppers, vetches, wild pears, 

And that which was given by my mother 

As an object of devout care, the fig, 

The great invention of the Phrygian fig. 

Pherecrates says — 

You must at once take care and make the vetches tender. 
And in another place he says — 

He was choked eating roasted vetches. 
And Diphilus says — "Vetches are very indigestible, create 
moisture, they are also diuretic, and apt to cause flatulence." 
And according to Diodes, they produce a sort of fermentation 
in the body. The white vetches are better than the black ; and 
so also are the yellow or box-coloured. And the Milesian are 
better than those called Kpdoi ; and the green are better than 
the dry, and those which have been soaked are better than 
those which have not been. The discoverer of the vetch is 
said to have been Neptune. 

45. With respect to Lupins. Alexis says — ■ 

A curse upon the man ; 
Let him not come near me, who eats lupins in season, 
And then leaves the husks and shells in the vestibule. 
"Why was he not choked while eating them i I know, 
I know most certainly, that Clesenetus the tragedian 
Did not eat them. Por Cleametus 
Never threw away the husk of a single vegetable, 
So exceedingly economical is that man. 

And Lycophron of Chalcis, in a satiric drama which he wrote 
against Menedemus the philosopher, for the purpose of turn- 

c. 46.] lupins. 91 

ing him into ridicule, (it was from Menedemus that the 
sect of the Eretrians derived its name,) laughs at the suppers 
of the philosophers, and says — 

The lupin, common to all the people, in gi-eat plenty- 
Danced upon the board, the companion of poor couches. 

And Diphilus says- 
There is no business more mischievous or degrading 
Than that of the pander. 
I would rather walk along the streets selling 
Eoses, and radishes, and lupin-beans, and press'd olives, 
And anything else in the world, rather than give encouragement 
To such a miserable trade. 

And you may observe, that he then uses the expression 
OepfxoKva/jLoi, lupin-beans, as they are called even now. Polemo 
says, that the Lacedaemonians call lupins Avo-iAaiSes. And 
Theopbrastus, in his book about The Causes of Plants, tells 
us that the lupin, and the bitter vetch, and the common vetch, 
are the only kinds of green vegetable "which do not produce 
animal life, because of their harshness and bitterness. But 
the vetch, says he, turns black as it decays. He says, also, 
that caterpillars come in vetches, and it is in the fourth 
book of the same treatise that he states this. Diphilus the 
Siphnian writer says that lupins are very apt to create 
moisture, and are very nutritious, especially those kinds 
which are rendered sweet by being soaked. On which account 
Zeno the Citisean, a man of harsh disposition and very apt to 
get in a passion with his friends, when he had taken a good deal 
of wine, became sweet-tempered and gentle ; and when people 
asked him what produced this difference in his disposition, he 
said, that he was subject to the same influences as lupins : for 
that they before they were cooked were very bitter ; but that 
when they had been steeped in liquor they were sweet and 

AG. With respect to Kidney Beans. — The Lacedaemonians 
in those suppers of theirs, which they call K07ri'8es, give as 
sweetmeats, dry figs and beans, and green kidney beans. At 
least this is the statement of Polemo ; and Epicharmus says — 

Roast some kidney beans quickly, for Bacchus is fond of them. 
And Demetrius says — 

A fig, or kidney bean, or some such thing. 


47. With respect to Olives. Eupolis says — 
Cuttle-fish, and olives fallen from the tree. 

And these the Romans call dryptse. But Diphilus the Siph- 
nian writer says that olives contain very little nourishment, 
and are apt to give headaches ; and that the black ones are 
still worse for the stomach, and make the head feel heavy ; 
but that those which we call Ko\v//./?a8es, that is to say, pre- 
served in pickle, are better for the stomach, and give strength 
to the bowels. But that the black when crushed are better 
for the stomach. Aristophanes too makes mention of crushed 
olives in " The Islands," saying — 

Bring some crushed olives ; 
and in another place he says — 

Crush'd olives and pickled olives are'not the samo thing ; 
and a few lines after — 

For it is better that they should be crush'd than pickled. 

And Archestratus says, in his Gastronomy — 

Let wrinkled olives, fallen from the tree, 
Be placed before you. 

And Hermippus says — 

Be sure that for the future you remember 
The ever-glorious Marathon for good, 

When you do all from time to time add /xdpaQov (that is to say, 
fennel) to your pickled olives. 

And Philemon says — " The inferior olives are called mTvplftes, 
and the dark-coloured are called trrefi<£iAi8es." And Calli- 
machus, in his " Hecale," gives a regular catalogue of the 
different kinds of olive — 

Vepyepifios and irlrvpis, and the white olive, which docs not 
Become ripe till autumn, which is to float in wine. 

And according to Didymus, they called both olives and figs 
which had fallen to the ground of their own accord, yepyepL/xot. 
Besides, without mentioning the name " olive," the fruit itself 
was called by that name 8pu7rerr/s, without any explanatory 
addition. Teleclides says — 

He urged mc to remain, and cat with him 

Some Spxnrerus, and some maize, and have a chat with him. 

But the Athenians called bruised olives aTep.<pv\a; and what 
we call <TTip.<pvXa they called jipxnta, that is to say, the dregs 

C. 48.1 NAMES OF PLANTS. 93 

of the grapes after they have been pressed. And the word 
/3/wtos is derived from /JoVpvs, a bunch of grapes. 

48. With respect to Radishes. — The Greek name patpavls 
is derived from puSiws cfxiu'taOai, because they quickly appear 
above ground ; and in the plural the Attic writers either 
shorten or lengthen the penultima at pleasure. Cratinus 
writes — 

Ta?s pa(pav7cn Soku, it is like radishes, but not like other vegetables ; 
and Eupolis, on the other hand, says — 

'Pa<pavi8es aTrXvroi, unwashed radishes and cuttle-fish. 
For the word uttXvtol, unwashed, must clearly refer to the 
radishes, and not to the cuttle-fish ; as is shown by Anti- 
phanes, in whom we find these lines : — 

To eat ducks, and honeycombs of wild bees, and eggs, 
And cheese-cakes, and unwash'd radishes, 
And rape, and oatmeal-groats, and honey. 

So that radishes appear to have been particularly called un- 
washed radishes ; being probably the same as those called 
Thasian. Pherecrates says — 

There one may have the unwash'd radish, and the warm 
Bath, and closely stewed pickles, and nuts. 

And Plato, in his Hyperboms, says, using the diminutive ter- 
mination, (pvXXiov ■>) pacfaavi&iov, " a leaflet, or a little radish." 
But Thcophrastes, in his book on Plants, says that there are 
five kinds of radishes : the Corinthian, the Leiothasian, the 
Cleonsean, the Amorean, and the Boeotian ; and that the 
Boeotian, which is of a round form, is the sweetest. And he 
says that, as a general rule, those the leaves of which are 
smooth, are the sweetest. But Callias used the form f>dcpavo? 
for pagans \ at all events, when discussing the antiquity of 
comedy, he says, " Broth, and sausages, and radishes (pa^avoi), 
and fallen olives, and cheese-cakes." And indeed that he 
meant the same as what we call pa<£avt8es, is plainly shown by 
Aristophanes, who in the Danai'des alludes to such old forms, 
and says — 

And then the chorus used to dance, 
Clad in worsted-work and fine clothes; 

And bearing under their arms ribs of beef, 
And sausages, and radishes. 

And the radish is a very economical kind of food. Amphis 


Whoever, when purchasing food, 
When it is in bis power, Apollo, to buy genuine fish, 
Prefers buying radishes, is downright mad ! 

49. With respect to Pine-cones. — Mnesitheus, the Athenian 
physician, in his book on Comestibles, calls the husks of the 
pine-cones oorpa/aSes, and in another place he calls them kwvcu 
But Diodes of Carystus calls them ttltvlvo. Kapva, nuts of 
the pine-tree. And Alexander the Myndian calls them ttltvl- 
vous koVous. And Theophrastus calls the tree ireuicq, and the 
fruit kwj/o?. But Hippocrates, in his book on Barley-water, — 
(one half of which is considered spurious by everybody, and 
some people reckon the whole so,) — calls the fruit kokkoXoi ; 
but most people call it Tvvprjv^ : as Herodotus does, in 
speaking of the Pontic nut. For he says, "And this has 
Tvvprjva {a kernel), when it becomes ripe." But Diphilus 
the Siphnian says, "Pine-cones" (which he calls orpo/jiAoi) 
" are very nutritious, and have a tendency to soften the 
arteries, and to relieve the chest, because they have some 
resinous qualities contained in them." While Mnesitheus says 
that they fill the body with fat, and are very free from all 
hindrances to the digestion ; and, moreover, that they are diu- 
retic, and that they are free from all astringent tendencies. 

50. Now with respect to Eggs. — Anaxagoras, in his book 
on Natural Philosophy, says that what is called the milk of 
the bird is the white which is in the eggs. And Aristophanes 
says — 

In the first instance, night brings forth a wind egg. 

Sappho dissolves the word wov into a trisyllable, making it 
widv, when she says — 

They say that formerly Leda found an egg.] 
And again she says — 

Far whiter than an egg : 
in each case writing &oov. But Epicharmus spelt the word 
wea ; for so we find the line written — 

The eggs of geese and other poultry. 
And Simonides, in the second book of his Iambics, says — 

Like the egg of a Mosamlrian goose ; 
which he, too, writes weov. But Alexandrides lengthens the 
word into a quadrisyllable, and calls it wdpiov. And so does 
Ephippus, when he says — 

C. 51.] EGGS. 95 

And little casks of good wine made of palms, 
And eggs, and all other trifles of that kind. 

And Alexis, somewhere or other, uses the expression, " hemi- 
spheres of eggs." And wind eggs they called di/e/xicua, and 
also vTrrjveiua. They called also the upper chambers of houses 
which we now call inrepwov, 3>ov ; and accordingly Clearchus 
says, in his " Erotics," that Helen, from having been born 
and brought up in a chamber of this sort, got the character, 
with a great many people, of having been born of an egg 
(<Lov). And it was an ignorant statement of Neocles of 
Crotona, that the egg fell from the moon, from which Helen 
was born : for that women under the influence of the moon 
bring forth eggs, and that those who are born from such eggs 
are fifteen times as large as we are : as Herodotus of Hera- 
clea also asserts. And Ibycus, in the fifth book of his Melo- 
dies, says of the Molionidee — 

And they slew the two young Molions, youths alike in face, 
Borne on white horses ; of the same age ; and 
Alike, too, in all their limbs, for both were born 
On one day, from one single silver egg. 

And Ephippus says — 

Cakes made of sesame and honey, sweetmeats, 
Cheese-cakes, and cream-cakes, and a hecatomb 
Of new-laid eggs, were all devour'd by us. 

And Nicomachus makes mention of such eggs — ■ 

For when my father had left me a very little property, 

I scraped it so, and got the kernel out of it 

In a few months, as if I had been a boy sucking an egg. 

And Eriphus makes mention of goose's eggs — 

Just see how white and how large these eggs are ; 
These must be goose eggs, as far as I can see. 

And he says, that it was eggs like this which were laid by 
Leda. But Epaenetus and Heraclides the Syracusan, in their 
book on Cookery, say that the best of all eggs are peacock's 
eggs ; and that the next best are those of the foxgoosc ; and 
the third best are those of common poultry. 

51. Now let us speak of provocatives to appetite, called 
TlpoVo/m. — When they were brought round by the butler, 
Ulpian said, " Does the word Trpo-n-o/j-a occur in any ancient 
author in the sense in which we use it now?" and when 
every one joined in the question, " I will tell you," said 
Athenoeus ; " Phylarchus the Athenian, (though some called 


him a native of Naucratis,) in the book where he speaks of 
Zelas the king of the Bithynians, who invited to supper all 
the leaders of the Galatians, and then plotted against them, 
and -was killed himself also, says, if I recollect his words 
rightly, ' A certain irpoTcoiia was brought round before suppei-, 
as was the custom of antiquity.' " And when Ulpian had said 
this, he asked for something to drink from the wine-cooler, 
saying, that he was in good humour with himself for having 
been able to remember this so very aprcrpos. But there were 
things of all sorts, sa}-s Athenreus, tised in these TrpoTrojxaTa. 
52. With respect to Mallows, Hesiod says — 

Nor do men know how great may be the good 
Derived from asphodel and mallow food. 

MaXu-xq is the Attic name for mallow. But I, says Athcnauis, 
have found in many of the copies of the Minos of Antiphanes 
the word spelt with an o ; for instance, he speaks of men — 

Eating the root of mallow (.uoAo'xtjs). 
And Epicharmus has — 

I am milder than the mallow (ixo\6xvs). 
And Phanias says, in his book on Plants — " The seminal por- 
tions of the cultivated mallow are called ' the cheese-cake,' as 
being like a cheese-cake. For those pistils which are like the 
teeth of a comb have some resemblance to the edge of a 
cheese-cake ; and there is a bosslike centre, like that in the 
middle of a cheese-cake. And the whole circumference of the 
rim is like the sea-fish denominated the sea-urchin." But 
Diphilus the Siphnian makes a statement, that the mallow is 
full of pleasant and wholesome juice ; having a tendency to 
smooth the arteries, separating from them the harshnesses of 
the blood by bringing them to the surface. And he adds that 
the mallow is of great service in irritations of the kidneys 
and the bladder, and that it is very tolerably digestible and 
nutritious. And moreover, that the wild mallow is superior 
to that which grows in a garden. But Hermippus, the fol- 
lower of Callimachus, in his treatise on the Seven Wise Men, 
says that mallows are put in what he calls the uXLfxov, that is 
to say, the preventive against hunger, and into the aSii(/ov, 
that is, the preventive against thirst; and that it is a very 
useful ingredient in both. 

.53. The next thing to be mentioned are Gourds. — Euthv- 

C. 53.] GOURDS. 97 

demus, the Athenian, in his book on Vegetables, calls the 
long gourd, known as koXokwti], the Indian gourd ; and it is 
called Indian because the seed was originally introduced from 
India. But the people of Megalopolis call the same the 
Sicyonian gourd. Theophrastus however says, that of the 
kind called koXokvvtt], there is not one species or genus only, 
but several, some better, some worse. Whde Menodorus, 
the follower of Erasistratus, the friend of Icesius, says, 
" Of the long gourds there is the Indian, which is the same 
which we call crinua, and which is vulgarly called the koXokvvtt]. 
Now the Indian gourd is usually boiled, but that called koXo- 
kvvtt] is usually roasted." And even to the present day the 
koXokwtcll are called by the Cnidians Indian gourds ; while the 
people of the Hellespont call the long gourds o-Uvai, and the 
round gourds koXokvvtm. But Diodes states that the best 
roiind gourds are those grown near Magnesia j and, moreover, 
that the rape grown in that district runs to an exceedingly 
large size, and is sweet, and good for the stomach. He says, 
at the same time, that the best cucumbers are grown at 
Antioch, the best lettuce at Smyrna and Galatea, and the 
best rue at Myra. Diphilus says, " The gourd is far from 
nutritious, easily digested, apt to produce moisture in the 
skin, promotes the secretions of the body, and is full of 
agreeable and wholesome juice ; but it is still more juicy 
when cooked. Its alterative qualities are increased when it 
is eaten with mustard, but it is more digestible, and it pro- 
motes the secretions more, when boiled. 

Mnesitheus too says, " All the vegetables and fruits which 
are easily affected by the action of fire, such as the cucumber, 
and the gourd, and the quince, and the small quince, and every- 
thing else of the same sort, when they are eaten after having 
been roasted, afford nutriment to the body, in no great quan- 
tity indeed, but still such as is pleasant and promotes mois- 
ture. However all these vegetables and fruits have a tendency 
to produce constipation, and they ought to be eaten boiled 
rather than raw. But the Attic writers call the gourd by no 
other name but koXokvvtt]. Hermippus Bays — 

What a huge head he has ; it is as hig as a gourd ! 

And Phrynichus, using the diminutive, says — 

Will you have a little maize (tidfrov) or gourd (ko\okvvtiov) 1 


And Epicharmus says — 

That is much more wholesome than a gourd (koKokuvtt]). 

54. And Epicrates the comic poet writes — 

A. What now is Plato doing? 
The grave Speusippus too and Menedemus ? 
In what are they now spending all their time ? 
What care is theirs, and what their conversation % 
What is their subject of deliberation 1 
Tell me, I beg of you, by the mighty Terra, 
In learned language, if at least you know. 

B. Indeed, I can inform you most exactly. 
For at the great Panathenaic feast, 
I saw a company of youths assembled 
Within the schools of the old Academy, 
And heard some strange and marvellous assertions. 
For they were nature's mysteries discussing, 
Drawing distinctions subtle 'tween the life 
Of animated things, both men and beasts, 
And that of trees and all the race of herbs. 
And then, while occupied in these discussions 
They turned to gourds their deep investigations, 
Asking their species and their character. 

A. And to what sage conclusion did they come? 
What was their definition, of what genus 

Did they decide this plant to be, my friend 1 
I pray you tell 'em, if you know at least. 

B. At first they all stood silent for a while, 
And gazed upon the ground and knit their brows 
In profound solemn meditation : 

Then on a sudden, while the assembled youths 

Were stooping still considering the matter, 

One said a gourd was a round vegetable ; 

But others said it was a kind of grass; 

While others class'd it as a sort of tree. 

On hearing this, a certain old physician 

Coming from Sicily interrupted them 

As but a pack of triflers. They were furious, 

Greatly enraged, and all most loudly cried 

With one accord, that he insulted them ; 

For that such sudden interruptions 

To philosophical discussion 

Were ill-bred and extremely unbecoming. 

And then the youths thought no more of the gourd. 

But Plato, who was present, mildly said, 

Not being at all excited by what pass'd, 

That the best thing that they could do would be 

The question to resume of the gourd's nature. 

They would not hear him, and adjourn'd the meeting. 

C. 56.] MUSHROOMS. 99 

55. Alexis, that most witty poet, sets an entire course of 
Trpoirofxa before those who can understand him — 

I came without perceiving it on a place 

Which was exceedingly convenient. 

Water was given me ; and then a servant 

Entered, and bore a table for my use ; 

On which was laid, not cheese, or tawny olives, 

Or any dainty side-dishes and nonsense, 

Which fill the room with scent, but have no substance; 

But there was set before me a huge dish 

Eedolent of the Seasons and the joyful Hours — ■ 

A sort of hemisphere of the whole globe. 

Everything there was beautiful and good : 

Pish, goats' flesh, and a scorpion between them ; 

Then there were eggs in half, looking like stars. 

On them we quickly laid our hands, and then 

Speaking to me, and giving me a nod, 

The host began to follow our example ; 

So we 'd a race, and never did I stop 

Till the whole dish was empty as a sieve. 

56. With respect to Mushrooms. — Aristias says- 
The stony soil produced no mushrooms. 

And Poliochus has the following passage — 

Each of us t^vice a day received to eat 

Some small dark maize well winnow'd from the chaff, 

And carefully ground ; and also some small figs. 

Meantime some of the party would begin 

And roast some mushrooms ; and perhaps would catch 

Some delicate snails if 'twas a dewy morning, 

And vegetables which spontaneous grew. 

Then, too, we 'd pounded olives ; also wine 

Of no great strength, and no very famous vintage. 

And Antiphanes says — 

Our supper is but maize well fenced round 

With chaff, so as not to o'erstep the bounds 

Of well-devised economy. An onion, 

A few side-dishes, and a sow-thistle, 

A mushroom, or what wild and tasteless roots 

The place affords us in our poverty. 

Such is our life, not much exposed to fevers ; 

For no one, when I here's meat, will eat of thyme, 

Not even the pupils of Pythagoras. 

And a few lines afterwards he goes on — 

For which of us can know the future, or 
The fate that shall our various friends befall 
Take now these mushrooms and for dinner roast them, 
Which I've just picked beneath the maple shade. 
I! 1' 


Cephisodorus, the pupil of Isocrates, in the treatise which 
he wrote against Aristotle (and there are four books of it), 
reproaches the philosopher for not having thought it worth 
his while to collect proverbs, though Antiphanes had made 
an entire play which was called Proverbs : from which play 
he produces these lines — 

For I, if I eat any of your dishes, 

Seem as if 1 was on raw mushrooms feeding. 

Or unripe apples, tit to choke a man. 

57. Mushrooms are produced by the earth itself. But 
there are not many sorts of them which are good to eat ; for 
the greater part of them produce a sensation of choking : on 
whicli account Epicharmus, when jesting, said — 

You will be choked, like those who waste away 
By eating mushrooms, very heating food. 

And Nicander, in his Georgics, gives a list of which species 
•are poisonous ; and says — 

Terrible evils oftentimes arise 
From eating olives, or pomegranates, or from the trees 
Of maple, or of oak ; but worst of all 
Are the swelling sticky lumps of mushrooms. 

Aud he says in another place — 

Bury a fig-tree trunk deep in the ground, 

Then cover it with dung, and moisten it 

With water from an overflowing brook, 

Then there will grow at bottom harmless mushrooms ; 

Select of them what 's good for food, and not 

Deserving of contempt, and cut the root oil'. 

But all the rest of that passage is in a mutilated state. The 
same Nicander in the same play writes — 

And there, too, you may roast the mushrooms, 
Of the kind which we call afidvirai. 

And Ephippus says — 

That I may choke you as a mushroom would. 

Eparchides says that Euripides the poet was once staying 
on a visit at Icarus, and that, when it had happened that a cer- 
tain woman being with her children in the fields, two of them 
being full-grown sons and the other being an unmarried 
daughter, eat some poisonous mushrooms, and died with her 
children in consequence; he made this epigram upon them : — 

C. 59.] MUSHROOMS. 101 

Sun, whose path is through th' undying heaven, 
Have you e'er before seen a misery such as this 1 

A mother, a maiden daughter, and two sons, 
All dying on one day by pitiless fate ] 

Diodes the Carystian, in the first book of his treatise on 
the Wholesomes, says, " The following things which grow wild 
should be boiled, — beetroot, mallow, sorrel, nettles, spinach, 
onions, leeks, orach, and mushrooms. 

58. Then there is a plant called siurn. And Speusippus, 
in the second book of his treatise on Things Similar, says 
that its leaf resembles the marsh parsley ; on which account 
Ptolemy the Second, surnamed Euergetes, who was king of 
Egypt, insists upon it that the line in Homer ought to be 
written thus — 

And around were soft meadows of siinn or parsley ; 

for that it is o-ta which are usually found in company with 
parsley, and not la (violets). 

59. Diphilus says that mushrooms are good for the stomach, 
and pass easily through the bowels, and are very nutritions, 
but still that they are not very digestible, and that they are 
apt to produce flatulence. And that especially those from the 
island of Ceos have this character. " Many are even poison- 
ous to a fatal degree. But those which seem to be whole- 
some are those with the smoothest rinds, which are tender 
and easily crushed : such as grow close to elms and pine-trees. 
But those which are unwholesome are of a dark colour, or 
livid, or covered with hard coats; and those too which get 
hard after being boiled and placed on the table ; for such are 
deadly to eat. But the best remedy for them when eaten 
unawares is drinking honey- watei', and fresh mead, and vinegar. 
And after such a drink the patient should vomit. On which 
account, too, it is especially desirable to dress mushrooms 
with vinegar, or honey and vinegar, or honey, or salt : for 
by these means their choking properties are taken away. 
But Theophrastus, in his treatise about Plants, writes thus — 
" But plants of this kind grow both under the ground and 
on the ground, like those things which some people call fungi, 
which grow in company with mushrooms ; for they too grow 
without having any roots ; but the real mushrooms have, as 
the beginning by which they adhere to the ground, a stalk of 
some length, and they put forth fibres from that stalk." He 


says also that in the sea -which is around the Pillars of Her- 
cules, when there is a high tide, mushrooms grow on the 
shore close to high-water mark, which they say are left there 
by the sun. And Phsenias says, in his first book about Plants 
— " But these things neither put forth any bloom, nor any 
trace of seminal germination ; as, for instance, the mushroom, 
the truffle, groundivy, and fern." And in another place he 
says, "flrcpis {fern), which some people call /3/\aYyov." But 
Theophrastus, in his book on Plants, says — " Plants with 
smooth rinds, as the truffle, the mushroom, the fungus, the 

GO. Now with respect to Truffles. — They too spring of their 
own accord out of the ground; especially in sandy places. 
And Theophrastus says of them — " The truffle, which some 
people call the geranium, and all other such plants which 
grow beneath the earth." And in another place he says — 
" The generation and production of these things which seed 
beneath the earth ; as, for instance, of the truffle, and of a 
plant which grows around Cyrene, which they call misy. And 
it appears to be exceedingly sweet, and to have a smell like 
that of meat ; and so, too, has a plant called itum, which grows 
in Thrace. And a peculiarity is mentioned as incidental to 
these things ; for men say that they appear when there is 
heavy rain in autumn and violent thunder ; especially when 
there is thunder, as that is a more stimulating cause of them : 
however, they do not last more than a year, as they are only 
annuals ; they are in the greatest perfection in the spring, 
when they are most plentiful. Not but what there are people 
who believe that they are or can be raised from seed. At all 
events, they say that they never appeared on the shore of 
the Mitylenaeans, until after a heavy shower some seed was 
brought from Tiara) ; and that is the place where they are in 
the greatest numbers. But they are principal^ found on the 
sea-shore, and wherever the ground is sandy ; and that is 
the character of the place called Tiara?. They are also 
found near Lampsacus, and also in Acarnania, and Alopc- 
connesus, and in the district of the Eleans. Lynceus the 
Samian says — " The sea produces nettles, and the land pro- 
duces truffles;" and Matron, the man who wrote parodies, 
says in his " Supper" — 

And he brought oysters, the truffles of Thetis the Nereid. 

C. 62.] ASPARAGUS. 103 

Diphilus says that truffles are by nature indigestible, but 
that they are full of wholesome juice, and have lenitive 
qualities, and are very easily evacuated ; though, like mush- 
rooms, some of them are apt to produce suffocation. And 
Hegesander the Delphian says that no truffles are found in the 
Hellespont, and no fish of the kind called yAavKio-Kos, and no 
thyme. On 'which account Nausiclides said of the country, 
that it had no spring and no friends. But Pamphilus says, in 
his " Languages," that there is a plant called v&r6<j)v\\oi>, 
being a species of grass which grows on the top of the truffles, 
by which the truffle is discovered. 

61. With respect to Nettles — 'AkccA?/^ is the name given by 
the Attic writers to a plant which is herbaceous and which 
produces itching. Aristophanes says, in his Phcenissas, " that 
pot-herbs were the first things which grew out of the earth • 
and after them the rough stinging-nettles." 

62. The next thing to be considered is Asparagus — 
which is divided into mountain asparagus and marsh aspa- 
ragus ; the best kinds of which are not raised from seed ; 
but they are remedies for every kind of internal disorder. 
But those which are raised from seed grow to an immense 
size. And they say that in Libya, among the Gsetuli, they 
grow of the thickness of a Cyprian reed, and twelve feet long ; 
but that on the mountain land and on land near the sea they 
grow to the thickness of large canes, and twenty cubits long. 
But Cratinus writes the word, not aenrdpayos, but derepdpayog, 
•with a <p. And Theopompus says — 

And then seeing the aspharagus in a thicket. 
And Ameipsias says — 

No squills, no aspharagus, no branches of bay-tree. 
But Diphilus says, that of all greens, that sort of asparagus 
which is especially called the bursting asparagus, is better for 
the stomach, and is more easily digested ; but that it is not 
very good for the eyes : and it is harsh-flavoured and 
diuretic, and injurious to the kidneys and bladder. But it is 
the Athenians who give it the name of bursting ; and they 
also give the flowering cabbage, or cauliflower, the same 
name. Sophocles says, in The Huntsmen — 

Then it puts forth a stalk, and never ceases 
The germination ; 


because it is continually bursting out and putting forth shoots. 
However, Antiphanes always spells the word acnrdpayos, with 
a ir; and he writes thus — 

The asparagus was shining ; the pale vetches had faded. 
And Aristophon says — "Capers, pennyroyal, thyme, asparagus, 
garlic, radishes, sage, and rue." 

63. With respect to Snails. — Thilyllius says — 

I am not a grasshopper, nor a snail, woman. 
And in a subsequent passage he says — 

Sprats, tunny fish, and snails, and periwinkles. 
And Hesiod calls the snail, 

The hero that carries his house on his hack. 
And Anaxilas says — 

You are e'en more distrustful than a snail ; 

Who fears to leave even his house behind him. 

And Acheeus speaks of them, and says — 

Can such a vapour strange produce 
The snails, those horned monsters 1 

And an enigma, like a fishing-net, having reference to the 
snail, is often proposed at banquets, in these terms — 

What is that spineless bloodless beast of the woods, 
Who makes his path amid the humid waters. 

And Aristotle, in the fifth book of his treatise on the Parts 
of Animals, says — " Snails appear to become pregnant in the 
autumn and in spring, and they are the only animals with 
coverings of shells that have ever been detected in union." 
But Theophrastus says, in his treatise about Animals which 
live in Holes — " Snails live in holes during the winter, and 
still more in the summer, on which account they are seen in 
the greatest numbers during the autumn rains. But their 
holes in the summer are made upon the ground, and in the 
trees." There are some snails which are called uivikoi. 
Epicharmus says — 

Instead of all these animals, they have locusts ; 

But I hate above all things the shell of the sesilus. 

And Apellas relates that the Lacedaemonians call the snail 
a-ifxeXos. But Apollodorus, in the second book of his Etymo- 
logies, says that there are some snails which are called 
K(i)\.v<ji8eLTrvoL, interrupters of banquets. 

64. The next vegetable to be mentioned is Onions. — In 

c. Go.] ONIONS. 105 

the Amalthea of Eubulus, Hercules is represented as refusing 
to eat them; saying — 

Whether it 's hot, or whether it is dry, 

Or whether it is something 'tween the two, 

Are points of more importance than old Troy. 

But I have not come here to fill myself 

With cabbages, or benjamin, or other 

Impious and bitter danties, or with onions. 

But that which tends the most to vigorous strength 

And health is food which I delight in chiefly. 

Meat of beef, boil'd and fresh, and plenty of it, 

And a large well-filled dish of oxen's feet, 

Three roasting pigs besides, sprinkled with suit. 

Alexis, while explaining the efficacy of onions in aphrodisiac 
matters, says — 

Pinnas, beetles, snails, muscles, eggs, calves'-feet, 
And many other philters, may be found 
More useful still to one who loves his mistress. 

Xenarchus, in the Butalion, says — 

A house is ruined which has a master 

Whose fortune's gone, and whom the evil genius 

Has struck. And so the once great house of the Pelops 

Is weak and nerveless. Nor can earth-born onion, 

Fair Ceres' handmaid, who contracts the neck, 

Even when boiled, assist to check this evil. 

Nor e'en the polypus, who swells the veins, 

Born in dark eddies of the deepest sea, 

When taken in the net of stern necessity 

By hungry mortals, fill the broad deep bosom 

Of the large dish turn'd by the potter's wheel. 

And Ai'chestratus says — 

I love not onions, nor yet cabbages, 

Nor the sweet barberry-tree, nor all the other 

Dainties and sweetmeats of the second course. 

65. Heraclides the Tarcntine, in his Banquet, says — " The 
onion, and the snail, and the egg, and similar things, appear 
to be productive of seed ; not because they are very nutritions, 
but because their original natures ai - e similar, and because 
their powers resemble that." And Diphilus says — "Onions 
are difficult to digest, but very nutritious, and good for the 
stomach. And, moreover, they are productive of moisture, 
and cleansing, but they dim the eyes, and excite the amatory 
propensities. But the proverb says — 

The onion will do you no good if you have no strength yourself. 


But those onions which ai - e called the royal onions, really do 
stimulate the amatory propensities, for they are superior to 
the other kinds ; and next to them are the red ones. But the 
■white ones, and the Libyan onions, are something like squills. 
But the worst of all are the Egyptian. 

66. But the "white onions, called /36\(3ivai, are fuller of 
good juice than the common onions; but they are not so 
good for the stomach, because the white portion of them has 
a certain thickness in it. Yet they are very tolerably whole- 
some, because they have a good deal of harshness in them, 
and because they promote the secretions. And Matron, in 
his Parodies, mentions the fioXfiivr] — 

But sowthistles I will not even name, 
Plants full of marrow, crown'd on th' heads with thorns ; 
Nor the white onions, minstrels of great Jove, 
Which his dear Child, incessant rain, has nourish'd 
Whiter than snow storms, and like meal to view, 
Which, when they first appeared, my stomach loved. 

67. Nicander extols the onions of Megara. But Theo- 
phrastus, in the seventh book of his treatise on Plants, says — 
" In some places the onions are so sweet, that they are eaten 
raw, as they are in the Tauric Chersonesus." And Phsenias 
makes the same statement : — " There is," says he, " a kind 
of onion which bears wool, according to Theophrastus ; and 
it is produced on the sea-shore. And it has the wool under- 
neath its first coat, so as to be between the outer eatable 
parts and the inner ones. And from this wool socks and 
stockings and other articles of clothing are woven." And 
Phamias himself adopts the statement. " But the onion," 
he continues, " of the Indians is hairy." But concerning 
the dressing of onions, Philemon says — 

Now if you want an onion, just consider 
What great expense it takes to make it good : 
You must have cheese, and honey, and sesame, 
Oil, leeks, and vinegar, and assafoetida, 
To dress it up with ; for hy itself the onion 
Is bitter and unpleasant to the taste. 

But Heraclides the Tarentine, limiting the use of onions at 
banquets, says—" One must set bounds to much eating, espe- 
cially of such things as have anything glutinous or sticky 
about them ; as, for instance, eggs, onions, calves' feet, snails, 
and such things as those : for they remain in the stomach a 

C. 70.] THRUSHES. 107 

long time, and form a lump there, and check the natural 

68. Thrushes, too, and crowds of other birds, formed part 
of the dishes in the propomata. Teleclides says — 

But roasted thrushes with sweet cheese-cakes served 
Flew of their own accord down the guests' throats. 

But the Syracusans call thrushes, not Ki^Xat, but Kt^Xai. 
Epicharmus says — 

The thrushes (/ct'x')^'") fond of eating the olive. 

And Aristophanes also, in his " Clouds," mentions the same 
birds. But Aristotle asserts that there are three kinds of 
thrushes ; the first and largest kind of which is nearly equal 
to a jay; and they call it also the ixophagus, since it eats the 
mistletoe. The next kind is like a blackbird in size, and they 
call them trichacles. The third kind is less than either of the 
before- mentioned sorts, and is called illas, but some call it 
ti/las, as Alexander the Myndian does. And this is a very 
gregarious species, and builds its nest as the swallow does. 

There is a short poem, which is attributed to Homer, and 
which is entitled c7rt«t^AiSe5, which has received this title from 
the circumstance of Homer singing it to his children, and 
receiving thrushes as his reward, — at least, this is the account 
given by Mensechmus, in his treatise on Artists. 

G9. There is a bird called the o-ukoAis, or figpecker. And 
Alexander the Myndian asserts — " One of the tits is called by 
some people elceus, and by others pirias; but when the figs 
become ripe, it gets the name of sycalis." And there are 
two species of this bird, the sycalis and the /jLtXayicopvcjios, or 
blackcap. Epicharmus spells the word with two AA, and 
writes o-waAAi'8es. He speaks of beautiful crvKaAAi'Ses : and in 
a subsequent passage he says — 

And herons were there with their long Lending necks, 
And grouse who pick up seed, and heautiful sycallides. 

And these birds are caught at the season when figs are ripe. 
And it is more correct to spell the name with only one A ; 
but Epicharmus put in the second A because of the metre. 

70. There is a kind of finch, too, which was sometimes 
eaten, of which Eubulus says, 


And Ephippus says, in his " Gerjones" — • 
When 'twas the Arnplridroniian festival, 
When 'tis the custom to toast bits of cheese 
0' the Chcrsonesus ; and to boil a cabbage, 
Bedewed with shining oil ; and eke to bake 
The breasts of fat and well-fed lambs; to pluck 
The feathers from the thrushes, doves and finches ; 
And also to eat cuttle-fish with anchovies, 
And baskets of rich polypus to collect, 
And to drink many cups of unmixed wine. 

71. Then, too, there are blackbirds. — Nicostratus or Phile- 
tserus says — 

A. What then shall I buy? Tell me, I pray you. 

B. Go not to more expense than a neat table ; 
Buy a rough-footed hare ; some ducklings too, 
As many as you like ; thrushes, and blackbirds, 
And other small birds; there are many wild sorts. 

A. Yes, and they're very nice. 

Antiphanes also reckons starlings among the eatable birds, 
numerating them in the following list—" Honey, partridges, 
pigeons, ducks, geese, starlings, jays, rooks, blackbirds, quails, 
and pullets." 

You are asking of us for a history of everything, and you 
do not allow us to say a single thing without calling us to 
account for it. The word aT P ov6dptov (a little bird) is found 
in many other authors, and also in Eubulus. He says, "Take 
three or four partridges, and three hares, and as many small 
birds as you can eat, and goldfinches, and parrots, and finches, 
and nightjars, and whatever other birds of this kind you can 
come across." 

72. Swine's brains, too, was a not uncommon dish. Philoso- 
phers used to forbid our eating these, saying that a person 
who partook of them might as well eat a bear, and would 
not stick at eating his father's head, or anything else ima- 
ginable. And tiioy said, that at all events none of the 
ancients had ever eaten them, because they were the seat of 
nearly all sensation. But Apollodorus the Athenian says, 
that none of the ancients ever even named the brain. And 
at all events Sophocles, in his Trachiniee, where he repre- 
sents Hercules as throwing Lichas into the sea, does not use 
the word eyKe<£aAov, brains, but says Xewcov //.ueAos, white 
marrow ; avoiding a word which it was thought ill-omened 
to use : — 

C. 73.] BRAINS THE HEAD. 109 

And from Ins hair be forces the white marrow, 
His head being burst asunder in the middle, 
And the blood flows : 
though he had named all the rest of his limbs plainly 
enough. And Euripides, introducing Hecuba lamenting for 
Astyanax, who had been thrown down by the Greeks, says — 
Unhappy child, how miserably have 
Your native city's walls produced your death, 
And dash'd your head in pieces ! Fatal towers, 
Which Phoebus builded ! How did your mother oft 
Cherish those curly locks, and press upon them 
With never- wearied kisses ! now the blood 
Wells from that wound, where the bones broken gape ; 
But some things are too horrid to be spoken. 
The lines too which follow these are worth stopping to con- 
sider. But Philocles does employ the word kyKi^aXov — 
He never ceased devouring even the brains (iyniipaXoy). 

And Aristophanes says — 

I would be content 

To lose two membranes of the iyidfyaXov. 
And others, too, use the word. So that it must have been 
fur the sake of the poetical expression that Sophocles said 
" white marrow." But Euripides not choosing openly to 
display to sight an unseemly and disgusting object, revealed 
as much as he chose. And they thought the head sacred, as 
is plain by their swearing by it; and by their even venerating 
sneezes, which proceed from the head, as holy. And we, to 
this day, confirm our arrangements and promises by nodding 
the head. As the Jupiter of Homer says — 

Come now, and I will nod my head to you. 
73. Now all these things were put into the dishes winch 
were served up as propomata : pepper, green leaves, myrrh, 
galingal, Egyptian ointment. Antiphanes says — 

If any one buys pepper and brings it home, 

They torture him by law like any spy. 
And in a subsequent passage he says — 

Now is the time for a man to go and find pepper, 

And seed of orach, and fruit, and buy it, and bring it here. 

And Eubulus says — 

Just take some Cnidian grains, or else some pepper, 

And pound them up with myrrh, and strew around. 
And Ophclion says — 

Pepper from Libya take, and frankincense, 

And Plato's heaven-inspired book of wisdom. 


And Nicander says, in his Theriaca — 

Take the conyza's woolly leaves and stalks, 

And often cut new pepper up, and add 

Cardamums fresh from Media. 
And Theophrastus, in his History of Plants, says — "Pepper 
indeed is a fruit: and there are two kind? of it; the one is 
round, like a vetch, having a husk, and is rather red in 
colour ; but the other is oblong, black, and full of seeds 
like poppy-seeds. But this kind is much stronger than the 
other. Both kinds are heating, on which account they are 
used as remedies for, and antidotes against, hemlock." And 
in his treatise on Suffocation, he writes — "And people who 
are suffocated are recovered by an infusion of vinegar and 
pepper, or else by the fruit of the nettle when crushed." 
But we must recollect that, properly speaking, there is no 
noun of the neuter gender among the Greeks ending in l, 
except fxiXt alone ; for the words iriirepi, and Kofx/xi, and kolcjh 
are foreign. 

74. Let us now speak of oik — Antiphanes or Alexis makes 
mention of the Samian Oil, saying — 

This man you see will be a measurer 

Of that most white of oils, the Samian oil. 
Ophelion makes mention also of Carian oil, and says — 

The man anointed was with Carian oil. 
Amyntas, in his treatise on Persian Weights and Measures, 
says — "The mountains there bear turpentine and mastic trees, 
and Persian nuts, from which they make a great deal of oil 
for the king. And Ctesias says, that in Carmania there is 
made an oil which is extracted from thorns, which the king 
uses. And he, in his third book of his treatise on the 
Revenues derived from Asia, making a list of all the things 
which are prepared for the king for his supper, makes no 
mention of pepper, or of vinegar, which of itself is the very 
best of all seasonings. Nor does Deinon, in his Persian 
History ; though he does say that ammoniac salt is sent 
up to the king from Egypt, and water from the Nile. Theo- 
phrastus also mentions an oil which he calls w/aot/si/^s, that is 
to say, extracted raw, in his treatise on Scents, saying that 
it is produced from the large coarse olives called phaulian, 
and from almonds. Ampins also speaks of the oil which is 
produced amongst the Thurians, as exceedingly fine — 

Oil from the Thurians comes: from Gela lentils. 

C. 76.] PICKLE. HI 

75. Pickle is a thing often mentioned. Cratinus says 

Your basket will be full of briny pickle. 
And Pherecrates says — 

His beard was all besmear'd with pickle juice. 
And Sophocles, in his Triptolemus, says — 

Eating this briny season'd pickle. 
And Plato the comic writer says — 

These men will choke me, steeping me in putrid pickle. 
But the word yapos, pickle, is a masculine noun. As vEschylus 
proves, when he says koI rov IxOvaiv ydpov. 

76. Vinegar too was much used by the ancients, and this 
is the only seasoning to which the Attics give the name of 
•j^So?, as if it were akin to tjSv<s, meet. And Chrysippus the 
philosopher says, that the best vinegar is the Egyptian and 
the Cnidian. But Aristophanes, in his Plutus, says — 

Sprinkling it o'er with Sphettian vinegar. 
Didymus explaining this verse says, " Perhaps he says 
Sphettian because the Sphettians are sour-tempered people." 
And somewhere or other he mentions vinegar from Cleona;, 
as being most excellent, saying, "And at Cleonee there arc 
manufactories of vinegar." We find also in Diphilus — 

A. He first takes off his coat, and then he sups, 
After what fashion think you ] 

B. Why, like a Spartan. 

A . A measure then of vinegar .... 

B. Bah ! 

A. "Why bah? 

B. A measure holds but such and such a quantity 
< if the best Cleonsean vinegar. 

And Philonides says — 

Their seasonings have not vinegar sufficient. 
But Heraclides the Tarentine, in his Symposium, says, "Vinegar 
has a tendency to make the exterior parts coagidate, and it 
affects the strings within the stomach in a very similar 
manner ; but any parts which are tumid it dissolves, because 
forsooth different humours are mixed up in us." And Alexia 
used to admire above all others the Decelean vinegar, and 
says — 

You have compcll'd me to bring forth from thence 

Four half-pint measures full of vinegar 

From Decelea, and now drag me through 

The middle of the forum. 


The word 6£vyapov must be spelt so, with a v, and the vessel 
which receives it is called 6i;v[3a<pov. And so Lysias, in the 
speech against Theopompus when on his trial for an assault, 
says, " But I myself drink o&'/acAi." And so too we must call 
oil of roses mixed with vinegar o^vpohvov, spelling all the 
words thus compounded in this manner with a v. 

77. Seasonings are mentioned even by Sophocles. In his 
Phseacians we find the expression, 

And seasoning for food. 
And in yEschylus too we read — 

You are steeping the seasonings. 
And Theopompus says — " Many bushels of seasonings, and 
many sacks and bags of books, and of all other things which 
may be useful for life." In Sophocles too the expression is 
found — 

I like a cook will cleverly season .... 
And Cratinus says in the Glaucus — ■ 

It is not every one who can season skilfully. 
And Eupolis speaks of 

Very bad vinegar seasoned in an expensive way. 
And Antiphanes, in his Leucas, gives the following catalogue 
of seasonings : — 

Dried grapes, and salt, and eke new wine 

Newly boiled down, aud assafcetida, 

And cheese, and thyme, and sesame, 

And nitre too, and cummin seed, 

And sumach, honey, and marjoram, 

And herbs, and vinegar and oil 

And sauce of onions, mustard and capers mixd, 

And parsley, capers too, and eggs, 

And lime, and cardamums, and th' acid juice 

Which comes from the green fig-tree, besides lard 

And eggs and honey and flour wrapp'd in ng-lcavcs, 

And all compounded in one savoury forcemeat. 

The ancients were well acquainted with the Ethiopian car- 
damum. We must take notice that they used the words 
0u/xos and op'iyavos as masculine nouns. And so Auaxan- 
drides says — 

Cutting asparagus and squills and marjoram, (os) 
Which gives the pickle an aristocratic taste, 
When duly mixed dui^els) with coriander seed. 

C. 78.] CUCUMBERS. 113 

And Ion says — ■ 

Rnt in a Lurried manner in his hand 
He hides the marjoram (tov dplyavov). 

Plato however, or Cantharus, used it as feminine, saying — 

She from Arcadia brought 
The harshly-tasted (t^v SpiixvTaTqv) marjoram. 

Epicharmus and Ameipsias both use it as a neuter noun ; 
but Nicander, in his Melissurgica, uses Ov/ao<; as masculine. 

78. Cratinus used the word 7reVoi/e9, which properly means 
merely full ripe, in speaking of the cucumbers which give 
seed, in his Ulysseses — 

Tell me, wisest son of old Laertes, 

Have you e'er seen a friend of yours in Paros 

Buy a large cucumber that 's run to seed] 

And Plato says in his Laius — 

Do you not see 
That Meleager, son of mighty Glaucon, 
.... Goes about every where like a stupid cuckoo, 
With legs like the seedless niizuv cucumber] 

And Anaxilas says — 

His ankles swell'd 
Larger than e'en a -ki-kwv cucumber. 

And Theopompus says of a woman — 

She was to me 
More tender than a ireir&jj/ cucumber. 

Phaenias says, " Both the ctlkvos and the 7r«ran> are tender to 
eat, with the stem on which they grow ; however the seed is 
not to be eaten, but the outside only, when they are 
fully ripe ; but the gourd called KoXonvvrq, when raw is 
not eatable, but is very good either boiled or roasted. And 
Diodes the Carystian, in the first book of his treatise on 
Wholesome Things, says that " of wild vegetables the fol- 
lowing should be boiled before eating : the lettuce (the best 
kind of which is the black) ; the cardamum ; mustard from 
the Adriatic ; onions (the best kinds arc the Ascalonian, 
and that called getian); garlic, that other kind of garlic 
called physfnga, the 7rerr<av cucumber, and the poppy." And 
a little afterwards he says, "The TreVcov cucumber is better for 
the stomach and more digestible; though every cucumber 
when boiled is tender, never gives any pain, and is diuretic : but 
that kind called 7T£7rcov when boiled in mead has very aperient 
vol. i. — ATII. I 


qualities. And Speusippus, in his treatise -on Similarities, 
calls the Triirwv by the name of criKva. But Diocles having 
named the Triwv, does not any longer call it aiKva : and 
Speusippus after having named the a-iKva, never names the 
7re7rwv. Diphilus says, the ireTrwv is more full of wholesome 
juice, and moderates the humours of the body, but it is not 
very nutritious ; it is easily digested, and promotes the secre- 

79. The lettuce was in great request as an article of food. 
Its name is dpiSaf;, but the Attics call it OpiSaKtvr]. Epichar- 
inus says — 

A lettuce (fy>?5a|) with its stalk peel'd all the way up. 

But Strattis calls lettuces fyuSajaviSes, and says — 
The leek-destroying grubs, which go 

Throughout the leafy gardens 
On fifty feet, and leave their trace, 

Gnawing all herbs and vegetables ; 
Leading the dances of the long-tailed satyrs 

Amid the petals of the verdant herbs, 
And of the juicy lettuces ( iviSes), 

And of the fragrant parsley. 

And Theophrastus says, " Of lettuce (OpiSaKLvrj) the white is 
the sweeter and the more tender : there are three kinds ; 
there is the lettuce with the broad stalk, and the lettuce with 
the round stalk, and in the third place there is the Lace- 
daemonian lettuce — its leaf is like that of a thistle, but it 
grows up straight and tall, and it never sends up any side 
shoots from the main stalk. But some plants of the broad 
kind are so very broad in the stalk that some people even 
use them for doors to their gardens. But when the stalks are 
cut then those which shoot again are the sweetest of any." 

80. But Nicander the Colophonian, in the second part of 
his Dictionary, says that the lettuce is called fipei'Ois by the 
Cyprians. And it was towards a plant of this kind that 
Adonis was flying when he was slain by the boar. Ampins 
in his Ialemus says — 

Curse upon all these lettuces (BpiSattivai) ! 

For if a man not threescore years should eat them, 

And then betake himself to see his mistress, 

He'll toss the whole night through, and won't be equal 

To her expectations or his own. 

And Callimachus says that Venus hid Adonis under a lettuce, 
which is an allegorical statement of the poet's, intended to 

C. 81.] LETTUCE. 115 

show that those who are much addicted to the use of lettuces 
are very little adapted for pleasures of love. And Eubulus 
says in his Astuti — ■ 

Do not put lettuces before me, wife, 

Upon the table ; or the blame is yours. 

Tor once upon a time, as goes the tale, 

Venus conceal'd the sadly slain Adonis 

Beneath the shade of this same vegetable ; 

So that it is the food of dead men, or of those 

Who scarcely are superior to the dead. 

Cratinus also says that Venus when in love with Phaon hid 
him also in the leaves of the lettuce : but the younger Mar- 
syas says that she hid him amid the grass of barley. 

Pamphilus in his book on Languages says, that Hip- 
ponax called the lettuce TtTpaKivr) : but Clitarchus says that 
it is the Phrygians who give it this name. Ibycus the 
Pythagorean says that the lettuce is at its first beginning a 
plant, with a broad leaf, smooth, without any stalk, and is 
called by the Pythagoreans the eunuch, and by the women 
ao-TOTis ; for that it makes the men diuretic and powerless for 
the calls of love : but it is exceedingly pleasant to the taste. 

81. Diphilus says that "the stalk of the lettuce is ex- 
ceedingly nutritious, and more difficult of digestion than 
the leaves ; but that the leaves are more apt to produce 
flatulence, and are still more nutritious, and have a greater 
tendency to promote the secretions. And as a general rule 
the lettuce is good for the stomach, cooling and wholesome 
for the bowels, soporific, full of pleasant and wholesome 
juice, and certainly has a great tendency to make men 
indifferent to love. But the softer lettuce is still better for 
the stomach, and still more soporific ; while that which is 
harder and drier is both less good for the stomach and less 
wholesome for the bowels ; that, however, is also soporific. 
But the black lettuce is more cooling, and is good for the 
bowels ; and summer lettuce is full of wholesome juice, and 
more nutritious; but that which is in season at the end of 
autumn is not nutritious, and has no juice. And the stalk of 
the lettuce appears to be a remedy against thirst." And the 
lettuce when boiled like asparagus in a dish, if we adopt 
the statement of Glaucias, is superior to all other boiled 

Among some of the other nations Theophrastus says that 
i 2 

11G THE DEIPNOSOrmSTS. [epit. 13. II. 

beetroot, and lettuce, and spinach, and mustard, and sorrel, 
and coriander, and anise, and cardamums, are all called 
i-n-io-TTopa, things fit to be sown for the second crop. And 
Diphilus says that, as a general rule, all vegetables have but 
little nutriment in them, and have all of them a tendency to 
rnake people thin, and are devoid of wholesome juices, and 
moreover stay a long while in the stomach, and are not very 
digestible. But Epicharmus speaks of some as summer 

82. Artichokes were often eaten. And Sophocles, in his 
Colchian Women, calls an artichoke Kivdpa, but in his Phoonix 
he writes the word nvvapos, saying — 

The artichoke fills every field with its thorn. 

But Hecatteus the Milesian, in his Description of Asia, at 
least if the book under this title is a genuine work of that 
author, (for Callimachus attributes it to Nesiotas;) however, 
whoever it was who wrote the book speaks in these terms — 
" Around the sea which is called the Hyrcanian sea there are 
mountains lofty and rough with woods, and on the mountains 
there is the prickly artichoke." And immediately afterwards 
he subjoins — " Of the Parthian tribes the Chorasmians dwell 
towards the rising sun, having a territory partly champaign 
and partly mountainous. And in the mountains there are 
wild trees ; the prickly artichoke, the willow, the tamarisk." 
He says moreover that the artichoke grows near the river 
Indus. And Scylax, or Polemo, writes, " that that land is 
well watered with fountains and with canals, and on the 
mountains there grow artichokes and many other plants." 
And immediately afterwards he adds, " From that point a 
mountain stretches on both sides of the river Indus, very 
loft}', and very thickly overgrown with wild wood and the 
prickly artichoke." 

But Didymus the grammarian, explaining what is meant 
by Sophocles when he speaks of the prickly artichoke (which 
he calls KiWpos), says, "Perhaps he means the dog-brier, 
because that plant is prickly and rough ; for the Pythian 
priestess did call that plant a wooden bitch. And the Locrian, 
after he had been ordered by an oracle to build a city in that 
place in which he was bitten by a wooden bitch, having had 
his leg scratched by a dog-brier, built the city in the place 

C. 84.J THE CACTUS. 117 

where the brier had stood. And there is a plant called the 
dog-brier, something between a brier and a tree, according to 
the statement of Theophrastus, and it has a red fruit, like 
a pomegranate, and it has a leaf like that of the willow. 

83. Phsenias, in the fifth book of his treatise on Plants, 
speaks of one which he calls the Sicilian cactus, a very 
prickly plant. As also does Theophrastus, in his sixth book 
about Plants, who says, " But the plant which is called the 
cactus exists only in Sicily, and is not found in Greece : and 
it sends forth stalks close to the ground, just above the root. 
And the stalks are the things which are called cacti : and 
they are eatable as soon as they are peeled, and rather bitter; 
and they preserve them in brine. But there is a second kind, 
which sends up a straight stalk, which they call ■u-ripvi^; and 
that also is eatable. The shell of the fruit, as soon as the 
outer soft parts have been taken away, is like the inside of 
a date : that also is eatable; and the name of that is 
aa-Kahqpov." But who is there who would not place such 
belief in these assertions as to say confidently that this cactus 
is the same as that plant which is called by the Romans 
card it us, or thistle; as the Romans are at no great distance 
from Sicily, and as it is evidently the same plant which the 
Greeks call Kivupa, or the artichoke 1 For if you merely 
change two letters, KapSos and koiktos will be the same word. 

And Epicharmus also shows us plainly this, when he puts 
down the cactus in his catalogue of eatable vegetables ; in this 
way — "The poppy, fennel, and the rough cactus; now one can 
eat of the other vegetables when dressed with milk, if he bruises 
them and serves them up with rich sauce, but by themselves 
they are not worth much." And in a subsequent passage he 
says — " Lettuces, pines, squills, radishes, cacti." And again 
he says — "A man came from the country, bringing fennel, and 
cacti, and lavender, and sorrel, and chicory, and thistles, and 
ferns, and the cactus, and dractylus,and otostyllus, and scolium, 
and scni, and onopordus." And Philetas the Coan poet says — 

A fawn about to die would make a noise, 
Fearing the venom of the thorny cactus. 

84. And, indeed, Sopater the Paphian, who was born in 
the time of Alexauder the son of Philip, and who lived even 
till the time of the second Ptolemy king of Egypt, called the 
artichoke idvapa just as we do, as he himself declares in ono 


of the books of his history. But Ptolemy Euergetes the king 
of Egypt, being one of the pupils of Aristarchus the gram- 
marian, in the second book of his Commentaries writes thus — ■ 
" Near Berenice, in Libya, is the river Lethon, in which there 
is the fish called the pike, and the chrysophrys, and a great 
multitude of eels, and also of lampreys which are half as big 
again as those which come from Macedonia and from the 
Copaic lake. And the whole stream is full of fishes of all 
sorts. And in that district there are a great quantity of 
anchovies, and the soldiers who composed our army picked 
them, and ate them, and brought them to us, the generals 
having stripped them of their thorns. I know, too, that 
there is an island called Cinarus, which is mentioned by 

8-5. Now with respect to what is called the Brain of the 
Palm. — Theophrastus, speaking of the plant of the palm- 
tree, states, " The maimer of cultivating it, and of its pro- 
pagation from the fruit, is as follows : when one has taken off 
the upper rind, one comes to a portion in which is what is 
called the brain." And Xenophon, in the second book of 
the Anabasis, writes as follows : " There, too, the soldiers 
first ate the brain of the palm or date-tree. And many of 
them marvelled at its appearance, and at the peculiarity of 
its delicious flavour. But it was found to have a great ten- 
dency to produce headache ; but the date, when the brain was 
taken out of it, entirely dried up." Nicander says in his 
Georgics — 

And at the same time cutting off the branches 
Loaded with dates they bring away the brain, 
A dainty greatly fancied by the young. 

And Diphilus the Siphnian states — " The brains of the dates 
are filling and nutritious ; still they are heavy and not very 
digestible : they cause thirst, too, and constipation of the 

But we, says Atheneeus, my friend Timocrates, shall 
appear to keep our brains to the end, if we stop this conver- 
sation and the book at this point. 

C. 88.] THE MLE. 119 

Some Fragments omitted in the Second Booh of the 
Deipnosophists of Athenceus. 

86. Menander says — 

It is a troublesome thing to fall in with 

An entire party of none but relations ; 
Where as soon as he has taken his cup in his hand 

The father first begins the discourse, 
And stammers out his recommendations : 
Then after him the mother, in the second place; 

And then some old aunt gossips and chatters; 
And then some harsh-voiced old man, 

The father of the aunt aforesaid ; then too 
Another old woman calls him her darling : 
And he nods assent to all that is said. 

87. And a little afterwards he says — 

Before the shade they wear a purple cloth, 
And then this comes after the purple; 
Being itself neither white nor purple, 
But a ray of the brilliancy of the woof as it were 
Of divers colours curiously blended. 

Antiphanes says : " What do you say 1 Will you not bring 
something hither to the door which we may eat 1 and then 
I will sit on the ground and eat it as the beggars do : and 

any one may see me." 

* -x- -x # 

The same man says in another place — 
Prepare then 
A fanner to cool me, a dish, a tripod, a cup, 
An ewer, a mortar, a pot, and a spoon. 

* * •::■ * 

About the Ascent of the Nile. 

88. Thalcs the Milesian, one of the seven wise men, says 
that the overflowing of the Nile arises from the Etesian winds; 
for that they blow up the river, and that the mouths of the 
river he exactly opposite to the point from which they blow; 
and accordingly that the wind blowing in the opposite direc- 
tion hinders the flow of the waters ; and the waves of the sea, 
dashing against the mouth of the river, and coming on with 
a fair wind in the same direction, beat back the river, and 
in this manner the Nile becomes full to overflowing. I hit 
Anaxagoras the natural philosopher says that the fulness of 
the Nile arises from the snow melting; and so, too, Bays 


Euripides, and some others of the tragic poets. And Anaxa- 
goras says that this is the sole origin of all that fulness j but 
Euripides goes further, and describes the exact place where 
this melting of the snow takes place; for in his play called 
" Archelaus " he speaks thus : — 

Danaus, the noble sire of fifty daughters, 
Leaving the Nile, the fairest stream on earth, 
Fill'd by the summer of the iEthiop land, 
The negro's home, when the deep snow does melt, 
And o'er the land the Sun his chariot drives. 
And in the " Helen " he says something similar : — 
These are the beauteous virgin streams of Nile, 
Which in the place of rain bedew the plain 
Of Egypt when the white snow melts on th' hills. 
And ^Eschylus says — 

I know its history, and love to praise 
The race of the vEthiop land, where mighty Nile 
Eolls down his seven streams the country through, 
When the spring winds bring down the heavy waters; 
What time the sun shining along that land 
Dissolves the mountain snow ; and the whole land 
Of flourishing Egypt, fill'd with th' holy stream, 
Sends forth the vital ears of corn of Ceres. 
89. And Callisthenes the historian argues against what I 
quoted just now as stated by Anaxagoras and Euripides : and 
he, too, declares his own opinion, — that as there is much very 
heavy and continued rain in ^Ethiopia about the time of the 
rising of the Dogstar, and from that period till the rising of 
Arc turns, and as the Etesian winds blow at about the same 
time, (for these are the winds which he says have the greatest 
tendency to bring the clouds over .Ethiopia,) when the clouds 
fall ttpon the mountains in that region, a vast quantity of 
water bursts forth, in consequence of which the Nile rises. 
But Democritus says that about the winter solstice there are 
heavy falls of snow in the countries around the north ; but 
that when the sun changes its coui\se, at the summer solstice, 
the snow being melted and evaporated by the warmth, clouds 
are formed, and then the Etesian gales catch hold of them, and 
drive them towards the south; and when these clouds are all 
driven together towards ./Ethiopia and Libya, a mighty rain 
ensues, and the water from that flows down the mountains 
and fills the Nile. This, then, is the cause which Democritus 
alleges for this fulness of the Nile. 

DO. But Euthymenes the Massiliote says, speaking of his 

C. 1.] THE XILE. 121 

own knowledge, acquired in a voyage which he had made, 
that the sea outside the Pillars of Hercules flows towards 
Libya and turns up and proceeds towards the north; and that 
then, being driven hack by the Etesian gales, it is raised to a 
height by the winds, and flows high at that time; but, when 
the Etesian gales cease, it recedes. He says moreover, that 
that sea is sweet to the taste, and that it contains monsters 
like the crocodiles and the hippopotami in the Nile. 

But OEnopides the Chian says, that in winter the sources of 
the river are dried up, but in the summer they are thawed 
and flow ; aud so that for the sake of filling up the previous 
dryness, the rains from heaven cooperate with * * * ;; ' 

* * * * _^ U( j on ^jg accouu t the river is smaller in 
winter and is full in summer. 

But Herodotus gives an explanation quite contrary to that 
of the rest of those who have discussed this subject, but 
agreeing with the explanation of (Enopides; for he says that 
the stream of the Nile is of such magnitude as always to fill 
the river; but that the sun, as it makes its journey through 
Libya in the winter, dries up the river at that time ; but that 
as it has gone off towards the north at the time of the sum- 
mer solstice, then the river becomes full again, and overflows 
the plains. 

Now these ai - e the mouths of the Nile : — towards Arabia, 
the Pelusiac mouth ; towards Libya, the Canopic : and the 
re I are, — the Bolbitic, the Sebennytic, the Mendesian, the 
Saitic, and the Opuntic. 


1. Callimachus the grammarian said that a great book was 
equivalent to a great evil. 

With respect to Ciboria, or Egyptian beans, Nicander says 
in his Georgics — 

You may sow the Egyptian bean, in order in summer 

To make its flowers into garlands ; and when the ciboria 

Have fallen, then give the ripe fruit to the youths 

Who are feasting with you, iuto their hands, as they have been a 

long time 
Wishing for them ; but roots I boil, aud then place on the table at 


But when Nicancler speaks of " roots," he means the things 
which are called by the Alexandrians colocasia; as he says 
elsewhere — 

Have peel'd the beans, and cut up the colocasia. 

Now there is at Sicyon a temple to the Colocasian Minerva. 
There is also a kind of cup called KijBwpwv. 1 

2. Theophrastus, in his book on Plants, writes thus : " The 
bean in Egypt grows in marshes and swamps ; and its stalk 
is in length, when it is at the largest, about four cubits ; but 
in thickness, it is as thick as one's finger : and it is like a 
long reed, only without joints. But it has divisions within, 
running through the whole of it, like honeycombs. And on 
this stalk is the head and the flower, being about twice the 
size of a poppy ; and its colour is like that of a rose, very 
full coloured ; and it puts forth large leaves. But the root 
is thicker than the thickest reed, and it has divisions like the 
stalk. And people eat it boiled, and roasted, and raw. And 
the men who live near the marshes eat it very much. It 
grows, too, in Syria and in Cilicia, but those countries do not 
ripen it thoroughly. It grows, too, around Torone in Chal- 
cidice, in a marsh of moderate size, and that place ripens it, 
and it brings its fruit to perfection there. But Diphilus the 
Siphnian says, " The root of the Egyptian bean, which is 
called colocasium, is veiy good for the stomach, and very 
nutritious, but it is not very digestible, being very astringent ; 
and that is the best which is the least woolly. But the beans 
which are produced by the plant called ciborium, when they 
are green are indigestible, not very nutritious, easily pass 
through one, and are apt to cause flatulence ; but when they 
are diy they are not so flatulent. And from the genuine 
ciborium there is a flower which grows which is made into 
garlands. And the Egyptians call the flower the lotus ; but 
the Nauci'atitans tell me, says Athenaeus, that its name is the 
melilotus : and it is of that flower that the melilotus garlands 
are made, which are very fragrant, and which have a cooling 
effect in the summer season. 

3. But Phylarchus says, " that though Egyptian beans had 
never been sown before in any place, and had never produced 

1 This was a Latin word for a cup. Horace says — 
Obliviosi levia Massici 
Ciboria exple. 

C. 4.] CUCUMBERS. 123 

fruit if any one had by chance sown a few, except in Egypt, 
still, in the time of Alexander the king, the son of, 
it happened that some sprung up near the river Thyamis in 
Thesprotia in Epirus, in a certain marsh in that district; 
and for two years continuously they bore fruit and grew; 
and that on this Alexander put a guard over them, and not 
only forbade any one to pick them, but would not allow any 
one to approach the place : and on this the marsh dried up ; 
and for the future it not only never produced the above- 
mentioned fruit, but it does not appear even to have furnished 
any water. And something very like this happened at 
^Edepsus. For at a distance from all other waters there was 
a spring sending forth cold water at no great distance from 
the sea ; and invalids who drank this water were greatly 
benefited : on which account many repaired thither from 
great distances, to avail themselves of the water. Accordingly 
the generals of king Antigonus, wishing to be economical with 
respect to it, imposed a tax to be paid by those who drank 
it : and on this the spring dried up. And in the Troas in 
former times all who wished it were at liberty to draw water 
from the Tragasaean lake ; but when Lysimachus became 
ruler there, and put a tax on it, that lake, too, disappeared : 
and as he marvelled at this, as soon as he remitted the tribute 
and left the place free, the water came again. 

4. With respect to Cucumbers. — There is a proverb — 
Eat the cucumber, woman, and weave your cloak. 
And Matron says, in his Parodies — 

And I saw a cucumber, the son of the all-glorious Earth, 
Lying among the herbs ; and it was served up on nine tables. 1 

And Laches says — 

But, as when cucumber grows up in a dewy place. 
Now the Attic writers always use the word vlkvov as a word 
of three syllables. But Alceeus uses it as a dissyllable, aucus ; 
for he says, Sa/07 tw ctlkvodv from the nominative cn/cus, a word 
1 This is parodied from — 

Kal I'itvuv tiSou "yatr]S epuevdeos vlov kv SairiSw 65' tTr' kvvicL Hiiro ntAedpa : 
translated by Pope : 

There Tityus large, and long in fetters bound, 

O'crspreads nine acres of infernal ground. 


like ora^us, ora^os. And Phrynichus uses the word o-lkuSlov 
as a diminutive, where he says — 

Evrpayuv aiKi/Siov, to eat a little cucumber. 

\Frcmi this point are the genuine words of Athenceus?~\ 

I will send radishes and four cucumbers. 

And Phrynichus too used the word ctlkvSlov as a diminutive, 
in his Monotropus ; where he says, navrpaydv o-lkvSlov. 

5. But Theophrastus says that there are three kinds of 
cucumbers, the Lacedaemonian, the Scytalian, and the Boeo- 
tian ; and that of these the Lacedaemonian, which is a 
watery one, is the best ; and that the others do not contain 
water. " Cucumbers too," says he, " contain a more agreeable 
and wholesome juice if the seed be steeped in milk or in mead 
before it is sown;" and he asserts in his book on the Causes 
of Plants, that they come up quicker if they are steeped 
either in water or milk before they are put in the ground. 
And Euthydemus says, in his treatise on Vegetables, that 
there is one kind of cucumber which is called SpaKovTias. But 
Demetrius Ixios states, in the first book of his treatise on 
Etymologies, that the name o-'lkvov is derived a-nro tov creueaOai. 
kciI Ktetv, from bursting forth and proceeding ; for that it is a 
thing which spreads fast and wide. But Heraclides of Taren- 
tum calls the cucumber fjSvyaiov, which means growing in 
sweet earth, or making the earth siveet, in his Symposium. 
And Diodes of Carystos says that cucumber, if it is eaten 
with the sium in the first course, makes the eater un- 
comfortable ; for that it gets into the head as the radish 
does ; but that if it is eaten at the end of supper it causes no 

1 The 'whole of the first two books of the genuine work of Athenaaus 
lire lost ; as also is the beginning of the third book ; and a good deal of 
the last. What has been translated up to this point is an epitome or 
abridgement made by some compiler whose name is unknown. Casau- 
bon states that he is ignorant of the name of this compiler ; but is sure 
that he lived five hundred years before his own time, and before Eusta- 
thius ; because Eustathius sometimes uses his epitome in preference to 
the original work. But even before this abridgement was made the 
text had become exceedingly corrupt, according to the statement of the 
compiler himself. — See liayle, Diet. voc. Alhenceus. 

c. 6.] figs. 125 

uncomfortable feelings, and is more digestible ; and that when 
it is boiled it is moderately diuretic. But Diphilus says — 
" The cucumber being a cooling food is not very manageable, 
and is not easily digested or evacuated ; besides that, it creates 
shuddering feelings and engenders bile, and is a great pre- 
ventive against amatory feelings." But cucumbers grow in 
gardens at the time of full moon, and at that time they grow 
very visibly, as do the sea-urchins. 

6. With respect to Figs. — The fig-tree, says Magnus,- (for 
I will not allow any one to take what I have to say about figs 
out of my mouth, not if I were to be hanged for it, for I am 
most devilishly fond of figs, and I will say what occurs to me ;) 
" the fig-tree, my friends, was the guide to men to lead them to 
a more civilized life. And this is plain from the fact that 
the Athenians call the place where it was first discovered The 
Sacred Fig ; and the fruit from it they call hegeteria, that is 
to say, " the guide," because that was the first to be dis- 
covered of all the fruits now in cultivation. Now there are 
many species of figs ; — there is the Attic sort, which Anti- 
phanes speaks of in his Synonynies ; and when he is praising 
the land of Attica, he says — 

A. What fruits this land produces ! 
Superior, Hipponicus, to the world. 
What honey, what bread, what figs ! 

Hipp. It does, by Jove ! 
Bear wondrous figs. 

And Isistrus, in his " Attics," says that it was forbidden to 
export out of Attica the figs which grew in that country, in 
order that the inhabitants might have the exclusive enjoy- 
ment of them. And as many people Ave re detected in sending 
them away surreptitiously, those who laid informations against 
them before the judges were then first called sycophants. 
And Alexis says, in his " The Poet" — 

The name of sycophant is one which does 
Of right apply to every wicked person ; 
For figs when added to a name might show 
Whether the man was good and just and pleasant ; 
But now when a sweet name is given a rogue, 
It makes us doubt why this should be the case. 

And Philomnestus, in his treatise on the FestiA r al of Apollo 
at Rhodes, which is called the Sminthian festival, says—'- Since 
the sycophant got his name from these circumstances, because 


at that time there were fines and taxes imposed upon figs and 
oil and wine, by the produce of which imposts they found 
money for the public expenses ; they called those who exacted 
these fines and laid these informations sycophants, which was 
very natural, selecting those who were accounted the most 
considerable of the citizens. 

7. And Aristophanes mentions the fig, in his " Farmers ;" 
speaking as follows : — 

I am planting figs of all sorts except the Lacedaemonian, 
For this kind is the fig of an enemy and a tyrant : 
And it would not have been so small a fruit if it had not been 
a great hater of the people. 

But he called it small because it was not a large plant. But 
Alexis, in his " Olynthian," mentioning the Phrygian figs, 

And the beautiful fig, 

The wonderful invention of the Phrygian fig, 

The divine object of my mother's care. 

And of those figs which are called <£<./3a/\.eoi, mention is made 
by many of the comic writers ; and Pherecrates, in his 
" Crapatalli," says — 

my good friend, make haste and catch a fever, 
And then alarm yourself with no anxiety, 

But eat Phibalean figs all the summer; 

And then, when you have eaten your fill, sleep the whole of the 

midday ; 
And then feel violent pains, get in a fever, and holloa. 

And Teleclides, in his Amphictyons, says — 

How beautiful those Phibalean figs are ! 
They also call myrtle-berries Phibalean. As Antiphanes does 
in his " Cretans " — 

But first of all 

1 want some myrtle-berries on the table, 
Which I may eat when e'er I counsel take ; 
And they must be Phibalean, very fine, 
Fit for a garland. 

Epigenes too mentions Chelidonian figs, that is, figs fit for 
swallows, in his Bacchea — 

Then, in a little while, a well-fill'd babket 
Of dry Chelidonian figs is brought in. 

And Androtion, or Philippus, or Hegemon, in the Book of 
the Farm, gives a list of these kinds of figs, saying — " In the 

c. 9.] figs. 127 

plain it is desirable to plant specimens of the Chelidonian fig, 
of the fig called Erineau, of the Leukerinean, and of the Phiba- 
lean ; but plant the Oporobasilis, the queen of autumn, every- 
where ; for each kind has some useful qualities ; and, above 
all, the pollarded trees, and the phormynian, and the double- 
bearers, and the Megariau, and the Lacedaemonian kinds are 
desirable, if there is plenty of water. 

8. Lynceus, too, mentions the fig-trees which grow in Rhodes, 
in his Epistles ; instituting a comparison between the best of 
the Athenian kinds and the Rhodian species. And he Avrites 
in these terms: — " But these fig-trees appear to vie with Lace- 
daemonian trees of the same kind, as mulberries do with figs ; 
and they are put on the table before supper, not after supper 
as they are here, when the taste is already vitiated by satiety, 
but while the appetite is still uninfluenced and unappeased." 
And if Lynceus had tasted the figs which in the beautiful 
Rome are called KaWia-TpovOia, as T have, he would have been 
by far more long-sighted than ever his namesake was. So 
very far superior are those figs to all the other figs in 
the whole world. 

Other kinds of figs grown near Rome are held in high 
esteem ; and those called the Chian figs, and the Libianian ; 
those two named the Chalcidic, and the African figs ; as 
Herodotus the Lycian bears witness, in his treatise on Figs. 

9. But Parmeno the Byzantine, in his Iambics, speaks 
of the figs which come from Cause, an ^Eolian city, as the best 
of all : saying — 

I am arrived after a long voyage, not having brought 
A valuable freight of Canseau figs. 

And that the figs from Caunus, a city of Caria, are much 
praised, is known to all the world. There is another sort 
of fig, called the Oxalian, which Heracleon the Ephesian 
makes mention of, and Nicander of Thyatira, quoting what is 
mentioned by Apollodorus of Carystus, in his play, called the 
" Dress-seller with a Dowry j" where he says — 

Moreover, all the wine 
Was very sour and thin, so that I felt 
Ashamed to see it; tor all other farms 
In the adjacent region bear the figs 
Yclcped Oxalian; and mine bears vines. 

Figs also grow in the island of Paros, (for those which are 


called by the Parians alpwvia are a different fig from the 
common one, and are not what I am alluding to here ; for 
the aljjLuyvta are the same with those which are called Lydian 
figs J and they have obtained this name on account of their 
red colour, since oXfxa means blood, and they are mentioned 
by Archilochus, who speaks in this manner : — 

Never mind Paros, and the figs which grow 

Within that marble island, and the life 

Of its seafaring islanders. 

But these figs are as far superior to the ordinary run of figs 
which are grown in other places as the meat of the wild boar 
is superior to that of all other animals of the swine tribe 
which are not wild. 

10. The \evi<epivcb<; is a kind of fig-tree; and perhaps it is 
that kind which produces the white figs ; Hermippus men- 
tions it in his Iambics, in these terms — 

There are besides the Leucerinean figs. 
And the figs called ipivsol, or Ipwoi, are mentioned by Euri- 
pides in his " Sciron" — 

Or else to fasten him on the erinean boughs. 
And Epicharmus says, in his Sphinx, — 

But these are not like the erinean fig?. 
And Sophocles, in his play entitled " The Wedding of Helen," 
by a sort of metaphor, calls the fruit itself by the name of 
the tree ; saying — 

A ripe epivbs is a useless thing 

For food, and yet you ripen others by 

Your conversation. 

And he uses the masculine gender here, saying Ttkiraw epivos, 
instead of iriirov epevov. Alexis also says in his " Caldron " — 
And why now need we speak of people who 
Sell every day their figs in close pack'd baskets, 
And constantly do place those figs below 
Which are hard and bad ; but on top thi^y range 
The ripe and beautiful fruit. And then a comrade, 
As if he'd bought the basket, gives the price ; 
The seller, putting in his mouth the coin, 
Sells wild figs (tpiva) while he swears he's selling good ones. 

Now the tree, the wild fig, from which the fruit meant by the 
term 'ipiva. comes, is called iptvos, being a masculine noun. 
Strattis says, in his Troilus — 

Plave you not perceived a wild fig-tree near her ] 

C. 12.] FIGS. 129 

And Homer says — 

There stands a large wild fig-tree flourishing with leaves. 
And Amerias says, that the figs on the wild fig-trees are 
called IpivaKai. 

11. Hermonax, in his book on the Cretan Languages, 
gives a catalogue of the different kinds of figs, and speaks of 
some as d/xaSea and as vucvXea ; and Philemon, in his book on 
Attic Dialects, says, that some figs are called royals, from 
which also the dried figs are called jSao-iXtSes, or royal ; stating 
besides, that the ripe figs are called KoXvrpa. Seleucus, too, 
in his Book on Dialects, says that there is a fruit called yXv- 
Kvo-lSr], being exceedingly like a fig in shape : and that women 
guard against eating them, because of their evil effects; as 
also Plato the comic writer says, in his Cleophon. And 
Pamphilus says, that the winter figs are called Cydonaea by 
the Achseans, saying, that Aristophanes said the very same 
thing in his Lacedaemonian Dialects. Hermippus, in his 
Soldiers, says that there is a kind of fig called Coracean, 
using these words — 

Either Phihalean figs, or Coracean. 
TheophiTistus, in the second book of his treatise on Plants, 
says that there is a sort of fig called Charitian Aratcan. 
And in his third book he says, that in the district around 
the Trojan Ida, there is a sort of fig growing in a low 
bush, having a leaf like that of the linden-tree; and that it 
bears red figs, about the size of an olive, but rounder, and in 
its taste like a medlar. And concerning the fig which is 
called in Crete the Cyprian fig, the same Theophrastus, in 
his fourth book of his History of Plants, writes as follows : — 
" The fig called in Crete the Cyprian fig, bears fruit from its 
stalk, and from its stoutest branches ; and it sends forth 
a small leafless shoot, like a little root, attached to which 
is the fruit. The trunk is large, and very like that of the 
white poplar, and its leaf is like that of the elm. And it 
produces four fruits, according to the number of the shoots 
which it puts forth. Its sweetness resembles that of the 
common fig; and within it resembles the wild fig: but in size 
it is about equal to the cuckoo-apple. 

12. Again, of the figs called prodromi, or precocious, the same 
Theophrastus makes mention in the third book of his Causes 
of Plants, in this way — " When a warm and damp and soft 



air comes to the fig-tree, then it excites the germination, 
from which the figs are called prodromi." And proceeding 
further, he says — " And again, some trees hear the prodromi, 
namely, the Lacedaemonian fig-tree, and the leucompbaliac, 
and several others ; but some do not bear them." But Seleu- 
cus, in his book on Languages, says that there is a kind of fig- 
called TrpoTepLKi], which bears very early fruit. And Aristophanes, 
in his Eeelesiazusse, speaks of a double-bearing fig-tree — 

Take for a while the fig-tree's leaves 

Which bears its crop twice in the year. 

And Antiphanes says, in his Scleripe — 

'Tis by the double-bearing fig-tree there below. 
But Theopompus, in the fifty-fourth book of his Histo- 
ries, says — " At the time when Philip reigned about the 
territory of the Bisaltse, and Amphipolis and Grcestonia of 
Macedon, when it was the middle of spring, the fig-trees 
were loaded with figs, and the vines with bunches of grapes, 
and the olive-trees, though it was only the season for them to 
be just pushing, were full of olives. And Philip was success- 
ful in all his undertakings." But in the second book of his 
treatise on Plants, Theophrastus says that the wild fig also 
is double-bearing ; and some say that it bears even three 
crops in the year, as for instance, at Ceos, 

13. Theophrastus also says, that the fig-tree if planted 
among squills grows up faster, and is not so liable to be 
destroyed by worms : and, in fact, that everything which is 
planted among squills both grows faster and is more sure 
to be vigorous. And in a subsequent passage Theophrastus 
says, in the second book of his Catises — " The fig called the 
Indian fig, though it is a tree of a wonderful size, bears a very 
small fruit ; and not much of it ; as if it had expended all its 
strength in making wood." And in the second book of his His- 
tory of Plants, the philosopher says — " There is also another 
kind of fig in Greece, and in Cilicia and Cyprus, which bears 
green figs ; and that tree bears a real fig, o-vkov, in front of 
the leaf, and a green fig, okwOos, behind the leaf. And these 
green figs grow wholly on the wood which is a year old. and 
not on the" new wood." And this kind of fig-tree produces 
the green fig ripe and sweet, very different from the green fig 
which we have ; and it grows to a much greater size than the 
genuine fig. And the time when it is in season is not long 

c. 15:] figs. 131 

after the tree has made its wood. And I know, too, that 
there are many other names of fig-trees ; there are the Royal, 
and the Fig Royal, and the Cirrocoeladian, and the Hyladian, 
and the Deerflesh, and the Lapyrian, and the Suhbitter, and 
the Dragon-headed, and the White-faced, and the Black-faced, 
and the Fountain fig, and the Mylaic, and the Ascalonian. 

14. Tryphon also speaks of the names of figs in the second 
book of his History of Plants, and says that Dorion states, in 
his book of the Farm, that Sukeas, one of the Titans, being 
pursued by Jupiter, was received in her bosom as in an asylum 
by his mother Earth ; and that the earth sent forth that plant 
as a place of refuge for her son ; from whom also the city 
Sukea in Cilicia has its name. But Pherenicus the epic 
poet, a Heraclean by birth, says that the fig-tree (cru/o)) is so 
called from Suke the daughter of Oxylus : for that Oxvlus 
the son of Orius, having intrigued with his sister Hamadryas, 
had several children, and among them Carya (the nut-tree), 
Balanus (the acorn-bearing oak), Craneus (the cornel -tree), 
Orea (the ash), iEgeirus (the poplar), Ptelea (the elm), Am- 
pelus (the vine), Suke (the fig-tree) : and that these daugh- 
ters were all called the Hamadryad Nymphs; and that from 
them many of the trees were named. On which account 
iiipponax says — 

The fig-tree black, the sister of the vine. 
And Sosibius the Lacedaemonian, after stating that the fig- 
tree was the discovery of Bacchus, says that on this account 
the Lacedaemonians worship Bacchus Sukites. But the peo- 
ple of Naxus, as Andrisciis and Aglaosthenes related, state 
that Bacchus is called Meilichius, because of his gift of the 
fruit of the fig-tree : and that on this account the face 
of the god whom they call Bacchus Dionysus is like a vine, 
and that of the god called Bacchus Meilichius is like a fig. 
For figs are called //.eiAt^a by the Naxians. 

15. Now that the fig is the most useful to man of all the 
fruits which grow upon trees is sufficiently shown by Herodotus 
the Lycian, who urges this point at great length, in his trea- 
tise on Figs. For he says that young children grow to a 
great size if they are fed on the juice of figs. And Pherc- 
cratcs, who wrote the Persae, says — 

If any one of us, after absence, sees a fipr. 
He will apply it like a plaster to his children's eves-: 


as if there were no ordinary medicinal power in the fig. And 
Herodotus, the most wonderful and sweet of all writers, says 
in the first book of his Histories, that figs are of the greatest 
good, speaking thus : — " king, you are preparing to make 
war upon men of this character, who wear breeches of leather, 
and all the rest of their garments are made of leather ; and 
they eat not whatever they fancy, but what they have, since 
they have but a rough country ; moreover they do not, by 
Jove, use wine, but they drink water ; they have no figs to 
eat, nor any other good thing." 

And Polybius of Megalopolis, in the twelfth book of his 
Histories, says — " Philip, the father of Perseus, when he over- 
ran Asia, being in want of provisions, took figs for his soldiers 
from the Magnesians, as they had no corn. On which account, 
too, when he became master of Myus, he gave that place 
to the Magnesians in return for their figs." And Ananius, 
the writer of Iambics, says — ■ 

He who should shut up gold within his house, 
And a few tigs, and two or three men, 
Would see how far the figs surpass the gold. 

1(3. And when Magnus had said all this about figs, 
Daplmus the physician said : Philotimus, in the third book 
of his treatise on Figs, says, " There is a great deal of differ- 
ence between the various kinds of figs when fresh ; both in 
their sorts, and in the times when each is in season, and in 
their effects ; not but what one may lay down some general 
rules, and say that the juicy ones and those which are full 
ripe are quickly dissolved and are digested more easily than 
any other fruit whatever, nor do they interfere with the 
digestion of other sorts of food ; and they have the ordinary 
properties of all juicy food, being glutinous and sweet, and 
slightly nitrous in taste. And they make the evacuations more 
copious and fluid, and rapid and wholly free from discomfort ; 
and they also diffuse a saltish juice, having a good deal 
of harshness, when they are combined with anything at all 
salt. They are very quickly dissolved by the digestion, be- 
cause, though many heavy things may be taken into the 
stomach, we still after a short time feel as if we had become 
excessively empty : but this could not have happened if the 
figs had remained in the stomach, and were not immediately 
dissolved. And figs are dissolved more easily than any other 

c. 17.] figs. 133 

fruit ; as is proved not only by the fact that though we eat a 
great many times as great a quantity of figs as of all other 
fruits put together, Ave still never feel inconvenienced by 
them; and even if we eat a quantity of figs before dinner, and 
then eat as much of other things as if we had never touched 
them, we still feel no discomfort. It is plain, therefore, that 
if we can manage both them and the rest of our food, they 
must be easily digested ; and that is why they do not interfere 
with the digestion of the rest of our food. 

" Figs, then, have the qualities which I have mentioned. 
That they are glutinous and rather salt is proved by their 
being sticky and cleansing the hands; and we see our- 
selves that they are sweet in the mouth. And it certainly 
needs no arguments to prove that our evacuations after eat- 
ing them take place without any convulsions or trouble, and 
that they are more numerous and more rapid and more easy in 
consequence. And they do not go through any great decom- 
position in the stomach, which arises not from their being in- 
digestible, but because we drink while eating them, without 
waiting for the action of the stomach to soften them, and 
also because they pass through the stomach so quickty. And 
they generate a salt juice in the stomach, because it has been 
already shown that they contain something of nitre in them : 
and they will make that food taste rather salt and harsh 
which is combined with them. For salt increases the briny 
taste of anything, but vinegar and thyme increase the harsh 
qualities of food." 

1 7. Now Heraclides the Tarentine asks this question ; 
" Whether it is best to drink warm water or cold after the eat- 
ing of figs ? " And he says, that those who recommend the 
drinking of cold water do so because they have an eye to such a 
fact as this, — that warm water cleanses one's hands more 
quickly than cold ; on which account it is reasonable to 
believe that food in the stomach will be quickly washed away 
by warm water. And with respect to figs which are not eaten, 
warm water dissolves their consistency and connexion, and 
separates them into small pieces ; but cold coagulates and con- 
solidates them. But those who recommend the drinking of 
cold water say, the taking of cold water bears down by its own 
weight the things which are heavy on the stomach ; (fur figs 
do not do any extoaordinary good to the stomach, since they 

13 i THE DEIPN0S0PHIST3. [b, III. 

heat it and destroy its tone ; on which account some people 
always drink neat wine after them ;) and then too it quickly 
expels what is already in the stomach. But after eating figs, 
it is desirable to take an abundant and immediate draught of 
something or other ; in order to prevent those things from 
remaining in the stomach, and to move them into the lower 
parts of the bowels. 

18. Others however say, that it is not a good thing to cat figs 
at midday ; for that at that time they are apt to engender dis- 
eases, as Pherecrates has said in his Crapatalli. And Aristo- 
phanes, in his Proagon, sa} T s — 

But once seeing him when he was sick in the summer, 
In order to be sick too himself, eat fags at midday. 

And Eubulus says, in his Sphingocarion — 

No doubt it was ; for I was sick, my friend, 
From eating lately figs one day at noon. 

And Nicophon says, in the Sirens — 

But if a man should eat green figs at noon, 
And then go oft' to sleep ; immediately 
A galloping fever comes on him, accursed. 
And falling on him brings up much black bile. 

19. Diphilus of Siphnos says, that of figs some are tender, 
and not very nutritious, but full of bad juice, nevertheless 
easily secreted, and rising easily to the surface ; and that 
these are more easily managed than the dry figs ; but that 
those which are in season in the winter, being ripened by 
artificial means, are very inferior : but that the best are those 
which are ripe at the height of the summer, as being ripened 
naturally ; and these have a great deal of juice ; and those 
which are not so juicy are still good for the stomach, though 
somewhat heavy. And the figs of Tralles are like the Kho- 
dian : and the Chian, and all the rest, appear to be inferior 
to these, both in the quality and quantity of their juice. But 
Mnesitheus the Athenian, in his treatise on Eatables, says — 
" But with respect to whatever of these fruits are eaten raw, 
such as pears, and figs, and Delphic apples, and such fruits, 
one ought to watch the opportunity when they will have the 
j uice which they contain, neither unripe on the one hand, nor 
tainted on the other ; nor too much dried up by the season." 
But Demetrius the Scepsian, in the fifteenth book of the 
Trojan Preparation, says, that those who never eat figs have 

C. 20.] APPLES. 13 J 

the best voices. At all events, he says, that Hegesianax the 
Alexandrian, who wrote the Histories, was originally a man 
with a very weak voice, and that he became a tragedian and 
a fine actor, and a man with a fine voice, by abstaining from 
figs for eighteen years together. And I know too that there 
are some proverbs going about concerning figs, of which the 
following are samples : — 

Figs after fish, vegetables after meat. 

Figs are agreeable to birds, but they do not choose to plant them. 
20. Apples are an universal fruit. Mnesitheus the Athe- 
nian, in his treatise on Eatables, calls them Delphian apples ; 
but Diphilus says, that " those apples which are green and 
which are not yet ripe, are full of bad juice, and are bad for 
the stomach ; but are apt to rise to the surface, and also to 
engender bile ; and they give rise to diseases, and produce 
sensations of shuddering. But of ripe apples, he says, that 
the sweet ones are those with most juice, and that they arc the 
most easily secreted, because they have no great inflammatory 
qualities. But that sharp apples have a more disagreeable 
and mischievous juice, and are more astringent. And that 
those which have less sweetness are still pleasant to the 
palate when eaten ; and, on account of their having some 
strengthening qualities, are better for the stomach. And 
moreover, that of this fruit those which are in season in 
the summer have a juice inferior to the others; but those 
which are ripe in the autumn have the better juice. And 
that those which are called 6p(3u<\aTa, have a good deal of 
sweetness combined with their invigorating properties, ami 
are very good for the stomach. But those which are call* A 
o-rjTavia, and also those which are called -n-Xariovia, arc full of 
good juice, and are easily secreted, but are not good for 
the stomach. But those which are called Mordianian are 
very excellent, being produced in Apollonia, which is called 
Mordius; and they are like those which arc called opfiiKXara. 
But the Cydonian apples, or quinces, some of which are 
called uTpovdia, are, as a general rule, better for the stomach 
than any other kind of apple, most especially when thej are 
full ripe." 

But Glaucides asserts that the best of all fruits which gi 
upon trees are the Cydonian apples, and those which are 
called phaulia, and strouthia. And I'hilotimus, in his third 


book, and also in his tenth book of his treatise on Food, says — 
" Of apples, those -which come in season in spring are by fax* 
more indigestible than pears, whether they are both unripe, 
or whether they are both ripe. But they have the properties 
of juicy fruits ; the sharp apples, and those which are not 
yet ripe, resembling those pears which have a harsher taste 
and which are in a certain degree sour • and they diffuse over 
the body a juice which is said to be corrosive. And, as a 
general rule, apples are not so digestible as pears ; on which 
account those who are less addicted to eating them are less 
troubled with indigestions, and those who are most fond of 
them are the most liable to such inconvenience. But, as I 
said before, a corrosive juice is engendered by them, as is 
stated by Praxagoras, and as is shown by the fact that those 
things which are not digested will have the juice thicker. 
(And I have already said that, as a general rule, apples are 
less digestible than pears.) And the harsh and sour apples 
are in the habit of engendering thicker juices. 

But of those apples which are in season in the winter, the 
Cydonian give out the more bitter juices, and those called 
strouthian give out juice more sparingly ; though what they 
do give out is not so harsh tasted, and is more digestible." 
But Nicander of Thyatira says, that the Cydonian apples them- 
selves are called arpovOeia; but he says this out of ignorance. 
For Glaucides asserts plainly enough that the best of all 
fruits which grow on trees are the Cydonian apples and those 
called phaulian and strouthian. 

21. Stesichorus also mentions the Cydonian apples, in his 
Helena, speaking thus : — 

Before the king's most honour'd throne, 

I threw Cydonian apples down; 
And leaves of myrrh, and crowns of roses, 

And violets in purple posies. 

Alcman mentions them too. And Cantharus does so like- 
wise, in the Tereus ; where he says — 

Likening her bosom to Cydonian apples. 
And Philemon, in his Clown, calls Cydonian apples stroTitkia. 
And Phylarchus, in the sixth book of his Histories, says that 
apples by their sweet fragrance can blunt the efficacy of even 
deadly poisons. At all events, he says, that some Phariacan 
poison having been cast into a chest still smelling from 

c. 23.] apples. 137 

having had some of these apples stored away in it, lost all its 
effect, and preserved none of its former power, but was mixed 
and given to some people who were plotted against, but that 
they escaped all harm. And that afterwards it was ascer- 
tained, by an investigation and examination of the man who 
had sold the poison; and that he felt sure that it arose from 
the fact of the apples having been put away in the chest. 

22. Hermon, in his Cretan Dialects, says that Cydonian 
apples are called KoSvpaXa. But Polemo, in the fifth book 
of the treatise against Timams, says that some people affirm 
that the KoSvfxaXov is a kind of flower. But Alcman asserts that 
it is. the same as the crrpovOiov apple, when ho says, "less than 
a Ko&vfjLaXov." And Apollodorus and Sosibius understand the 
Cydonian apple by KoSvpaXov. But that the Cydonian apple 
differs from the a-TpovOiov, Theophrastus has asserted clearly 
enough in the second book of his History. Moreover, there 
are excellent apples grown at Sidus, (that is, a village in the 
Corinthian territory,) as Euphorion or Archytas says, in the 
poem called " The Crane : " — 

Like a beautiful apple which is grown on the clayey banks 
Of the little Sidus, refulgent with purple colour. 

And Nicander mentions them in his Transformed, in this 

manner : — 

And immediately, from the gardens of Sidoeis or Pleistus 
He cut green apples, and imitated the appearance of Cadmus. 

And that Sidus is a village of the Corinthian territory, Rhiarms 
assures us, in the first book of the Heraclea ; and Apollodorus 
the Athenian confirms it, in the fifth book On the Catalogue 
of the Ships. But Antigonus the Carystian says, in his 
Anti pater — • 

More dear to me was he than downy apples 
Of purple hue, in lofty Corinth growing. 

23. And Teleclides mentions the Phaulian apples, in hi3 
Amphictyons, in these terms : — 

men, in some things neat, but yet in others 
More fallen than phaulian apples ! 

And Theopompus also speaks of them, in the Theseus. But 
Androtion, in his Book of the Farm, says, that some apple- 
trees are called <f>avXiai, and others a-rpovOuu ; " for," says he, 
" the apple does not fall from the footstalk of the strouthian 
apple-tree." And that others are called spring-trees, or Lace- 


dsemonian, or Siduntian, or woolly. But I, nry friends, admire 
above all others the apples which are sold at Rome, which are 
called the Mattianian ; and which are said to be brought from 
a certain village situated on the Alps near Aquileia. And the 
apples which grow at Gangra, a city of Paphlagonia, are not 
much inferior to them. But that Bacchus was the discoverer 
of the apple we have the testimony of Theocritus the Syra- 
cusan, who writes thus :— 

Guarding the apples in the bosom of Bacchus ; 
And having on his head a poplar garland, 
The silv'ry tree, sacred to Theban Hercules. 

But Neoptolemus the Parian testifies himself, in his Diony- 
sias, that the apple was discovered by Bacchus, as were all 
other fruits which grow on trees. 

There is a fruit called epimelis ; which is, says Pamphilus, 
a description of pear. But Timachides asserts, in the fourth 
book of The Banquet, that it is an apple, the same as that 
called the apple of the Hesperides. And Pamphilus asserts 
that at Lacedeemon they are set before the gods ; and that they 
have a sweet smell, but are not very good to eat ; and are 
called the apples of the Hesperides. At all events, Aristocrates, 
in the fourth book of his Affairs of Lacediemon, says, " And 
besides that apples, and those which are called Hesperides." 

24. Walnuts are next to be mentioned. — Theophrastus, in 
the second book of his History of Plants, speaking of those 
whose fruit is not visible, says this among other things : — 
" Since the beginning of all the greater fruits is visible, as of 
the almond, the nut, the date, and other fruits of the same 
kind ; except the walnut, in which that is not at all the case ; 
and with the exception also of the pomegranate and of the 
female pear." But Diphilus of Siphnos, in his book about 
" What should be eaten by People when Sick and by People 
in Health," says — " The fruit called the Persian apple or peach, 
and by some the Persian cuckoo-apple, is moderately juicy, 
but is more nutritious than apples." But Philotimus, in the 
second and third books of his treatise on Food, says that the 
Persian nut or walnut is more oily and like millet, and that 
being a looser fruit, when it is pressed it yields a great quantity 
of oil. But Aristophanes the grammarian, in his Lacedaemonian 
Dialects, says that the Lacedaemonians call the cuckoo-apples 
Persian bitter apples ; and that some people call them SSpva, 

C. 26,] CITRONS. 130 

25. The Citron was next mentioned. — And with respect to 
this fruit there was a great discussion among the Deipno- 
sophists, as to whether there is any mention made of it by 
the ancients. For Myrtilus said, proposing, as it were, to 
send us who made the inquiry to feed among the wild goats, 
that Hegesander the Delphian, in his Memorials, does make 
mention of this fruit ; but that he did not recollect the exact 
words : and Plutarch, contradicting him, said, — But I indeed 
contend, that Hegesander never mentions the citi'on at all, for 
I read through the whole of his Memorials for the express 
purpose of seeing whether he did or no ; since some other of 
our companions also asserted positively that he did, trusting 
to some scholastic commentaries of a man whom he consi- 
dered respectable enough. So that it is time for you, my 
good friend Myrtilus, to seek for some other witness. But 
yEmilianus said, that Jobas the king of the Mauritanians, a 
man of the most extensive learning, in his History of Libya, 
does mention the citron, saying that it is called among 
the Libyans the Hesperian apple, and that they were citrons 
which Hercules carried into Greece, and which obtained the 
name off/olden apples on account of their colour and appear- 
ance. But the fruit which is called the apples of the Hes- 
perides, is said to have been produced by Terra, on the occa- 
sion of the marriage of Jupiter and Juno, according to the 
statement of Asclepiades, in the sixtieth book of his History 
of the Affairs of Egypt. On this, Democritus, looking towards 
the speakers, said, — If, indeed, Jobas asserts any of these things, 
let him take pleasure in his Libyan books, and in the nonsense 
of Hanno. But I repeat the assertion, that the name citron 
does not occur in the old authors. But the fruit which is 
described by Theophrastus the Eresian, in his Histories of 
Plants, is described in such a manner as to compel me to 
believe that he intended the citron by what he said. 

26. For that philosopher says, in the fourth book of his 
History of Plants — " The Median territory, and likewise the 
Persian, has many other productions, and also the Persian or 
.Median apple. Now, that tree has a leaf very like and 
almost exactly the same as that of the bay-tree, the arbutus, 
or the nut : and it has thorns like the priekly-pear, or 
blackthorn, smooth but very sharp ami strong. And the 
fruit is not good to cat, but is very fragrant, and so too are 


the leaves of the tree. And if any one puts one of the fruits 
among his clothes, it keeps them from the moth. And it is 
useful when any one has taken poison injurious to life ; for 
when given in wine it produces a strung effect on the bowels, 
and draws out the poison. It is serviceable also in the way of 
making the breath sweet ; for if any one boils the inner part 
of the fruit in broth or in anything else, and then presses it 
in his mouth and swallows it, it makes his breath smell sweet. 
And the seed is taken out and is sown in spring in square beds, 
being very carefully cultivated ; and then it is watered every 
fourth or fifth day ; and when it has grown up it is again 
transplanted the next spring into a place where the ground is 
soft, and well-watered, and not very thin. And it bears fruit 
every year ; some of which are fit to be gathered, and some 
are in flower, and some are becoming ripe at the same time. 
And those of the flowers which have a stem like a distaff pro- 
jecting out of the centre are sure to produce good seed ; but 
those which have no such stem are unproductive." And in 
the first book of the same treatise he says the same thing 
about the distaff, and about the flowers which are productive. 
And I am induced by these things, my mates, and by what 
Theophrastus says of the colour and smell and leaves of the 
fruit, to believe that the fruit meant by him is the citron ; 
and let no one of you marvel if he says that it is not good to 
eat ; since until the time of our grandfathers no one was used 
to eat it, but they put it away as a treasure in their chests 
along with their clothes. 

27. But that this plant really did come from that upper 
country into Greece, one may find asserted in the works of the 
Comic poets, who, speaking of its size, appear to point out 
the citron plainly enough. Antiphanes says, in his Boeotian — 

A. 'Tis silly to say a word about roast meat 

To men who're ne'er content. But now, my girl, 
Just take these apples. 

B. They arc fine to look at. 

A. Indeed they are, and good too. ye gods ! 
For this seed has arrived not long ago 

In Athens, coming from the mighty king. 

B. I thought it came from the Hesperides; 
For there they say the golden apples grow. 

A. They have but three. 

B. That which is very beautiful 
Is rare in every place, and so is dear. 

C. 28.] CITRON, 141 

And Eriphus, in his Melibcea, quotes these selfsame Iambics 
of Antiphanes, and then proceeds in his own words : — 

B. I thought, I swear by Dian, that they came 
From out the garden of the Hesperidss, 
For they, they say, do keep the golden apples. 

A . They have but three. 

B. That which is very beautiful 
Is i - are in every place, and so is dear. 

A. I'll sell you these now for a single penny, 
And even that I'll put down in the bill. 

B. Are they not pomegranates'? how fine they are ! 
A . Fine ! yes — they say that Venus did herself 

Plant this the parent tree in Cyprus, where it stands. 
Take it, my dear Berbeias. 

B. Thank you kindly. 
A. Take also these three; they are all I had. 

And if any one is able to contradict this, and to show that these 
descriptions are not meant to apply to the fruit which we now 
call the citron, let him bring forward some clearer testimonies. 
28. However, Phsenias the Eresian compels us to enter- 
tain the idea that, perhaps, the name may be meant for 
cedron, as from the cedar-tree. For, in the fifth book of his 
treatise on Plants, he says that the cedar has thorns around 
its leaves ; and that the same is the case with the citron 
is visible to everybody. But that the citron when eaten 
before any kind of food, whether dry or moist, is an antidote 
to all injurious effects, I am quite certain, having had that 
fact fully proved to me by my fellow-citizen, who was en- 
trusted with the government of Egypt. He had condemned 
some men to be given to wild beasts, as having been convicted 
of being malefactors, and such men he said were only fit to 
be given to beasts. And as they were going into the theatre 
appropriated to the punishment of robbers, a woman who was 
selling fruit by the wayside gave them out of pity some of the 
citron which she herself was eating, and they took it and ate 
it, and after a little while, being exposed to some enormous 
and savage beasts, and bitten by asps, they suffered no injury. 
At which the governor was mightily astonished. And at last, 
examining the soldier who had charge of them, whether they 
had eaten or drunk anything, when he learnt of him that 
some citron had been given to them without any evil design : 
on the next day he ordered some citron to be given to sorne 
of them again, and others to have none given to them. And 


those who eat the citron, though they were bitten, received no 
injury, but the others died immediately on being bitten. And 
this result being proved by repeated experiments, it was found 
that citron was an antidote to all sorts of pernicious poison. 
But if any one boils a whole citron with its seed in Attic 
honey, it is dissolved in the honey, and he who takes two or 
three mouthfuls of it early in the morning will never expe- 
rience any evil effects from poison. 

29. Now if any one disbelieves this, let him learn from 
Theopompus the Chian, a man of the strictest truth and who 
expended a great deal of money on the most accurate investi- 
gation of matters to be spoken of in his History. For he 
says, in the thirty-eighth book of his Histoiy, while giving an 
account of Clearchus, the tyrant of the Heracleans who were 
in Pontus, that he seized violently npon a number of people 
and gave a great many of them hemlock to drink.—'-' And 
as," says he, " they all knew that he was in the habit of com- 
pelling them to pledge him in this liquor, they never left 
their homes without first eating rue : for people who have 
eaten this beforehand take no harm from drinking aconite, — 
a poison which, they say, has its name from growing in a 
place" called Aconre, which is not far from Heraclea." When 
Democritus had said this they all marvelled at the efficacy of 
citron, and most of them ate it, as if they had had nothing to 
eat or drink before. But Pamphilus, in his Dialects, says that 
the Romans call it not KtrpLov, but Ktrpov. 

30. And after the viands which have been mentioned there 
were then brought unto us separately some large dishes of 
oysters, and other shell-fish, nearly all of which have been 
thought by Epicharmus worthy of being celebrated in his 
play of the Marriage of Hebe, in these words : — • 

Come, now, bring all kinds of shell-fish ; 

Lepades, aspedi, crabyzi, strabeli, cecibali, 

Tethunachia, balani, porphyry, and oysters with closed shells, 

Which are very difficult to open, but very easy to eat ; 

And mussels, and anarita?, and ceryces, and sciphydria, 

Which are very sweet to eat, but very prickly to touch ; 

And also the oblong solens. And bring too the black 

Cockle, which keeps the cockle-hunter on the stretch. 

Then too there are other cockles, and sand-eels, 

And periwinkles, unproductive fish, 

Which men entitle banishers of men, 

But which we tjods call white and beautiful. 

C. 31.] LIMPETS. 143 

31. And in the Muses it is written — 

There is the cockle, which we call the tellis ; 

Believe me, that is most delicious meat. 
Pevhaps he means that fish which is called the tellina, and 
which the Romans call the mitlus, — a fish which Aristophanes 
the grammarian names in his treatise on the Broken Scytale, 
and says that the lepas is a fish like that which is called the 
tellina. But Callias of Mitylene, in his discussion of the 
Limpet in Alcaeus, says that there is an ode in Alcaous of 
which the beginning is — 

child of the rock, and of the hoary sea ; 
and at the end of it there is the line — 

Of all limpets the sea-limpet most relaxes the mind. 
But Aristophanes writes the line with the word tortoise in- 
stead of limpet. And he says that Dica:archus made a 
great blunder when he interpreted the line of limpets ; and 
that the children when they get them in their mouths sing 
and play with them, just as idle boys among us do with the 
fish which we call tellina. And so, too, Sopater, the com- 
piler of Comicalities, says in his drama which is entitled 
the Eubulotheombrotus : — 

But stop, for suddenly a certain sound 

Of the melodious tellina strikes my ears. 
And in another place Epicharmus, in his Pyrrha and Pro- 
metheus, says — 

Just look now at this tellina, and behold 

This periwinkle and this splendid limpet. 

And in Sophron cockles are called melcenides. 

For now melaenides will come to us, 
Sent from a narrow harbour. 

And in the play which is called "The Clown and the Fisher- 
man," they are called the cherambe. And Archilochus also 
mentions the cherambe : and Ibycus mentions the. peri- 
winkle. And the periwinkle is called both avapinqs and 
uVapra?. And the shell being something like that of a cockle, 
it sticks to the rocks, just as limpets do. But Herondas, in 
his Coadjutrixos, says — 

Sticking to the rocks as a periwinkle. 
And /Eschylus, in his Persa?, says — 

Who has pltmdcr'd the islands producing the periwinkle % 
And Homer makes mention of the oyster. 


32. Diocles the Carystian, in his treatise on the Whole- 
somes, says that the best of all shell-fish, as aperient and 
diuretic food, are mussels, oysters, scallops, and cockles. And 
Archippus says, in his poem called " Fishes," — 

With limpets and sea-urchins and esckane, 
And with periwinkles and cockles. 

And Diocles says that the strongest of all shell-fish are cockles, 
purple-fish, and ceryces. But concerning ceryces Archippus 
sa} T s this — 

The ceryx, ocean's nursling, child of purple. 
But Speusippus, in the second book of his Similarities, says 
that ceryces, purple-fish, strabeli, and cockles, are all very 
nearly alike. And Sophocles makes mention of the shell- 
fish called strabeli in his Camici, in these words : — ■ 

Come now, my son, and look if we may find 
Some of the nice strabelus, ocean's child, j 

And again Speusippus enumerates separately in regular order 
the cockle, the periwinkle, the mussel, the pinna, the solens; 
and in another place he speaks of oysters and limpets. And 
Araros says, in his Campylion — 

These now are most undoubted delicacies, 
Cockles and solens ; and the crooked locusts 
Spring forth in haste like dolphins. 

And Sophron says, in his Mimi — 

A. What are these long cockles, my friend, 
Which you do think so much on 

B. Solens, to he sure. 
This too is the sweet-flesh'd cockle, dainty food, 
The dish much loved by widows. 

And Cratinus also speaks of the pinna in his Archilochi— 

She indeed like pinnas and sea oysters. 
And Philyllius, or Eunicus, or Aristophanes, in the Cities, 

A little polypus, or a small cuttle-fish, 
A crab, a crawfish, oysters, cockles, 
Limpets and solens, mussels and pinnas ; 
Periwinkles too, from Mitylcne take ; 
Let us have two sprats, and mullet, ling, 
And conger-eel, and perch, and black fish. 

But Agiastos, and Dercylus, in his Argolici, call the strabeli 
d(jTpdjir]\oL ; speaking of them as suitable to play upon like 
a trumpet. 

C. 34.] COCKLES. 145 

33. But you may find cockles spoken of both in the 
masculine and feminine gender. Aristophanes says, in his 
Babylonians — 

They all gaped on each other, and were like 
To cockles (Koyxai) roasted on the coals. 

And Teleclides, in his Hesiodi, says, " Open a cockle (Ko'y^) ;" 
and Sophron, in his Actresses, says — 

And then the cockles (Koyxai) as &t one command 
All yawned on us, and each display'd its flesh. 

But iEschylus uses the word Koy^os in the masculine gender, 
in his Glaucus Pontius, and says — 

Cockles (kojxoi), muscles, oysters. 

And Aristonymus, in his Theseus, says — 

There was a cockle (kojxos) and other fish too drawn from the sea 
At the same time, and hy the same net. 

And Phrynichus uses the word in the same way in his Satyrs. 
But Icesius, the Erasistratean, says that some cockles are 
rough, and some royal ; and that the rough have a disagree- 
able juice, and afford but little nourishment, and are easily 
digested; and that people who are hunting for the purple- 
fish use them as bait: but of the smooth ones those are 
best which are the largest, in exact proportion to their size. 
And Hegesander, in his Memorials, says that the rough 
cockles are called by the Macedonians coiyci, but by the 
Athenians crii. 

34. Now Icesius says that limpets are more digestible 
than those shell-fish which have been already mentioned ; but 
that oysters are not so nutritious as limpets, and are filling, 
but nevertheless are more digestible. 

But of mussels, the Ephesian ones, and those which re- 
semble them, are, as to their juicy qualities, superior to the 
periwinkles, but inferior to the cockles; but they have more 
effect :is diuretics than as aperients. But some of them are 
like squills, with a very disagreeable juice, and without any 
flavour; but there is a kind which is smaller than they are, 
and which are rough outside, which are more diuretic, and 
full of a more pleasant juice than the kind which resembles 
squills: but they are less nutritious, by reason of their sizes, 
and also because their nature is inferior. But the necks of 



the ceryces are exceedingly good for the stomach, and are 
not so nutritious as mussels and cockles and periwinkles; but 
for people who have a weak stomach, and who do not easily 
expel the food into the cavity of the bowels, they are useful, 
inasmuch as they do not easily turn on the stomach. For those 
things which are confessedly digestible are, on the contrary, 
very unwholesome for people of such a constitution, being- 
very easily inclined to turn on the stomach, because they are 
tender and easily dissolved. On which account the bags con- 
taining their entrails are not suited to vigorous stomachs, but 
they are very good for those whose bowels are in a weak 
state. But what are more nutritious than the others, and far 
nicer in taste, are the entrails of the purple-fish ; though they 
certainly are somewhat like the squill. For indeed all shell- 
fish are of the same character; but the purple-fish and the 
solen have this peculiar characteristic, that if they are hoiled 
they yield a thick juice. But the necks of the purple-fish, 
when boiled by themselves, are exceedingly good for bringing 
the stomach into a good condition. And Posidippus speaks 
of them in his Locrians in these terms : — 

It is time now to eat eels and crabs, 
Cockles, and fresh sea-urchins, and fish sounds, 
•And pinnas, and the necks of fish, and mussels. 

35. Balani, if they are of the larger sort, are easily digested, 
and are good for the stomach. But otaria (and they are pro- 
duced in the island called Pharos, which is close to Alexandria) 
are more nutritious than any of the before-mentioned fish, but 
they are not easily secreted. But Antigonus the Carystian. 
in his book upon Language, says that this kind of oyster is 
called by the JEolians the Ear of Venus. Pholades are veiy 
nutritious, but they have a disagreeable smell ; but common 
oysters are very like all these sorts of shell-fish, and are more 
nutritious. There are also some kinds which are called wild 
oysters ; and they are very nutritious, but they have not a 
good smell, and moreover they have a very indifferent flavour. 
But Aristotle, in his treatise about Animals, says, " Oysters 
are of all the following kinds: there are the pinna, the mussel, 
the oyster, the" cteis, the solen, the cockle, the limpet, the 
small oyster, the balanus. And of migratory fish there are 
the purple-fish, the sweet purple-fish, the sea-urchin, the stro- 
belus. Now the ctcis has a rough shell, marked in streaks; 

,c. 3G.] shell-fish. 147 

but the oyster has no streaks, and a smooth shell. The pinna 
has a smooth mouth ; but the large oyster has a wide mouth, 
and is bivalve, and has a smooth shell. But the limpet is 
univalve, and has a smooth shell • and the mussel has a united 
shell. The solen and balanus are univalve, and have a smooth 
shell; and the cockle is a mixture of both kinds." Epametus 
also says, in his Cookery Book, that the interior part of the 
pinna is called mecon. But in the fifth book of his treatise 
on the Parts of Animals, Aristotle says, " The purple-fish are 
born about spring, and the ceryces at the end of the winter. 
And altogether," says he, " all shell-fish appear in the spring 
to have what are called eggs; and in the autumn, too, except 
those kinds of sea-urchins which are good to eat. And these 
fish indeed have eggs in the greatest number at those seasons, 
but they are never without them ; and they have them in the 
greatest numbers at the time of full moon, and in the warm 
weather, with the exception of those fish which are found in 
the Euripus of the Pyrrheeans; for they are best in the 
winter, and they are small, but full of eggs. And nearly all 
the cockle tribe appear to breed in like manner at about the 
same season." 

36. And continuing the subject, the philosopher says again. 
" The purple-fish therefore being all collected together in the 
spring at the same place, make what is called meiicera. And 
that is something like honeycomb, but not indeed so elegant, 
but it is as if a great number of the husks of white vetches 
were fastened together; and there is no open passage in any 
of them : nor are the purple-fish born of this meiicera, but 
they, and nearly all other shell-fish, are produced of mud and 
putrefaction; and this is, as it were, a kind of purification 
both for them and for the purple-fish, for they too make this 
meiicera. And when they begin to make it, they emit a Borl 
of sticky mass, from which those things grow which resemble 
husks. All these are eventually separated, and they drop 
blood on the ground. And in the place where they do so, 
there are myriads of little purple-fish born, adhering to one 
another in the ground, and the old purple-fish arc caught 
while carrying them. And if they are caught before they 
have produced their young, they sometimes produce them in 
the very pots in which they are caught when collected toge- 
gether in them, and the young look like a bunch of | 


And there ai - e many different kinds of purple-fish ; and some 
of them are of large size, like those which are found near 
Segeum, and near Lesteum; and some are small, like those 
which are found in the Euripus, and around Caria. And 
those in the gulfs are large and rough, and most of them are 
of a black colour, but some of them arc rather red ; and 
some of the large ones even weigh a mina. But those which 
are found on the shore and around the coasts are of no great 
size, but are of a red coloiu- : and again, those in the waters 
exposed to the north wind are black, and those in the waters 
exposed to the south wind are generally red." 

37. But Apollodorus the Athenian, in his Commentaries 
on Sophron, having first quoted the saying, " More greedy 
than a purple-fish," says that it is a proverb, and that some 
say that it applies to the dye of purple ; for that whatever 
that dye touches it attracts to itself, and that it imbues 
everything which is placed near it with the brilliancy of its 
colour : but others say that it applies to the animal. " And 
they are caught," says Aristotle, "in the spring; but they 
are not caught during the dog-days, for then they do not 
feed, but conceal themselves and bury themselves in holes ; 
and they have a mark like a flower on them between the belly 
and the throat. The fish called the ceryx has a covering of 
nearly the same sort as all the other animals of the snail kind 
from its earliest birth ; and they feed by putting oiit what we 
call their shell from under this covering. And the purple- 
fish has a tongue of the size of a finger or larger, by which it 
feeds; and it pierces even shell-fish, and can pierce its own 
shell. But the purple-fish is very long-lived ; and so is the 
ceryx : they live about six years, and their growth is known 
by the rings in their shell. But cockles, and cheme-cockles, 
and solens, and periwinkles, are born in sandy places. 

38. But the pinnsB spring from the bottom of the sea. 
And they have with them a fish called the pinnophylax. or 
guard of the pinna, which some call KaptSios, and others 
KopKLVLos; and if they lose him, they are soon destroyed. But 
Pamphilus the Alexandrian, in his treatise on Names, says 
that he is born at the same time Avith the pinna. But Chry- 
sippus the Solensian, in the fifth book of his treatise on the 
Beautiful and Pleasure, says, " The pinna and the guard of 
the pinna assist one another, not being able to remain apart. 

C. 39.] SIIELL-FISH. 149 

Now the pinna is a kind of oyster, but the guard of the 
pinna is a small crab : and the pinna having opened its shell, 
remains quiet, watching the fish who are coming towards it ; 
but the guard of the pinna, standing by when anything comes 
near, bites the pinna, so as to give it a sort of sign ; and the 
pinna being bitten, closes its shell, and in this manner the 
two share together what is caught inside the pinna's shell. 
But some say that the guard is bora at the same time as the 
pinna, and that they originate in one seed." And again, 
Aristotle says, " All the fish of the oyster kind are generated 
in the mud, — oysters in slimy mud, cockles in sandy mud, 
and so on ; but the small oyster and the balanus, and other 
fish which come near the surface, such as limpets and peri- 
winkles, are born in the fissures of the rocks. And some 
fish which have not shells are born in the same way as those 
which have shells, — as the sea-nettle, the sponge, and others, 
— in the crevices of the rocks." 

39. Now, of the sea-nettle there are two kinds. For some 
live in hollows, and are never separated from the rocks ; but 
some live on smooth and level ground, and do separate them- 
selves from what they are attached to, and move their 
quarters. But Eupolis, in the Autolycus, calls the kvlSt], or 
sea-nettle, aKoXyfa]. And Aristophanes, in his Phcenissa!, 
Know that pot-herLs first were given, 
And then the rough sea-nettles (a.K<i\ri<pa.i) ; 

and in his Wasps he uses the same word. And Pherecrates, 
in his Deserters, says — 

I'd rather wear a crown of sea-nettles (dKa\T)<pai). 

And Diphilus the Siphnian, a physician, says, " But the sea- 
nettle (aKa\rjrf>rj) is good for the bowels, diuretic, and a 
strengthener of the stomach, but it makes those who collect 
them itch violently, unless they anoint their hands before- 
hand. And it is really injurious to those who hunt for it; 
by whom it has been called aKaXij^>r], by a slight alteration of 
its original name. And perhaps that is the reason why the 
plant the nettle has rrad the same name given to it. For it 
was named by euphemism on the principle of antiphrasis, — 
for it is not gentle and u-n-aXi} rrj d<f>fj, tender to the touch, 
but very rough and disagreeable." Philippides also mentions 


the sea-nettle (calling it aKaX-ifyr)) in his Amphiaraus, speaking 
as follows : — 

He put before me oysters and sea-nettles and limpets. 

And it is jested upon in the Lysistrata of Aristophanes — 
But, you most valiant of the oyster race, 
Offspring of that rough dam, the sea-nettle ; 

for the rfjdos and the oWpeov are the same. And the word 
Trjdos is here confused in a comic manner with r-jtirj, a grand- 
mother, and with /jarjTrjp, a mother. 

40. And concerning the rest of the oyster tribe, Diphilus 
says this : " Of the thick cheraae, those of smaller size, which 
have tender flesh, are called oysters, and they are good for 
the stomach, and easily digested. But the thick ones, which 
are called royal chemse by some people, and which are also 
called the huge chemse, arc nutritions, slow to be digested, 
very juicy, good for the stomach; and especially do these 
qualities belong to the larger ones. Of tellinse there are num- 
bers in Canopus, and they are very common at the place 
Avhere the Nile begins to rise up to the higher ground. And 
the thinnest of these arc the royal ones, and they are digest- 
ible and light, and moreover nutritious. But those which 
are taken in the rivers are the sweetest. Mussels, again, are 
moderately nutritious, and are digestible and diuretic. But 
the best are the Ephesian kind; and of them those which are 
taken about the end of autumn. But the female mussel is 
smaller than the male, and is sweet and jiiicy, and moreover 
nutritious. But the solens, as they are called by some, though 
some call them avXot and SoVotxe?, or pipes, and some, too, call 
them owxts, or claws, are very juicy, but the juice is bad, and 
they are very glutinous. And the male fish are striped, and 
not all of one colour ; but they are very wholesome for people 
affected with the stone, or with any complaint of the bladder. 
But the female fish is all of one colour, and much sweeter 
than the male : and they are eaten boiled and fried ; but 
they are best of all when roasted on the coals till their shells 
open." And the people who collect this sort of oyster are 
called Solenistse, as Pheenias the Eresian relates in his book 
which is entitled, The Killing of Tyrants by way of Punish- 
ment; where he speaks as follows: — " Philoxonus, who was 
called the Solenist, became a tyrant from having been a de- 
magogue. In the beginning he got his livelihood by being 

C. 41.] SHELL-FISH. 101 

a fisherman and a hunter after solens; and so having made a 
little money, he advanced, and got a good property." — " Of the 
periwinkle the white are the most tender, and they have no 
disagreeable smell, and have a good effect on the bowels; but 
of the black and red kinds the larger are exceedingly nice to 
the taste, especially those that are caught in the spring. And 
as a general rule all of them are good for the stomach, and 
digestible^ and good for the bowels, when eaten with cinna- 
mon and pepper." Archippus also makes mention of them 
in his Fishes — 

With limpets and with sea-urchins, and escharse, 
With needle-fishes, and with periwinkles. 

But the fish called balani, or acorns, because of their resem- 
blance to the acorn of an oak, differ according to the places 
where they are found. For the Egyptian balani are sweet, 
tender, delicious to the taste, nutritious, very juicy indeed, 
diuretic, and good for the bowels ; but other kinds have a 
Salter taste. The fish called wia, or ears, are most nutritious 
when fried ; but the pholades are exceedingly pleasant to the 
taste, but have a bad smell, and an injurious juice. 

41. " Sea-urchins are tender, full of pleasant juice, with a 
strong smell, filling, and apt to turn on the stomach; but if 
eaten w T ith sharp mead, and parsley, and mint, they are good 
for the stomach, and sweet, and full of pleasant juice. But 
the sweet-tasted arc the red ones, and the apple-coloured, and 
the thickest, and those which if you scrape their flesh emit 
a milky liquid. But those which are found near Cephalenia 
and around Icaria, and in the Adriatic are — at least many of 
them are — rather bitter ; but those which are taken on the 
rock of Sicily arc very aperient to the bowels." But Aris- 
totle says that there are many kinds of sea-urchins : one of 
which is eaten, that, namely, in which is found what are called 
eggs. But the other two kinds are those which are called 
Spatangi, and those which are called Brysee : and Sophron men- 
tions the spatangi, and so does Aristophanes in his Olcades, 
using the following language : — 

Tearing up, and separating, and licking 
My sj.ataugc from the bottom. 

And Epichaimus, in his Marriage of Hebe, speaks of the sea- 
urchins, and says — 


Tlien came the crabs, sea-urchins, and all fish 
Which know not how to swim in the briny sea, 
But only walk on foot along the bottom. 

And Demetrius the Scepsian, in the twenty-sixth hook of his 
Trojan Preparation, sa} 7 s that a Lacedaemonian once being 
invited to a banquet, when some sea-urchins were put before 
him on the table, took one, not knowing the proper manner 
in which it should be eaten, and not attending to those who 
were in the company to see how they ate it. And so he put 
it in his mouth with the skin or shell and all, and began to 
crush the sea-urchin with^ his teeth ; and being exceedingly 
disgusted with what he was eating, and not perceiving how to 
get rid of the roughness of the taste, he said, " what nasty 
food ! I will not now be so effeminate as to eject it, but I will 
never take you again." But the sea-urchins, and indeed the 
whole echinus tribe, whether living on land or sea, can take 
care of and protect themselves against those who try to catch 
them, putting out their thorns, like a sort of palisade. And 
to this Ion the Chian bears testimony in his Phoenix or in 
his Caoneus, saying — 

But while on land I more approve the conduct 

Of the great lion, than the dirty tricks 

Of the sea-urchin ; he, when he perceives 

The impending onset of superior foes, 

llolls himself up, wrapp'd in his cloak of thorns, 

Impregnable in bristly panoply. 

42. "Of limpets," says Diphilus, "some are very small, and 
some are like oysters. But they are hard, and give but little 
juice, and are not very sharp in taste. But they have a 
pleasant flavour, and are easily digested; and when boiled 
they are particularly nice. But the pinnae are diuretic, 
nutritious, not very digestible, or manageable. And the 
ceryecs are like them ; the necks of which fish are good for 
the stomach, but not very digestible ; on which account they 
arc good for people with weak stomachs, as being strengthen- 
ing ; but they are difficult to be secreted, and they are mode- 
rately nutritious. Now the parts of them which are called 
the mecon, which are in the lower part of their bellies, are 
tender and easily digested ; on which account they also are 
good for people who are weak in the stomach. But the 
purple-fish are something between the pinna and the ceryx ; 

e. 44.] SHELL-FISH. 153 

the necks of which are very juicy, and very pleasant to the 
palate ; but the other parts of them are briny, and yet sweet, 
and easily digestible, and mix very well with other food. 
But oysters are generated in rivers, and in lakes, and in the 
sea. But the best are those which belong to the sea, when there 
is a lake or a river close at hand : for they are full of pleasant 
juice, and are larger and sweeter than others : but those which 
are near the shore, or near rocks, without any mixture of 
mud or water, are small, harsh, and of pungent taste. But 
the oysters which are taken in the spring, and those which 
are taken about the beginning of the summer, are better, and 
full, and have a sort of sea taste, not unmixed with sweetness, 
and are good for the stomach and easily secreted ; and when 
boiled up with mallow, or sorrel, or with fish, or by them- 
selves, they are nutritious, and good for the bowels. 

43. But Mnesitheus the Athenian, in his treatise on Comes- 
tibles, says — " Oysters, and cockles, and mussels, and similar 
things, are not very digestible in their meat, because of a 
sort of saline moisture which there is in them, on which 
account, when eaten raw, they produce an effect on the bowels 
by reason of their saltness. But when boiled they get rid of 
all, or at all events of most, of their saltness, which they 
infuse into the water which boils them. On which account, 
the water in which any of the oyster tribe are boiled is very 
apt to have a strong effect in disordering the bowels. But 
the meat of the oysters when boiled, makes a great noise 
when it has been deprived of its moisture. But roasted 
oysters, when any one roasts them cleverly, are very free 
from any sort of inconvenience; for all the evil properties 
are removed by fire ; on which account they are not as in- 
digestible as raw ones, and they have all the moisture which 
is originally contained in them dried up; and it is the 
moisture which has too great an effect in relaxing the bowels. 
But every oyster supplies a moist and somewhat indigestible 
kind of nourishment, and they are not at all good as 
diuretics. But the sea-nettle, and the eggs of sea-urchins, and 
such things as that, give a moist nourishment, though not in 
any great quantity ; but they have a tendency to relax the 
bowels, and they are diuretic. 

44. Nicauder the Colophonian, in his book on the Farm, 
enumerates all the following kinds of oysters- 


And all the oysters -which the foaming brine 

Beneath its vasty bosom cherishes, 

The periwinkle, whilk, pelorias, 

The mussel, and the slimy tellina, 

And the deep shell which makes the pinna's hole. 

And Archestratus says, in his Gastronomy — 

iEnus has mussels fine, Abydus too 

Is famous for its oysters ; Parium produces 

Crabs, the bears of the sea, and Mitylene periwinkles; 

Ambracia in all kinds of fish abounds, 

And the boar-fish sends forth : and in its narrow strait 

Messene cheri>hes the largest cockles. 

In Ephesus you shall catch chemje, which are not bad, 

And Chalcedon will give you oysters. But may Jupiter 

Destroy the race of criers, both the fish born in the sea, 

And those wretches which infest the city forum ; 

All except one man, for he is a friend of mine, 

Dwelling in Lesbos, abounding in grapes; and his name isAgatho. 

And Philyllius, or whoever is the author of the book called 
The Cities, says, " Chemae, limpets, solens, mussels, pinnas 
and periwinkles from Methymna :" but oa-rpeiov was the only 
form of the name for all these fish among the ancients. 
Cratinus says in his Archilochi — 

Like the pinna or the oyster (oa-rpeiou). 
And Epicharmus says, in his Marriage of Hebe — 

Oysters which have grown together. 
Where he uses the same form oarpeiov. But afterwards the 
form ocrrpeov like opveov began to be used. Plato, in his 
Phaxlrus, says, " bound together like oysters" (oorpeov). 
And in the tenth book of his Politia, he says, " oysters 
(oo-rpca) stuck together;" "oysters (oarped) and seaweed." But 
the peloris, or giant mussel, were so named from the word 
7reAwptos, vast. For it is much larger than the cheme, and 
very different from it. But Aristotle says that they are 
generated in the sand. And Ion the Chian mentions the 
chema, in his Epidemise, and perhaps the shell-fish got the 
name of XVM ^^P" to K£ XQ v * vat > from opening their mouths." 

45. But concerning the oysters which are grown in the 
Indian Ocean ; (for it is not unreasonable to speak of them, 
on account of the use of pearls ;) Theophrastus speaks in his 
treatise on Precious Stones, and says, " But among the stones 
which are much admired is that which is called the pearl, 
being transparent in its character; and they make very 


expensive necklaces of them. They are found in an oyster 
which is something like the pinna, only less. And in size 
the pearl resemhles a large fish's eye." Androsthenes, too, in 
his Voyage along the Coast of India, writes in these terms— 
" Bat of strombi, and chserini, and other shell-fish, there are 
many different varieties, and they are very different from the 
shell-fish which we have. And they have the purple-fish, and 
a great multitude of other kinds of oysters. There is also 
one kind which is peculiar to those seas, which the natives 
call the berberi, from which the precious stone called the pearl 
comes. And this pearl is very expensive in Asia, being sold 
in Persia and the inland countries for its weight in gold. 
And the appearance of the oyster which contains it is much 
the same as that of the cteis oyster, only its shell is not 
indented, but smooth and shaggy. And it has not two 
ears as the cteis oyster has, but only one. The stone is 
engendered in the flesh of the oyster, just as the measles are 
in pork. And it is of a very golden colour, so as not easily 
to be distinguished from gold when it is put by the side of 
it; but some pearls are of a silvery appearance, and some 
are completely white like the eyes of fish. But Chares of 
Mitylene, in the seventh book of his Histories of Alexander, 
says — "There is caught in the Indian sea, and also off the 
coast of Armenia, and Persia, and Susiana, and Babylonia, a 
fish very like an oyster; and it is large and oblong, containing 
within the shell flesh which is plentiful and white, and verj 
fragrant, from which the men pick out white bones which 
they call the pearl. And they make of them necklaces and 
chains for the hands and feet, of winch the Persians are wrv 
fond, as arc the Medes and all Asiatics, esteeming them as 
much more valuable than golden ornaments." 

46. But Isidorus the Characcne, in his Description of 
Parthia, says, that " in the Persian sea there is an island 
Avhere a great number of pearls are found ; on which account 
there are quantities of boats made of rushes all about the 
island, from which men leap into the sea, and dive down 
twenty fathoms, and bring up two shells. And they say that 
■ I'll there is a long continuance of thunder-storms, and 
heavy falla of rain, then the pinna produces most young, and 
then, too, the greatest quantity of pearls is engendered, and 
'• too, of the finest size and quality. In the winter 


the pinna is accustomed to descend into chambers at the 
very bottom of the sea; but in summer they swim about all 
night with their shells open, which they close in the day-time : 
and as many as stick to the crags, or rocks, throw out roots, 
and remaining fixed there, they generate pearls. But they 
are supported and nourished by something which adheres to 
their flesh : and this also sticks to the mouth of the cockle, 
having talons and bringing it food : and it is something 
like a little crab, and is called the guardian of the pinna. 
And its flesh penetrates through the centre of the cockle- 
shell, like a root : and the pearl being generated close to it, 
grows through the solid portion of the shell, and keeps 
growing as long as it continues to adhere to the shell. But 
when the flesh gets under the excrescence, and cutting its way 
onwards, gently separates the pearl from the shell, then 
"when the pearl is surrounded by flesh, it is no longer 
nourished so far as to grow at all; but the flesh makes it 
smoother, and more transparent, and more pure. And so, 
too, the pinna, which lives at the bottom, engenders the most 
transparent sort of pearl; and it produces them also very 
pure and of large size. But that which keeps near the sur- 
face, and is constantly rising, is of a smaller size and a worse 
colour, because it is affected by the rays of the sun. But 
those who hunt for pearls are in danger when they hastily 
put their hand into the opening of the shell, for immediately 
the fish closes its shell, and very often their fingers are sawn 
off; and sometimes they die immediately. But all those 
who put in their hand sideways easily draw off the shells 
from the rock. And Menander makes mention of Emeralds 
also, in his Little Boy — 

There must be an emerald and a sardonyx. 
And the word for emerald is more correctly written /j.dpay8os, 
without a a: For it is derived from the verb papfjiaipw, to 
glisten, because it is a transparent stone. 

47. After this conversation some dishes were set on the 
table, full of many kinds of boiled meat : feet, and head, 
and ears, and loins ; and also entrails, and intestines, and 
tongues ; as is the custom at the places which are called boiled 
meat shops at Alexandria. For, Ulpian, the word k^Oo-n-wXtov, 
a boiled meat shop, is used by Posidippus, in his Little 
Boy. And again, while they were inquiring who had ever 

c. 47.] tripe. 157 

named any of these dishes, one of the party said, Aristo- 
phanes mentions entrails as things which are eatable, in his 
Knights — 

I say that you are selling tripe and paunches 

Which to the revenue no tithe have paid. 

And presently after he adds — 

Why, my friend, hinder me from washing my paunches, 
And from selling my sausages '.' Why do you laugh at me ] 

And again he says — 

But I, as soon as I have swallow'd down 

A bullock's paunch, and a dish of pig's tripe, 

And drunk some broth, won't stay to wash my hands, 

But will cut the throats of the orators, and will confuse Nicias. 

And again he says — 

But the Virgin Goddess born of the mighty Father 
Gives you some boiled meat, extracted from the broth, 
And a slice of paunch, and tripe, and entrails. 

And Cratinns, in his Plnti, mentions jawbones of meat — 

Fighting for a noble jawbone of beef. 
And Sophocles, in the Amycus, says — 

And he places on the table tender jawbones. 
And Plato, in his Timajus, writes, " And he bound up some 
jawbones for them, so as to give the appearance of a whole 
face." And Xenophon says, in his book on Horsemanship, "A 
small jawbone closely pressed." But some call it, not o-tayiu/, 
but vaywv, spelling the word with a v, saying that it is derived 
from the word i'?. Epicharmus also speaks of tripe, ^opSal 
as we call it, but he calls it opvai, having given one of his 
plays the title of Orya. And Aristophanes, in his Clouds, 
writes — 

Let them prepare a dish of tripe, for me 
To set before these wise philosophers. 

And Cratinus, in his Pytina, says — 

How fine, aays he, is now this slice of tripe. 
And Eupolis speaks of it also, in his Goats. But Alexis, either 
in his Lcucadia or in his Runaways, says — 

Then came a slice and good large help of tripe. 
And Antiphanes, in his Marriage, says — > 

Having cut out a piece of the middle of the tripe. 


48. "And as for feet, and ears, and even noses of beasts, 
they are all mentioned by Alexis, in his Crateua or the 
Physic-seller. And I will adduce a slight proof of that 
presently, which contains a good many of the names about 
which we are inquiring. Theophilus says, in his Pancratiast — 

A. There are here near three minas' weight of meat 
Well boiled. 

B. What next 1 

A. There is a calf's nose, and 
A heel of bacon, and four large pig's-feet. 

B. A noble dish, by Hercules ! 

A. And three calves-feet. 
And Anaxilas says, in his Cooks — 

A. I would much rather roast a little fish, 
Than here repeat whole plays of JEschylus. 

B. What do you mean by little fish ? Do you intend 
To treat your friends as invalids ? 'Twere better 
To boil the extremities of eatable animals, 
Their feet and noses. 

And Anaxilas says, in the Circe — 

For having an unseemly snout of pig, 
My dear Cinesias. 

And in the Calypso — 

Then I perceived I bore a swine's snout. 

Anaxandrides has mentioned also ears in the Satyrus. And 

Axionicus says, in his Chalcis — 

I am making soup, 
Putting in well-warm'd fish, and adding to them 
Some scarce half-eaten fragments; and the pettitoes 
Of a young porker, and his ears ; the which I sprinkle 
With savoury assafoetida; and then 
I make the whole into a well-flavour'd sausage, 
A meat most saleable. Then do I add a slice 
Of tender tripe ; and a snout soak'd in vinegar. 
So that the guests do all confess, the second day 
Has beaten e'en the wedding-day itself. 

And Aristophanes says, in his Proagon — 

Wretch that I am, I've eaten tripe, my son : 
Hoav can I bear to see a roasted snout '.' 

And Pherecrates says, in his Trifles — 

Is not this plainly now a porker's snout? 
And there is a place which is called 'Puy^os, or Snout, near 
Stratos, in iEtolia, as Polybius testifies, in the sixth book of 
his Histories. And Stesichorus says, in his Boar Hunting — 

To hide the sharpen'd snout beneath the earth. 

c. 49.] tig's feet. 159 

And we have already said that the word pwyxo? properly 
applies only to the snout of a swine ; but that it is sometimes 
used for the nose of other animals, Archipphus has proved, 
saying in jest, in his Second Amphitryon, of the human 
face — 

And this, too, though you have so long a nose (pvyxos). 

And Araros says, in his Adonis — 

For the god turns his nose towards us. 
49. And Aristophanes makes mention of the extremities 
of animals as forming a common dish, in his vEolosicon — 

And of a truth, plague take it, I have boil'd 
Four tender pettitoei: for you for dinner. 

And in his Gerytades he says — 

Pig's pettitoes, and Lread, and crabs. 

And Antiphanes says, in his Corinthia — 

A. And then you sacrifice a pig's extremities 
To Yenus, — what a joke ! 

B. That is your ignorance ; 
For she in Cyprus is so fond of pigs, 
master, that she drove away the herd 
Of swine from off the dunghill where they fed, 
And made the cows eat dirt instead of them. 

But Callimachus testifies that, in reality, a pig is sacrificed to 
Venus; or perhaps it is Zenodotus who says so in his 
Historic Records, writing thus, " The Argives sacrifice a pig to 
Venus, and the festival at which this takes place is culled 
Hysteria." And Pherecrates says, in his Miners — 

But whole pig's feet of the most tender flavour 
Were placed at hand in dishes gaily adorned, 
And boil'd ears, and other extremities. 

And Alexis says, in his Dice Players — 

But when we had nearly come to an end of breakfast, 
And eaten all the ears and pettitoes. 

And he says again, in his Pammchis or in his Wool-weavers — 
This meat is but half roasted, and the fragments 
Are wholly wasted ; see this conger eel, 
How badly boiled ; and as for the pettitoes, 
They now are wholly spoilt. 

And Pherecrates also speaks of boiled feet, in his Slave-master — 

A . T'll us, I pray you now then, how the supper 
AVill be prepared. 

B. Undoubtedly I will. 


In the first place, a dish of well-minced eel ; 

Then cuttle-fish, and lamb, a slice of rich 

Well-made black pudding ; then some pig's feet boil'd ; 

Some liver, and a loin of mutton, 

And a mighty number of small birds ; and cheese 

In honey steep'd, and many a slice of meat. 

And Antiphanes says, in liis Parasite — 

A. The well-warm' d legs of pigs." 

B. A noble dish, 
I swear by Vesta. 

A. Then some boiled cheese 
Bubbled upon the board. 

And Ecphantides says, in his Satyrs — 

It is no great hardship, if it must be so, 
To buy and eat the boil'd feet of a pig. 

And Aristophanes speaks of tongue as a dish, in his Tryers, 
in the following words — 

I've had anchovies quite enough ; for I 

Am stretch'd almost to bursting while I eat 

Such rich and luscious food. But bring me something 

Which shall take off the taste of all these dainties. 

Bring me some liver, or a good large slice 

Of a young goat. And if you can't get that, 

Let me at least have a rib or a tongue, 

Or else the spleen, or entrails, or the tripe 

Of a young porker in last autumn born ; 

And with it some hot rolls. 

50. Now when all this conversation had taken place on 
these subjects, the physicians who were present would not 
depart without taking their share in it. For Dionysiocles 
said, Mnesithens the Athenian, in his book about Comes- 
tibles, has said, " The head and feet of a pig have not a great 
deal in them which is rich and nutritious." And Leouidas 
writes, "Demon, in the fourth book of his Attica, says that 
Thymcetes, his younger brother, slew Aphonias, who was 
king of Athens, he himself being a bastard, and usurped 
the kingdom. And in his time, Melanthus the Messenian 
aviis banished from his country, and consulted the Pythia 
as to where he should dwell : and she said wherever he was 
first honoured by gifts of hospitality, when men set before 
him feet and a head for supper. And this happened to him 
at Eleusis ; for as the priestesses happened at the time to be 
solemnizing one of their national festivals; and to have con- 


sumecl all the meat, and as nothing but the head and feet of 
the victim were left, they sent them to Melanthius. 

51. Then a paunch 1 was brought in, which may be looked 
upon as a sort of metropolis, and the mother of the sous of 
Hippocrates, whom I know to have been turned into ridicule 
by the comic poets on account of their swinish disposition. 
And Ulpian, looking upon it, said, — Come now, my friends, 
w T hom does the paunch lie with 1 ? For we have now been 
minding the belly long enough, and it is time for us now 
to have some real conversation. And as for these cynics, I 
bid them be silent, now that they have eaten abundantly, 
unless they like to gnaw some of the cheeks, and heads, and 
bones, which no one will grudge their enjoying like dogs, 
as they are ; for that is what they are, and what they are 
proud of being called. 

The remnants to the dogs they 're wont to throw, 
Euripides says, in his Cretan Women. For they wish to 
eat and drink everything, never considering what the divine 
Plato says in his Protagoras, "That disputing about poetry, is 
like banquets of low and insignificant persons. For they, 
because they are unable in their drinking pai'ties to amuse one 
another by their own talents, and by their own voices and 
conversation, by reason of their ignorance and stupidity, make 
female flute-players of great consequence, hiring at a high price 
sounds which they cannot utter themselves, I mean the music 
of flutes, and by means of this music they are able to^get on 
with one another. But where the guests are gentlemanly, and 
accomplished, and well educated, you will not see any flute- 
playing women, or dancing women, or female harpers, but 
they are able themselves to pass the time with one another 
agreeably, without all this nonsense and trifling, by means of 
their own voices, speaking and hearing one another in turn 
with all decency, even if they drink a great deal of wine." 
And this is what all you Cynics do, Cynulcus ; you drink, 
or rather you get drunk, and then, like flute-players and 
dancing-women, you prevent all the pleasure of conversa- 
tion: "living," to use the words of the same Plato, which 
he utters in his Philebus, " not the life of a man, but of some 
mollusk, or of some other marine animal which has life in a 
shell-encased body." 

1 The pun in the original cannot be preserved in a translation. Tho 
Greek word for paunch is jur,vpa. 
VOL. I. — AT1I. M 


52. And Cynulcus, being very angry, said, — You glutton 
of a man, whose god is your belly, you know nothing else 
yourself, nor are you able to keep up an uninterrupted con- 
versation, nor to recollect any history, nor to begin anything 
which may tend to throw a charm on any discussion. But 
you have been wasting all the time with questions of this sort, 
" Is there such and such a statement 1 Is there not 1 Has such 
and such a thing been said ? Has it not been said 1 " And 
you attack and examine closely everything which occurs in 
anything which is said, collecting all your thorns — living 

As if among thistles, or plants of rough borage — 

never collecting any sweet flowers. Are you not the person 
who call that which is called by the Romans strena, being so 
named in accordance with some national tradition, and which 
is accustomed to be given to friends, epinomis ? And if you 
do this in imitation of Plato, we should be glad to learn it; 
but if you find that any one of the ancients has ever spoken 
in such a manner, tell us who it is who has. For I know 
that there is some part of a trireme which is called epinomis, 
as Apollonius states in his treatise on what relates to 
Triremes. Are not you the man who called your new 
stout cloak, which had never yet been used by you, (for the 
proper name of it, my friend, is really cfxuvoXrjs,) useless? 
saying — " My slave Leucus, give me that useless cloak." 
Aud once going to the bath, did not you say to a man who 
asked you, Whither now? I am going, said you, airo\ovfji.evos 
(pronouncing the word as if it meant to kill yourself rather 
than to bathe). And that very day your beautiful garment 
was purloined from j r ou by some bath robbers; so that there 
was great laughter in the bath, at this useless cloak being 
hunted for. At another time too, my dear friends, (for 
the plain truth shall be told you,) he tripped against a stone 
and dislocated his knees. And when he was cured he again 
came into public : and when men asked him, What is the 
matter, Ulpian 1 he said it was a black eye. And I (for 
I was with him at the time) being then unable to restrain 
my laughter, got anointed under the eyes with some thick 
ointment by a physician who was a friend of mine, and then 
said to those who asked me, What is the matter with you, 
that I had hurt my leg. 

53. There is also another imitator of the same wisdom, 

C. 53.] PUNS ON WORDS. 163 

Pompeianus the Philadelphian; a man not destitute of 
shrewdness, but still a terrible wordcatcher : and he, con- 
versing with his servant, calling him by name with a loud 
voice, said — " Sti'ombichides, bring me to the gymnasium 
those intolerable slippers (he used the word dfoprjTovs, in- 
tending it to mean what he had never worn) and my useless 
(he used the word a^rjaTo?, by which he meant which he had 
never used) cloak. For I, as soon as I have bound up my 
beard, shall address my friends. For I have got some roast 
fish. And bring me a cruet of oil. For first of all we will 
be crushed (he used the word o~vvTpi(3r]o-6[xi6ov, meaning to 
say we will rub ourselves ivell), and then we will be utterly 
destroyed (his word was a-rroXov/xedov, and he meant to say 
we will have a bath)." And this same sophist, in the month 
of February, as the Romans call it, (and Juba the Mauritanian 
says that this month has its name 1 from the terrors caused 
by the spirits under the earth, and from the means used to 
get rid of those fears, at which season the greatest severity of 
winter occurs, and it is the custom of them to offer libations 
for many days to those who are dead :) in the month of 
February, I say, he said to one of his friends — " It is a long 
time since you have seen me, because of the heat." And 
when the festival of the Panathensea w T as being celebrated, 
during which the courts of justice do not assemble, he said — 
" This is tho birthday of the virgin goddess Minerva," (but 
he pronounced the word aXeKropo?, as if he had meant of 
the cock of Minerva,) "and this day is unjust," (for he 

1 Ovid gives the following derivation of the name February : 
Februa Romani dixere piamina patres, 

.Nunc quoque dant verbo plurima signa fidem 
Pontifices ab rege petunt et Flamine lanas, 

Queis veteri lingua Februa nomen erat. 
Quieque capit lictor domibus purgamina ccrtia 

Torrida cum mica, farra vocantur idem. 
Nomen idem ramo qui cecsus ab arbore pura 

Casta sacerdotum tempora fronde tegit. 
Ipse ego Flaminicam poscentem Februa vidi ; 

Februa poscenti pinea virga data est. 
Denique quodcunque est quo peetora nostra piainur 

Hoc apud intonsos nomen habebat avos. 
Mensis ab his dicttis, secta quia pclle Luperci 

Omne solum lustrant, idque piamen habent. 
Aut quia placatis sunt tempora pura sepulchris. 

Tunc cum ferales prseteriere dies. — <)v. Fasti, ii. 19. 
(See Ovid, vol. i. p. 4b", liohn's Classical Library.) 

M 2 


called it aSi/co?, though he meant the word to have the sense 
of being a holiday for the courts of latv). And once he called 
a companion of ours who came back from Delphi without 
having received an answer from the god, dxprjarov, (which 
never means anything but useless, but he used the word for 
unanswered). And once when he was making a public dis- 
play of his eloquence, and going through a long panegyric 
on the Queen of cities, he said, Most admirable is the 
Roman dominion, and awn-ooTaros (he meant irresistible)} 

54. Such now, my friends, are Ulpian's companions, the 
sophists ; men who call even the thing which the Romans 
call miliarium, that is to say, a vessel designed to prepare 
boiling water in, iTrvoXifirjs, an oven -kettle ; being manufac- 
turers of many names, and far outrunning by many para- 
sangs the Sicilian Dionysius : who called a virgin /xeravSpos 
(from fx.a/0) and dvrjp), because Bhe is waiting for a husband ; 
and a pillar /AeveKpar??s (from jutVw and Kpdros), because it re- 
mains and is strong. And a javelin he called (SaXXdvTiov, 
because (aVnov /^aAAerai) it is thrown against something ; and 
mouse-holes he called /xrcmpia, mysteries, (from Trjpuv tov<s 
fivs) because they keep the mice. And Athanis, in the first 
book of his History of the Affairs of Sicily, says that the same 
Dionysius gave an ox the name of yapdra.?; and a pig he called 
taK^os. And Alexarchus was a man of the same sort, the 
brother of Cassander, who was king of Macedonia, who built 
the city called Uranopolis. And Heraclides Lembus speaks 
concerning him in the seventh book of his Histories, and 
says, " Alexarchus, who founded the city Uranopolis, imported 
many peculiar words and forms of speaking into the languago : 
calling a cock 6p6po(36as, or he that crows in the morn; and a 
barber fipoTOKeprr]?, or one who cuts men; and a drachm he called 
dpyvph, a piece of silver ; and a choenix ho called fjfiepoTpo(pi<;, 
what feeds a man for a day; and a herald he called dirvrris, a 
bawler. And once he wrote a letter to the magistrates of the 
Cassandrians in this form : 2 — AAe'fap^os '6 fxdpfxwv 7rpdpo<.s 

1 It is not quite clear what the blunder was, for avvTr6<Traros means 
irresistible. Aretreus uses the word for " unsubstantial," which is 
perhaps what A thenars means to say Pompeianus called Rome. 

2 I have followed Casaubon's advice in not attempting to translate 
this letter, who " marvels that interpreters have endeavoured to translate 
it, for what can wasting time be, if this is not]" And Schweighaeuser 
says that he will not attempt to explain it further, lest he should seem 
to be endeavouring to appear wiser than Apollo. 

C. 55.] PUNS ON WORDS. 165 

yadelv. tous ^AioKpeis olwv oTSa Anrovo-a OeuiToyv cpywv KpaTrjropas 
/xopcTi/xta Tv^a KCKvpoifievas 6cov 7rdyais x UT ^ i ' )<TavTe ' i auVoi>s, kclL 
<pv\a.Ka<s opiyej/cts." But what that letter means I think that 
even the Pythian Apollo himself could hardly tell. For, as. 
Antipkanes says, in his Cleophanes, — 

"What is it then to be a tyrant, (or 
What would you call pursuing serious things,) 
In the Lyceum with the sophists ; by Jove, 
They are but thin and hungry joyless men. 
And say the thing does not exist if now 
It is produced ; for that is not as yet, 
Nor can already be produced, which now 
Is caused afresh. Nor if it did exist 
Before, can it be now made to exist. 
For there is nothing which has no existence. 
And that which never yet has taken place, 
Is not as if it had, since it has not. 
For it exists from its existence ; but 
If there is no existence, what is there 
From which it can exist ? The thing 's impossible. 
And if it 's self-existent, it will not 
Exist again. And one perhaps may say, 
Let be ; whence now can that which has no being 
Exist, what can become of it 1 What all this means 
i say that o'en Apollo's Belf can't tell. 

55. I know too that Simonides the poet, somewhere or 
other, has called Jupiter 'ApioTapxos, (meaning apioros apx^v, 
best of rulers;) and iEschylus calls Pluto 'Ay/pi'Aaos, (from ayav 
tov Xaov, collecting the people;) and Nicander the Colophonian 
called the asp, the animal, lo^caipa, poiso?ious, (from ids, poison, 
and xew, to emit; though the word is usually applied to Diana in 
the sense of shooting arrows, because ids also means an arrow.) 

And it is on account of these tricks and others like them 
that the divine Plato, in his Politics, after having said that 
some animals live on the dry land, and others in the water, and 
also, that there are some classes which arc fed on dry food, 
others on moist food, and others which graze, giving the 
names of $r]po(3aTiKa. and vypo/3aTtKa, and again, of $rjporpu- 
(f)LKa, vypoTpo<)iLKa and ^rjpovo[XLKa to the different kinds of 
animals, according as they live on the land, or in the water, or 
in the air — adds, by way of exhortation to those manufac- 
turers of names to guard against novelty, the following sen- 
tence, word for word : — " And if you take care not In appeal 
too anxious in making new names you will continue to old 


age with a greater reputation for prudence." But I know 
that Herodes Atticus, a rhetorician, named the piece of wood 
which was put through his wheels when he was going in his 
chariot down steep places, rpoxoireSrjs, (as a fetter to the wheels.) 
Although Simaristus, in his Synonyraes, had already given 
this piece of wood the name of £Trox^ev<;, or the drag. And 
Sophocles the poet, in some one of his works, called a guar- 
dian a bolt, saying — 

Be of good cheer, I am a mighty holt 

To keep this fear away from you. 
And, in another place, he has given an anchor the name of 
io-^cts or the holder, because it Kcn-e^ei, holds the ship — 

And the sailors let out the holder of the ship. 
And Demades the orator said that iEgina was the " eyesore 
of the Peirams," and that Samos was " a fragment broken off 
from the city." And he called the young men " the spring 
of the people ;" and the wall he called " the garment of the 
city;" and a trumpeter he entitled "the common cock of the 
Athenians." But this word-hunting sophist used all sorts of 
far more far-fetched expressions. And whence, Ulpian, 
did it occur to you to use the word Ke^oprao-yae'vos for satiated, 
when Kopio) is the proper verb for that meaning, and x°P r ^ 
means to feed % 

56. In reply to this Ulpian said with a cheerful laugh, — 
But do not bark at me, my friend, and do not be savage 
with me, putting on a sort of hydrophobia, especially now 
that this is the season of the dog-days. You ought rather to 
fawn upon and be gentle towards your messmates, lest wo 
should institute a festival for dog killing, in the place of that 
one which is celebrated by the Argives. For, my most saga- 
cious gentleman, xopTa£o/xai is used by Cratinus in his Ulysseses 
in this way : — 

You were all day glutting yourselves with white milk. 
And Menander, in his Trophonius, uses the word xoprao-Oas 
in the same sense. And Aristophanes says in his Gerytades — 

Obey us now, and glut us with your melodies. 
And Sophocles in his Tyro has — 

And we received him with all things which satisfy (Trayxoora). 
And Eubulus in his Dolon — 

I, men, have now been well satisfied (KevopTaff^ai), 

And I am quite well filled ; so that I could 

c. 57.] ruxs on words. 167 

With all my energy but just contrive 
To fasten on my sandals. 

And Sophilus says in his Phylarchus — • 

There will be an abundant deal of eating. 
I see the prelude to it ; — I sball surely be 
Most fully satisfied ; indeed, my men, 
I swear by Bacchus I feel proud already. 

And Amphis says in his Uranus — 

Sating herself till eve with every dainty. 

Now these statements, Cynulcus, I am able to produce 
"without any preparation ; but to-morrow, or the day after, 
for that (evrj) is the name which Hesiod gave to the third 
day, I will satiate you with blows, if you do not tell me in, 
whose works the word koiAioScu / u.wv, Belly-god, is to be found. 
And as he made no answer, — But, indeed, I myself will tell 
you this, Cynic, that Eupolis called flatterers this, in his 
play of the same name. But I will postpone any proof of 
this statement until I have paid you the blows I owe you. 

57. And so when every one had been well amused by 
these jokes, — But, said Ulpian, I will also give you now 
the statement about paunches which I promised you. For 
Alexis, in his play which is entitled Ponticus, jesting in a 
comic manner, says that Callimedon the orator, who was sur- 
named the Crab (and he was one of those who took part in the 
affairs of the state in the time of Demosthenes the orator) — 

Every one is willing to die for bis country (irdrpas) : 
And for a boiled paunch (,ui)Tpas) Ca!lm.edon, 
The dauntless crab, would very probably 
Dare to encounter death. 

And Callimedon was a man very notorious for his fondness 
for dainties. 

And Antiphanes also speaks of launches in his Philo- 
metor, using these words — 

While the wood has pith in it (k'ix/j.^rpov) it puts forth shoots. 
There is a metropolis but no patropoUs. 
Some men sell paunches (ixrirpai), a delicious food. 
Metras, the Chian, is dear to the people. 

And Euphron says in his Paradidomena — 

But my master having prepared a paunch 
Set it before Callimedon; and when he ate il 
It made him leap with joy; from which he earn'd 
The name of crab. 


And Dioxippus in his Antipornoboscus — 

What food doth he delight in ! Dainty is he ! 
Most dainty in his eating, paunches, sausages ! 

And in his Historiographer, he says — 

Amphides burst in the porch and made himself a way in ; 

Holding up two paunches fine, See for what I'm paying, 

Said he, and send me all you have, or all that you can find me. 

And Eubulus says in his Deucalion — 

Liver, and tripe, and entrails, aye, and paunches. 
58. But Lynceus the Saurian, the friend of Theophrastus, 
-was acquainted with the use of paunches when eaten with 
Oyrenaic sauce. And accordingly, writing an account of 
the Banquet of Ptolemy, he says : — " A certain paunch 
having been brought round in vinegar and sauce." An- 
tiphanes, too, mentions this sauce in his Unhappy Lovers, 
speaking of Cyrene — 

I sail back to the self-same harbour whence 

We previously were torn ; and bid farewell 

To all my horses, friends, and assafcetida, 

And two horse chariots, and to cabbages, 

And single-horses, and to salads green, 

And fevers, and rich sauces. 

And how much better a paunch of a castrated animal is, 
Hipparchus, who wrote the book called The ^Egyptian Iliad, 
tells us in the following words — 

But above all I do delight in dishes 

Of paunches and of tripe from gelded beasts, 

And love a fragrant pig within the oven. 

And Sopater says in his Hippolytus — 

But like a beauteous paunch of gelded pig 

Well boil'd and white, and basted with rich cheese. 

And in his Physiologus he says — 

'Tis not a well boil'd slice of paunch of pig 
Holding within a sharp and biting gravy. 

And in his Silphse he says — 

That you may eat a slice of boil'd pig's paunch, 
Dipping it in a bitter sauce of rue. 

59. But the ancients were not acquainted with the fashion 
of bringing on paunches, or lettuces, or anything of the sort, 
before dinner, as is done now. At all events Archestratus, 
the inventor of made dishes, as he calls himself, says that 

C. 60.] BANQUETS. 169 

pledges in drinking, and the use of ointments, are introduced 
after supper — 

And always at the banquet crown your head 

With flowing wreaths of varied scent and hue, 

Culling the treasures of the happy earth ; 

And steep your hair in rich and reeking odours, 

And all day long pour holy frankincense 

And myrrh, the fragrant fruit of Syria, 

On the slow slumb'ring ashes of the fire : 

Then, when you drink, let slaves these luxuries bring — 

Tripe, and the boiled paunch of well-fed swine, 

Well soak'd in cummin juice and vinegar, 

And sharp, strong-smelling assafcetida ; 

Taste, too, the tender well-roast birds, and game, 

Whate'er may be in season. But despise 

The rude uncivilized Sicilian mode, 

Where men do nought but drink like troops of frogs, 

And eat no solid seasoning. Avoid them. 

And seek the meats which I enjoin thee here. 

All other foods are only signs and proofs 

Of wretched poverty : the green boil'd vetch, 

And beans, and apples, and dried drums of figs. 

But praise the cheesecakes which from Athens come ; 

And if there are none, still of any country 

Cheesecakes are to be eaten ; also ask 

For Attic Honey, the feast's crowning dish — 

For that it is which makes a banquet noble. 

Thus should a free man live, or else descend 

Beneath the earth, and court the deadly realms 

Of Tartarus, buried deep beneath the earth 

Innumerable fathoms. 

But Lynceus, describing the banquet given by Lamia, the 
female flute-player, when she entertained Demetrius Polior- 
cetes, represents the guests the moment they come to the 
banquet as eating all sorts of fish and meat ; and in the 
same way, when speaking of the feast given by Antigonus the 
king, when celebrating the Aphrodisiac festival, and also one 
given by King Ptolemy, he speaks of fish as the first course ; 
and then meat. 

60. But one may well wonder at Archcstratus, who has 
given us such admirable suggestions and injunctions, and who 
was a guide in the matter of pleasure to the philosopher 
Epicurus, when he counsels us wisely, in a manner equal to 
that of the bard l of Ascra, that we ought not to mind some 
people, but only attend to him ; and he bids us cut such 

1 Hesiod. 


and such things, differing in no respect from the cook in 
Damoxenus the comic writer, who says in his Syntrophi — 

A. You see me here a most attentive pupil 

Of Epicurus, wisest of the Greeks, 

From whom in two years and ten months or less, 

I scraped together four good Attic talents. 
B., What do you mean by this ] I pray thee, tell me, 

Was he a cook, my master 1 That is news. 

A. Ye gods ! and what a cook ! Believe me, nature 
Is the beginning and the only source 

Of all true wisdom. And there is no art 

At which men labour, which contains more wisdom. 

So this our art is easy to the man 

Who has drunk deep of nature's principles ; 

They are his guides : and therefore, when you see 

A cook who is no scholar, nor has read 

The subtle lessons of Democritus, 

(Aye and he must remember them besides,) 

Laugh at him as an ass ; and if you hire one 

Who knows not Epicurus and his rules, 

Discharge him straightway, For a cook must know, 

(I speak the words of sober truth, my friend,) 

How great the difference is in summer time 

Between the glaucisk of the winter-season ; 

He must know all the fish the Pleiades 

Bring to us at their setting ; what the solstice, 

Winter and summer, gives us eatable — 

For all the changes and the revolutions 

Are fraught with countless evil to mankind, 

Such changes do they cause in all their food. 

Dost thou not understand me 1 And remember, 

Whatever is in season must be good. 

B. How few observe these rules. 

A. From this neglect 

Come spasms, and the flatulence which ill 

Beseems a politic guest; — but all the food 

I give my parties, wholesome is, and good, 

Digestible and free from flatulence. 

Therefore its juice is easily dissolved, 

And penetrates the entire body's pores. 
B. Juice, say you] This is not known to Democritus. 
A. But all meats out of season make the eater 

Diseased in his joints. 

B. You seem to me, 

To have studied too the art of medicine. 
A. No doubt, and so does every one who seeks 

Acquaintance with his nature's mysteries. 

But see now, I do beg you by the gods, 

How ignorant the present race of cooks are. 

When thus you find them ignorant of the smell 


Of all the varied dishes which they dress, 
And pounding sesame in all their sauce. 
What can be bad enough for such sad blunderers? 
B. You seem to speak as any oracle. 
A. What good can e'er arise, where every quality 
Is jumbled with its opposite in kind, 
How different soever both may be ? 
Now to discern these things is art and skill, 
Not to wash dishes nor to smell of smoke. 
Por I do never enter a strange cook-shop, 
But sit within such a distance as enables 
My eyes to comprehend what is within. 
My friends, too, do the same ; I tell them all 
The causes and results. This bit is sour, 
Away with it ; the man is not a cook, 
Though he perhaps may be a music master: 
Put in some fire ; keep an equal heat. 
The first dish scarcely suits the rest. Do you 
Not see the form of th' art ] 

B. 0, great Apollo ! 
A . What does this seem to you ? 

B. Pure skill ; high art. 
A. Then I no dishes place before my guests 
At random ; but while all things correspond 
I regulate the whole, and will divide 
The whole as best may suit, in fours, or fives ; 
And will consult each separate division — 
And satisfy each party. Then again, 
I stand afar off and directions give; 
Whence bring you that] what shall you mix with this I 
See how discordant those two dishes are ! 
Take care and shun such blunders. That will do. 
Thus Epicurus did arrange his pleasures. 
Thus wisely did he eat. He, only wise, 
Saw what was good and what its nature was. 
The Stoics seek in vain for such discoveries, 
And know not good nor what the nature may be 
Of good ; and so they have it not; nor know 
How to impart it to their friends and guests. 
Enough of this. Do'st not agree with me ? 
B. Indeed I do, all things are plain to me. 
I 61. Plato, too, in his Joint Deceiver, introduces the father 
of a young man in great indignation, on the ground that his 
sons principles and way of living have been injured by his 
tutor ; and he says — 

A. You now have been the ruin of my son, 

You wretch, you have persuaded him V embark 
In a course of life quite foreign to his habits 
And former inclinations. You have taught him 
To drink i' th' morning, quite beyond his wont. 


B. Do you blame me that he has learnt to live ? 
A . Call you this living ? 

B. So the wise do say : 

At all events the allwise Epicurus 

Tells us that pleasure is the only good. 

A. No doubt, and nobody can entertain 
A different opinion. To live well 
Must be to rightly live ; is it not sol 
Tell me, I pray thee, hast thou ever seen 
Any philosopher confused with wine 1 
Or overtaken with those joys of yours? 

B. Aye, all of them. Those who lift up their brows, 
Who look most solemn in the promenades, 
And in their daily conversation, 

Who turn their eyes away in high disdain 
If you put plaice or turbot on their board, 
Know for all that the fish's daintiest part. 
Seek out the head, the fins ; the sound, the roe, 
And make men marvel at their gluttony. 

62. And in Antiphanes, in his Soldier or in his Tycho, a 
man is introduced delivering rules in this way, saying — 

Whoever is a mortal man, and thinks 

This life has any sure possession, 

Is woefully deceived. For either taxes 

Take off his property ; or he goes to law 

And loses all he seeks, and all he has : 

Or else he's made a magistrate, and bears 

The losses they are subject to ; or else 

The people bid him a choragus be, 

And furnish golden garments for a chorus ; 

And wear but rags himself. Or as a captain 

Of some tall ship, he hangs himself; or else 

Takes the command, and then is taken prisoner : 

Or else, both waking and in soundest sleep, 

He's helpless, pillaged by his own domestics. 

Nothing is sure, save what a man can eat, 

And treats himself to day by day. Nor then, 

Is even this too sure. For guests drop in 

To eat what you have order'd for yourself. 

So not until you've got it 'twixt your teeth 

Ought you to think that e'en your dinner's safe. 

And he says the same in his Hydria. 

63. Now if any one, my friends, were to consider this, he 
would naturally and reasonahly praise the honest Chrysippus, 
who examined accurately into the nature of Epicurus's phi- 
losophy, and said, '*' That the Gastrology of Archestratus was 
the metropolis of his philosophy;" which all the epicures of 
philosophers call the Thcogony ; as it were, that beautiful 

c G4.] fish. 173 

epic poem ; to whom Thcognetus, in his Phasma or in his 
Miser, says — 

My man, you will destroy me in this way; 

For you are ill and surfeited with all 

The divers arguments of all the Stoics. 

" Gold is no part of man, mere passing rime, 

Wisdom 's his real wealth, solid like ice ; 

No one who has it ever loses it." 

Oh ! wretched that I am ; what cruel fate 

Has lodged me here with this philosopher ? 

Wretch, you have learnt a most perverted learning ; 

Your books have turn'd your whole life upside down ; 

Buried in deep philosophy you talk 

Of earth and heaven, both of which care little 

For you and all your arguments. 

C4. While Ulpian was continuing to talk in this way, the 
servants came in bearing on some dishes some crabs bigger 
than Callimedon, the orator, who, because he was so very 
fond of tins food was himself called the Crab. Accordingly, 
Alexis, in his Dorcis, or the Flatterer, (as also others of the 
comic poets do,) hands him down, as a general rule, as being 
most devoted to fish, saying — 

It has been voted by the fish-sellers, 

To raise a brazen statue to Callimedon 

At the Pahathenaic festival 

In the midst of the fish-maiket ; and the statue 

Shall in his right hand hold a roasted crab, 

As being the sole patron of their trade, 

Which other men neglect and seek to crush. 
But the taste of the crab is one which many people have 
been very much devoted to ; as may be shown by many pas- 
sages in different comedies ; but at present Aristophanes will 
suffice, who in the Thesmophoriazusa! speaks as follows — 

A. Has any fish been bought? a cuttle-fish, 
Or a broad squill, or else a polypus ; 

Or roasted mullet, or perhaps some beet-root? 

B. Indeed there was not. 

A. Or a roach or daco % 
B. Nothing of such a sort? 

A. Was there no black-pudding, 
Nor tripe, nor sausage, nor boar's liver fried, 
No honeycomb, no paunch of pig, no eel, 
No mighty crab, with which you might recruit 
The strength of women wearied witli long toil 1 
But by broad squills ho must have meant what we call 
astaci, a kind of crab which Philyllius mentions in his Cities, 


And Archestratus, in that famous poem of his where he never 
once mentions the crab by the name of Kapa/3os, does speak 
of the oxttclkos. As he does also in the following passage — 

But passing over trifles, buy an astacus, 
Which has long hands and heavy too, but feet 
Of delicate smallness, and which slowly walks 
Over the earth's face. A goodly troop there are 
Of such, and those of finest flavour, where 
The isles of Lipara do gem the ocean : 
And many lie in the broad Hellespont. 

And Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Marriage, shows plainly 
that the olo-tclkos spoken of by Archestratus is the same as 
the /capa/3os, speaking as follows — 

There are astaci and colybdaenee, both equipp'd 
With little feet and long hands, both coming under 
The name of napafios. 

65. But the carabi, and astaci, and also carides or squills, 
are each a distinct genus. But the Athenians spell the name 
acn-aKos with an o, oara/cos, just as they also write oorcK/n'Sas. 
But Epicharmus in his Earth and Sea says — 

KaffTaKol ya.fxtyuii'vxoi. 

And Speusippus, in the second book of his Similarities, says 
that of soft-shelled animals the following are nearly like one 
another. The coracus, the astacus, the nymphe, the arctus, 
the carcinus, and the pagurus. And Diocles the Carystiau 
says, " Carides, carcini, carabi, and astaci, are pleasant to the 
taste and diuretic." And Epicharmus has also mentioned the 
colybdsena in the lines I have quoted above ; which Nicander 
calls the beauty of the sea ; but Heraclides in his Cookery 
Book gives that name to the caris. But Aristotle, in the fifth 
book of his Parts of Animals, says, " Of soft-shelled animals 
the carabi, the astaci, the carides, and others of the same 
sort, are propagated like quadrupeds ; and they breed at the 
beginning of spring ; as indeed is no secret to anybody ; but 
at times they breed when the fig begins to ripen. 

Now carabi are found in rough and rocky places ; but 
astaci in smooth ground ; neither kind in muddy places : on 
which account there are astaci produced in the Hellespont 
and about Thasos ', and carabi off Cape Sigeum and Mount 
Athos. But the whole race of crabs is long-lived. But 
Theophrastus, in his book on Animals who dive in Holes, 


says that the astaci and carabi and carides all cast off their 
old age. 

66. But concerning carides, Ephorus mentions in his first 
book that there is a city called Carides near the island of 
Chios ; and he says that it was founded by Macar and those 
of his companions who were saved out of the deluge which 
happened in the time of Deucalion ; and that to this very 
day the place is called Carides. But Archestratus, the 
inventor of made dishes, gives these recommendations — 

But if you ever come to Iasus, 
A city of the Carians, you shall have 
A caris of huge size, but rare to buy. 
Many there are where Macedon is wash'd 
By the deep sea, and in Ambracia's gulf. 

But Araros in his Campylion has used the word i<apt6a with 
the penultinia circumflexed and long — 

The strangely bent carides did leap forth 
Like dolphins into the rope-woven vessel. 

And Eubulus says in his Orthane — 

I 'put a carid (i<ap?da) down and took it up again. 

Anaxandrides says in his Lycurgus — 

And he plays with little carids (icapiSdpiov), 
And little partridges, and little lettuces ; 
And little sparrows, and with little cups, 
And little scindaries, and little gudgeons. 

And the same poet says in his Pandarus — 

If you don't stoop, my friend, you'll upright be. 
But she is like a carid (KdplSou) in her person ; 
Bent out, and like an anchor standing firm. 

And in his Cerkios he says — 

I'll make them redder than a roasted carid GcaplSos). 
And Eubulus says in his Grandmothers — 

And carids (i«xp7des) of the humpback'd sort. 
And Ophelion says in his Callasscbrus — 

There lay the crooked carids (Kap?5es) on dry ground. 

And in his Ialemus we find — 

And then they danced as crooked limbed carides (icap7Ses) 
Dance on the glowing embers. 

But Eupolis, in / his Goats, uses the word with the penul- 
tinia short, (KapiBes), thus — 

Once in Phaacia I ate carides (naplScu). 


And again in his People he says — 

Having the face of a tough thick-skinn'd carid (KupiSos). 

G7. Now the eai-ides were so called from the word Ki'pa, 
head. For the head takes up the greater part of them. But 
the Attic writers also use the word short in the same manner, 
in analogy with the quantity of i«lpa, it heing, as I said, called 
caris because of the size of its head ; and so, as ypacpU is 
derived from ypacprj, and /3o\h from /3oAt), in like maimer is 
Kapls from ndpa. But when the penultima is made long the 
last syllable also is made long, and then the word is like 
xprj^ls, and Kp?/7ri9, and Ttvdi<;. 

But concerning these shell-fish, Diphilus the Siphnian 
writes, " Of all shell-fish the caris, and astacus, and carabus, 
and carcinus, and lion, being all of the same genus, are dis- 
tinguished by some differences. And the lion is larger than 
the astacus; and the carabi are called also grapsad; but 
they are more fleshy than the carcini ; but the carcinus is 
heavy and indigestible." But Mnesitheus the Athenian, in 
his treatise on Comestibles, says, " Carabi and carcini and 
carides, and such like ; these are all indigestible, but still not 
nearly so much so as other fish : and they are better and 
more wholesome roast than boiled." But Sophron in his 
Gyncecea calls carides courldes, saying — 

Behold the dainty courides, my friend. 

And see these lobsters; see how red they are, 

How smooth and glossy is their hair and coats. 

And Epicharmus in his Land and Sea says — 

And red-skinned courides. 
And in his Logos and Logina he spells the word ;<o>pi'8es 
with an w — 

Oily anchovies, crooked corides. 
And Simonides says — 

Beet-root with thunnics, and with gudgeons corides. 
G8. After this conversation there were brought in some 
dishes of fried liver ; wrapped up in what is called the caul, 
or IttltvXoov, which Philetserus in his Tereus calls lirnrXolov. 
And Cynulcus looking on said, — Tell us, wise Ulpian, 
whether there is such an expression anywhere as " liver rolled 
up." And he replied, — I will tell you if you will first show me 

c. G9.] fish. 177 

in whose works the word cttlttXovs is used for the fat and the 
membrane which covers it. So as they were thus prepared 
for the discussion, Myrtilus said, The word eiriirXovs is used 
by Epicharmus in the Bacchse — 

And wrapping up the bread in the £-K'nr\oos. 
And again, in his Theari, he says — 

Around the loins and ziviirAovs. 
And Ion of Chios, in his Epidemiae, says — 

Having wrapp'd it up in the eVi7rAous. 

So here, my friend Ulpian, you have plenty of authority 
for your iir[v\ov<;. And you may wrap yourself up in it and 
burn yourself, and so release us from all these investigations. 
And, indeed, you ought to bear your own testimony to a liver 
having been prepared in this way ; since you mentioned 
before, when we were inquiring about ears and feet, what 
Alexis said in his Crateua, or the Female Druggist. And 
the whole quotation is serviceable for many purposes, and 
since you at the moment fail to recollect it, I myself will 
repeat it to you. 

The Comedian says this — 

09. First, then, I saw a man whose name was Ncreus ; 
With noble oysters laden ; an aged man, 
And clad in brown sea-weed. I took the oysters 
And eke some fine sea-urchins ; a good prelude 
To a rich banquet daintily supplied. 
When they were done, next came some little fish, 
Still quivering as if they felt a fear 
Of what should now befal them. Courage, said I, 
My little friends, and fear no harm from me ; 
And to spare them I bought a large flat glaucus. 
Then a torpedo came ; for it did strike me, 
That even if my wife should chance to touch it 
She from its shock would surely take no harm. 
So for my frying-pan I've soles and plaice, 
Carides, gudgeons, perch, and spars, and eels, 
A dish more varied than a peacock's tail. 
Slices of meat, and feet, and snouts, and cars, 
And a pig's liver neatly wrapp'd in caul. 
For by itself it looks too coarse and livid. 
No cook shall touch or e'er behold these dainties ; 
He would destroy them all. I'll manage them 
Myself; with skill and varied art the sauce 
I will compound, in such a tasty way 
That all the guests shall plunge their very teeth 

VOL. I. — ATH. N 


Into the dish for joy and eagerness; 
And the recipes and different modes of dressing 
I am prepared to teach the world for nothing, 
If men are only wise enough to learn. 

70. But that it was the fashion for liver to be wrapped up 
in a caul is stated by Hegesander the Delphian in his Memo- 
rials, where he says that Metanira the courtesan, having got 
a piece of the lungs of the animal in the liver which was 
thus wrapped up, as soon as she had unfolded the outer coat 
of fat and seen it, cried out — 

I am undone, the tunic's treacherous folds 
Have now entangled me to my destruction. 

And perhaps it was because of its being in this state that 
Crobylus the comic poet called the liver modest ; as Alexis 
also does in his Pseudypobolemaeus, speaking as follows — 

Take the stiff feelers of the polypus, 

And in them you shall find some modest liver, 

And cutlets of wild goats, which you shall eat. 

But Aristophanes uses the diminutive form r/7raTiov in his Ta- 
genista3, and so does Alcaeus in the Palaestra, and Eubulus 
in his Deucalion. And the first letter of rprap and r^dnov 
must be aspirated. For a synalcepha is used by Arcliiloclms 
with the aspirate ; when he says — 

For you do seem to have no gall 4<p' ^nan {in your liver). 
There is also a fish which is called Tp-aros, which Eubulus 
himself mentions in his Lacedaemonians or Leda, and says 
that it has no gall in it — 

You thought that I'd no gall ; but spoke to me 

As if I'd been a fJ7rai-os : but I 

Am rather one of the melampyx class. 

But Hegesander, in his Memorials, says, that the hepatos has 
in its head two stones, like pearls in brilliancy and colour, 
and in shape something like a turbot. 

71. But Alexis speaks of fried fish in his Demetrius, as he 
does also in the before-mentioned play. And Eubulus says, 
in his Orthane — 

JSTow each fair woman walks about the streets, 
Fond of fried fish and stout Triballian youths. 
Then there is beet-root and canary-grass 
Mix'd up in forcemeat with the paunch of lamb, 
Which leaps within one's stomach like a colt 
Scarce broken to the yoke. Meanwhile the bellows 

.C 73.] CUTTLE-FISH. 179 

Waken the watchful hounds of Vulcan's pack, 

And stir the frying-pan with vapours warm. 

The fragrant steam straight rises to the nose, 

And fills the sense with odours. 

Then comes the daughter of the bounteous Ceres, 

Fair wheaten flour, duly mash'd, and press'd 

Within the hollow of the gaping jaws, 

Which like the trireme's hasty shock comes on, 

The fair forerunner of a sumptuous feast. 

I have also eaten cuttle-fish fried. But Nicostratus or Phile- 
taerus says, in the Antyllus — I never again will venture to 
eat cuttle-fish which has been dressed in a frying-pan. But 
Hegemon, in his Philinna, introduces men eating the roe 
fried, saying — 

Go quickly, buy of them that polypus, 

And fry the roe, and give it us to eat. 

72. Ulpian was not pleased at this; and being much vexed, 
he looked at us, and repeating these iambics from the 
Orthanus of Eubulus, said — 

How well has Myrtilus, cursed by the gods, 
Come now to shipwreck on this frying-pan. 

For certainly I well know that lie never ate any of these 
things at his own expense ; and I heard as much from one of 
his own servants, who once quoted me these iambics from the 
Pornoboscus of Eubulus — 

My master comes from Thessaly ; a man 
Of temper stern; wealthy, but covetous ; 
A wicked man ; a glutton; fond of dainties, 
Yet sparing to bestow a farthing on them. 

But as the young man was well educated, and that not by 
Myrtilus, but by some one else, when I asked him bow he 
fell in with the young Myrtilus, he repeated to me these 
lines from the Neottis of Antiphanes — 

While still a boy, bearing my sister company, 
I came to Athens, by some merchant brought ; 
For Syria was my birthplace. There that merchant 
Saw us when we were both put up for sale, 
And bought us, driving a most stingy bargain. 
No man could e'er in wickedness surpass him; 
So miserly, that nothing except thyme 
Was ever bought by him for food, not e'en 
So much as might have fed Pythagoras. 

73. While Ulpian went on jesting in this manner, Cynulcus 
cried out — I want some bread ; and when I say bread (apros) 



I do not mean Artus king of the Messapians, the Messapians, 
I mean, in Iapygia, concerning whom there is a treatise 
among Polemo's works. And Thucydides also mentions him, 
in his seventh book, and Demetrius the comic writer speaks 
of him in the drama entitled Sicily, using the following 
language — j 

From thence, borne on by the south wind, we came 
Across the sea to the Italian shore, 
Where the Messapians dwelt ; and Artus there, 
The monarch of the land, received us kindly, 
A great and noble host for foreigners. 

But this is not the time for speaking of that Artus, but of 
the other, which was discovered by Ceres, surnamed Sito 
(food), and Simalis. For those are the names under which 
the Goddess is worshipped by the Syracusans, as Polemo him- 
self reports in his book about Morychus. But in the first 
book of his treatise addressed to Timseus, he says, that in 
Scolus, a city of Bceotia, statues are erected to Megalartus 
(the God or Goddess of great bread), and to Megalomazus 
(the God or Goddess of abundant corn). So when the loaves 
w r ere brought, and 'on them a great quantity of all kinds 
of food, looking at them, he said — 

What numerous nets and snares are set by men 
To catch the helpless loaves ; 

as Alexis says in his play, The Girl sent to tbe Well. And 
so now let us say something about bread. 

74. But Pontianus anticipating him, said ; Tryphon of 
Alexandria, in the book entitled the Treatise on Plants, men- 
tions several kinds of loaves; if I can remember them accu- 
rately, the leavened loaf, the unleavened loaf, the loaf made 
of the best wheaten flour, the loaf made of groats, the loaf 
made of remnants (and this he says is more digestible than 
that which is made only of the best flour), the loaf made of 
rye, the loaf made of acorns, the loaf made of millet. The 
loaf made of groats, said he, is made of oaten groats, for 
groats are not made of barley. And from a peculiar way of 
baking or roasting it, there is a loaf called ipnites (or the 
oven loaf) which Timocles mentions in his Sham Robbers, 
where he says — 

And seeing there a tray before me full 

Of smoking oven-loaves, I took and ate them. 

C. 74,] BREAD. 181* 

There is another kind called escharites (or the hearth-loaf), 
and this is mentioned by Antidotus in the Protochorus— 
I took the hot hearth-loaves, how could I help it? 
And dipp'd them in sweet sauce, and then I ate them. 

And Crobylns says, in his Strangled Man — 
I took a platter of hot clean hearth-loaves. 
And Lynceus the Samian, in his letter to Diagoras, corn- 
paring the eatables in vogue at Athens with those which 
Ave re used at Rhodes, says — " And moreover, while they talk 
a great deal about their bread which is to be got in the 
market, the Rhodians at the beginning and middle of dinner 
put loaves on the table which are not at all inferior to them ; 
but when they have given over eating and are satisfied, then 
they introduce a most agreeable dish, which is called the 
hearth-loaf, the best of all loaves ; which is made of sweet 
things, and compounded so as to be very soft, and it is made 
up with such an admirable harmony of all the ingredients as 
to have a most excellent effect ; so that often a man who is 
drunk becomes sober again, and in the same way a man who 
has just eaten to satiety is made hungry again by eating 
of it." 

There is another kind of loaf called tabyrites, of which 
Sopater, in his Cnidia, says — The tabyrites loaf was one 
which fills the cheeks. 

There was also a loaf called the achseinas. And this loaf 
is mentioned by Semus, in the eighth book of his Delias; 
and he says that is made by the women who celebrate the 
Thesmophoria. They are loaves of a large size. And the 
festival is called Megalartia, which is a name given to it 
by those who carry these loaves, who cry — " Eat a large 
achaiinas, full of fat." 

There is another loaf called cribanites, or the pan-loaf. 
This is mentioned by Aristophanes, in his Old Age. And 
he introduces a woman selling bread, complaining that her 
loaves have been taken from her by those who have got rid 
of the effects of their old age — 

A. What was the matter 1 

B. My hot loaves, my son. 
A . Sure you are mad 1 

B. My nice pan-loaves, my son, 
So white, so hot 


There is another loaf called the encryphias, or secret loaf. 
And this is mentioned by Nicostratus, in his Hierophant, 
and Archestratus the inventor of made dishes, -whose testi- 
mony I will introduce at the proper season. 

There is a loaf also called dipyrus, or twice-baked. Eubulus 
says, in his Ganymede — 

And nice hot twice-baked loaves. 
And Alcaeus says, in his Ganymede — 

A. But what are dipyri, or twice-baked loaves ] 

B. Of all loaves the most delicate. 

There is another loaf, called laganum. This is very light, 
and not very nutritious ; and the loaf called apanthracis is 
even less nutritious still. And Aristophanes mentions the 
laganum in his Ecclesiazusse, saying — 

The lagana are being baked. 
And the apanthracis is mentioned by Diocles the Carystian, 
in the first book of his treatise on Wholesomes, saying — 
'•' The apanthracis is more tender than the laganum : and it 
appears that it is made on the coals, like that called by the 
Attic writers encryphias, which the Alexandrians consecrate 
to Saturn, and put them in the temple of Saturn for every 
one to eat who pleases." 

75. And Epicharmus, in his Hebe's Marriage, and in his 
Muses (and this play is an emendation of the former one), 
thus enumerates the different kinds of loaves — " The pan- 
loaf, the homorns, the statites, the encris, the loaf made of 
meal, the half loaf," which Sophron also mentions in his 
Eemale Actors, saying — 

Pan-loaves and homori, a dainty meal 
For goddesses, and a half-loaf for Hecate. 

And I know, my friends, that the Athenians spell this word 
with a p, writing Kplfiavov and Kpi/WiVr/s ; but Herodotus, in 
the second book of his history, writes it with a A, saying 
k\l(3u.vio Sta^avel. And so Sophron said — 

Who dresses suet puddings or clibanites, 

Or half-loaves here? 
And the same w T riter also speaks of a loaf which he calls 
7r\aKLT7]s, saying in his Gynsecea — 

He feasted me till night with placite loaves. 
Sophron also mentions tyron bread, or bread compounded 
with cheese, saying in the play called "the Mother-in-law — 

o. 75,] loaves. 183 

I bid you now'eat heartily, 

For some one has just giv"n a tyron loaf, 

Fragrant with cheese, to all the children. 

And Nicander of Colophon, in his Dialects, calls unleavened 
bread Saparo?. And Plato the comic writer, in his Long 
Night, calls large ill-made loaves Cilician, in these words — 

Then he went forth, and bought some loaves, not nice 
Clean rolls, but dirty huge Cilicians. 

And in the drama entitled Menelaus, he calls some loaves 
ageleei, or common loaves. There is also a loaf mentioned by 
Alexis, in his Cyprian, which he calls autopyrus— 

Having just eaten autopyrus bread. 
And Phrynichus, in his Poastriae, speaks of the same loaves, 
calling them autopyritse, saying — 

With autopyrite loaves, and sweeten'd cakes 
Of well-press'd figs and olives. 

And Sophocles makes mention of a loaf called orindes, in 
his Triptolemus, which has its name from being made of rice 
(opvtp), or from a grain raised in /Ethiopia, which resembles 

Aristophanes also, in his Tagenistse, or the Fryers, makes 
mention of rolls called collabi, and says — 

Each of you take a collabus. 
And in a subsequent passage he says — 

Bring here a paunch of pig in autumn born, 
With hot delicious collabi. 

And these rolls are made of new wheat, as Philyllius declares 
in his Auge — 

Here I come, bearing in my hands the offspring 
Of three months' wheat, hot doughy collabi, 
Mixed with the milk of the grass-feeding cow. 

There is also a kind of loaf called maconidic, mentioned by 
Alcman, in his fifteenth book, in these terms — "There were 
seven couches for the guests, and an equal number of tables 
of maconidse loaves, crowned with a white tablecloth, and 
with sesamum, and in handsome dishes." Chrysocolla are a 
food made of honey and flax. 1 

1 It seems certain that there is some great corruption in this and the 
preceding sentence. 


There is also a kind of loaf called collyra, mentioned by 
Aristophanes in his Peace — 

A large collyra, and a mighty lump 
Of dainty meat upon it. 

And in his Holcades he says — 

And a collyra for the voyagers, 

Earn'd by the trophy raised at Marathon.' 

7G. There is a loaf also called the obelias, or the penny 
loaf, so called because it is sold for a penny, as in Alexandria ; 
or else because it is baked on small spits. Aristophanes, in 
his Farmers, says — 

Then perhaps some one bakes a penny loaf. 
And Pherecrates, in his Forgetful Man, says — 

01 en, now roast a penny roll with ashes, 
But take care, don't prefer it to a loaf. 

And the men who in the festivals carried these penny rolls 
on their shoulders were called o'/?eAta0o'poi. And Socrates, in 
his sixth book of his Surnames, says that it was Bacchus who 
invented the penny roll on his expeditions. There is a roll 
called etnites, the same which is also named lecithites, accord- 
ing to the statement of Eucrates. 

The Messapians call bread 7ravos, and they call satiety iravia, 
and those things which give a surfeit they call -n-ama; at 
least, those terms are used by Bla;sus, in his Mesotriba, and 
by Archilochus, in his Telephus, and by Rhinthon, in his 
Amphitryon. And the Romatis call bread panis. 

Nastus is a name given to a large loaf of leavened bread, 
according to the statement of Polemarchus and Artemidorus. 
But the Heracleon is a kind of cheesecake. And Nicostratus 
says, in his Sofa — 

Such was the size, master, of the nastus, 
A large white loaf. It was so deep, its top 
Rose like a tower quite above its basket. 
Its smell, when that the top was lifted up, 
Hose up, a fragrance not unmix'd with honey 
Most grateful to our nostrils, still being hot. 

The name of bread among the Ionians was cnestus, as 
Artemidorus the Ephesian states in his Memorials of Ionia. 
Thronus was the name of a particular kind of loaf, as it is 
stated by Neanthes of Cyzicus, in the second book of his 
Grecian History, where he writes as follows — " But Codrus 

C. 77.] LOAVES. ]85 

takes a slice of a loaf of the kind called thronus, and a 
piece of meat, such as they give to the old men." 

There is, among the Elians, a kind of loaf baked on the 
ashes which they call bacchylus, as Nicander states in the 
second book of his treatise on Dialects. And Diphilus men- 
tions it in his Woman who went Astray, in these words — 
To bring loaves baked on ashes, strain'd through sieves. 

The thing called a.Troirvpia<i is also a kind of roll; and that 
also is baked on the ashes; and by some it is called ^v/uttc, 
or leavened. Cratinus, in his Effeminate People — 
First of all I an apopyrias have^- 

^ * H 5 # 

77. And Archestratus, in his Gastronomy, thus speaks of 
flour and of rolls — 

First, my dear Moschus, will I celebrate 

The bounteous gifts of Ceres the fair-hair' d. 

And cherish these my sayings in thy heart. 

Take these most excellent things, — the well-made cake 

Of fruitful barley, in fair Lesbos grown, 

On the circumfluous hill of Eresus ; 

Whiter than driven snow, if it be true 

That these are loaves such as the gods do eat, 

"Which Mercury their steward buys for them. 

Good is the bread in seven-gated Thebes, 

In Thasos, and in many other cities, 

But all compared with these would seem but husks, 

And worthless refuse. Be you sure of this. 

Seek too the round Thessalian roll, the which' 

A maid's fair hand has kneaded, which the natives 

Crimmatias call ; though others chondrinus. 

Nor let the Tegean son of finest flour, 

The fine encryphias be all unpraised. 

Athens, Minerva's famous city, sends 

The best of loaves to market, food for men ; 

There is, besides, Erythra, known for grapes, 

Nor less for a white loaf in shapely pan, 

Carefully moulded, white and beautiful, 

A tempting dish for hungry guests at supper. 

The epicure Archestratus says this; and lie counsels us to 
have a Phoenician or Lydian slave for a baker; for he was 
not ignorant that the best makers of loaves come from 
Cappadocia. And he speaks thus — 

Take care, and keep a Lydian in thy house, 
Or an all-wise Phoenician ; who shall know 
Your inmost thoughts, and each day shall devise 
New forms to please your mind, and do your bidding. 


78. Antiphanes also speaks of the Athenian loaves as pre- 
eminently good, in his Omphale, saying — 

For how could any man of noble birth 
Ever come forth from this luxurious house, 
Seeing these fair-complexion'd wheaten loaves 
Filling the oven in such quick succession, 
And seeing them, devise fresh forms from moulds, 
The work of Attic hands ; well-train'd by wise 
Thearion to honour holy festivals. 

This is that Thearion the celebrated baker, whom Plato makes 
mention of in the Gorgias, joining him and Mithsecus in the 
same catalogue, writing thus. " Those who have been or are 
skilful providers for the body you enumerated with great 
anxiety ; Thearion the baker, and Mithsecus who wrote the 
treatise called the Sicilian Cookery, and Sarambus the inn- 
keeper, saying that they were admirable providers for the 
body, the one preparing most excellent loaves of bread, and 
the other preparing meat, and the other wine." And Aris- 
tophanes, in the Gerytades and (Eolosicon, speaks in this 
manner — 

I come now, having left the baker's shop, 

The seat of good Thearion's pans and ovens. 

And Eubulus makes mention of Cyprian loaves as exceed- 
ingly good, in his Orthane, using these words — 

'Tis a hard thing, beholding Cyprian loaves, 
To ride by carelessly ; for like a magnet 
They do attract the hungry passengers. 

And Ephippus, in his Diana, makes mention of the kgXXlklqi 
loaves (and they are the same as the KoXAafioL) in these 
terms — 

Eating the collix, baked in well-shaped pan, 

By Alexander's Thessalian recipe. 

Aristophanes also says, in his Acharnensians — 
All hail, my collix-cating young Boeotian. 
79. When the conversation had gone on this way, one of 
the grammarians present, whose name was Arrian, said — 
This food is as old as the time of Saturn, my friends ; for we 
are not rejoicing in meal, for the city is full of bread, nor in 
all this catalogue of loaves. But since I have fallen in with 
another treatise of Chrysippus of Tyana, which is entitled a 
treatise on the Art of Making Bread; and since I have had 
experience of the different recipes given in it at the houses 

C. 80.] LOAVES. 187 

of many of ray friends, I will proceed to say something my- 
self also on the snbject of loaves. The kind of loaf which 
is called a/0TO7TTiWo?, differs in some respect from that made 
in a pan, and from that made in an oven. But if you make 
it with hard leaven, it will be bright and nice, so that it may 
be eaten dry; but if it be made with a looser leaven, then it 
will be light but not bright. But the loaf which is made in 
a pan, and that which is made in an oven, require a softer 
kind of leaven. And among the Greeks there is a kind of 
bread which is called tender, being made up with a little 
milk and oil, and a fair quantity of salt ; and one must make 
the dough for this bread loose. And this kind of loaf is 
called the Cappadocian, since tender bread is made in the 
greatest quantities in Cappadocia. But the Syrians call 
loaves of this kind Xaxprj ; and it is the best bread made in 
Syria, because it can be eaten hot; and it is like a flower. 
But there is also a loaf called boletinus, from being made 
like a mushroom, and the kneading-trough is smeared with 
poppies plastered over the bottom of it, on which the dough 
is placed, and by this expedient it is prevented from sticking 
to the trough while the leaven is mixed in. But when it is 
put in the oven, then some groats are spread under on a tile, 
and then the bread is put on it, and it gets a most beautiful 
colour, like cheese which has been smoked. 

There is also a kind of bread called strepticias, which is 
made up with a little milk, and pepper and a little oil is 
added, and sometimes suet is substituted. And a little wine, 
and pepper, and milk, and a little oil, or sometimes suet, is 
employed in making the cake called artolaganum. But for 
making the cakes called capuridia tracta, you mix the same 
ingredients that you do for bread, and the difference is in the 

80. So when the mighty sophist of Rome had enunciated 
these precepts of Aristarchus, Cynulcus said — O Ceres, 
what a wise man ! It is not without reason that the admi- 
rable Blepsias has pupils as the sand of the sea in number, 
and has amassed wealth from this excellent wisdom of his, 
beyond all that was acquired by Gorgias or Protagoras. So 
that I am afraid, by the goddesses, to say whether he himself is 
blind, or whether those who have entrusted his pupils to him 
have all but one eve, so as scarcely to be able to sec, nume- 


rous as they are. Happy are they, or rather blessed ought I 
to call them, whose masters treat them to such divine lec- 
tures. And in reply to this Magnus, a man fond of the table, 
and very much inclined to praise this grammarian to excess, 
because of the abundance of his learning, said — But ye — ■ 

Men with unwashen feet, who lie on the ground, 

You roofless wanderers, all-devouring throats, 

Feasting on other men's possessions, 
as Eubulus says — did not your father Diogenes, once when 
he was eagerly eating a cheesecake at a banquet, say to some 
one who put the question to him, that he was eating bread 
excellently well made 1 But as for you, you 

Stranglers of dishes of white paunches, 
as the same poet, Eubulus, says, you keep on speaking 
without ever giving place to others ; and you are never quiet 
until some one throws you a crust or a bone, as he would do 
to a dog. How do you come to know that cubi (I do not 
mean those which you are continually handling) are a kind 
of loaf, square, seasoned with anise, and cheese, and oil, as 
Heraclides says in his Cookery Book 1 But Blepsias over- 
looked this kind, as also he did the thargelus, which some 
call the thalysius. But Crates, in the second book of his 
treatise on the Attic Dialect, says that the thargelus is the 
fii'st loaf made after the carrying home of the harvest. The loaf 
made of sesame he had never seen, nor that which is called 
anastatus, which is made for the Arrephori. 1 There is also a 
loaf called the pyramus, made of sesame, and perhaps being 
the same as the sesamites. But Trypho mentions all these 
different kinds in the first book of his treatise on Plants, as 
he also does those which are called thiagones. And these last 
are loaves made for the gods in ^Etolia. There are also loaves 
called dramices and araxis among the Athamanes. 

81. And the writers of books on dialects give lists of the 
names of different loaves. Seleucus speaks of one called 
dramis, which bears this name among the Macedonians ; and 
of another called daratus by the Thessalians. And he speaks 
of the etnites, saying that it is the same as the lecithites, 
1 'Appr]<p6poi. At Athens, two maidens chosen in their seventh year, 
who carried the peplos, and other holy things, &ppr\ra., of Pallas in the 
Scirrophoria. Others write it eptrt)- or ipfa^opoi, which points to'Epar), 
a daughter of Cecrops, who was worshipped along with Pallas. Liddell 
and Scott, Gr. Lex. in voc. 

C. 82.] LOAVES. 189 

that is to say, made of the yolks of eggs and of pulse. And 
he says that the loaf called epi/aV???, has its name from being 
made of wheat crushed (<Ep??piy//,eVos), and not sifted, and of 
groats. And Amerias speaks of a loaf called xeropyrites, 
made of pure wheat, and nothing else ; and so does Tima- 
chidas. But Nicander says that thiagones is the name given 
by the ^tolians to those loaves which are made for the. gods. 
The Egyptians have a bread which is rather bitter, which 
they call cyllastis. And Aristophanes speaks of it in his 
Danaides, saying — • 

Mention the cyllastis and the petosiris. 
Hecatams, too, and Herodotus mention it ; and so does 
Phanodemus, in the seventh book of his Attic History. But 
Nicander of Thyatira says, that it is bread made of barley 
which is called cyllastis by the Egyptians. Alexis calls 
dirty loaves phsei, in his Cyprian, saying — 

A. Then you are come at last] 

B. Scarce could I find 
Of well-baked loaves enough 

A. A plague upon you ; 
But what now have you got 1 

B. I bring with me 
Sixteen, a goodly number; eight of them 
Tempting and white, and just as many phaii. 

And Seleucus says that there is a very closely made hot 
bread which is called blema. And Philemon, in the first 
book of his Oracles, " Useful Things of Every Kind," says — 
that bread made of unsifted wheat, and containing the bran 
and everything, is called irvpv6<;. He says, too, that there are 
loaves which are called blomilii, which have divisions in 
them, which the Romans call quadrati. And that bread 
made of bran is called brattime, which Amerias and Tima- 
chidas call euconon or teuconon. But Philetas, in his 
Miscellanies, says that there is a kind of loaf which is called 
spoleus, which is only eaten by relations when assembled 

82. Now you may find barley-cakes mentioned in his 
writings by Tryphon, and by many other authors. Among 
the Athenians it is called phystes, not being too closely 
kneaded. There is also the cardamale, and the berex, and 
the tolype, and the Achilleum; and perhaps that is a cake 
which is made of the Achillean barky. Then there is the 


thridakina, so named from lettuce; the cenutta, so called 
from wine; the melitutta, from honey; and the criuon, the 
name of which is derived from the lily, which last is also the 
name of a choral dance, mentioned by Apollophanes, in the 
Dalis. But the cakes called thridaciscae by Alcman, are the 
same as the Attic thridacinse. But Alcman speaks thus — 

The thridacisca, and the cribanotus. 
And Sosibius, in the third book of his essay on Alcman, says, 
that cribana is a name given to a peculiar kind of cheese- 
cake, in shape like a breast. But the barley cake, which is 
given in sacrifices to be tasted by the sacrificers, is called 
hygea. And there is also one kind of barley cake which is 
called by Hesiod amolgsea. 

The amolgsean cake of barley made, 

And milk of goats whose stream is nearly dry. 

And he calls it the cake of the shepherds, and very strength- 
ening. For the word a/xoXyos means that which is in the 
greatest vigour. But I may fairly beg to be excused from 
giving a regular list (for I have not a very unimpeachable 
memory) of all the kinds of biscuits and cakes which Aris- 
tomenes the Athenian speaks of in the third book of his 
treatise on Things pertaining to the Sacred Ceremonies. And 
we ourselves were acquainted with that man, though we were 
young, and he was older than we. And he was an actor in 
the Old Comedy, a freedman of that most accomplished king 
Adrian, and called by him the Attic partridge. 

And Ulpian said — By whom is the word freedman (mreAew- 
Oepo?) ever used? And when some one replied that there 
was a play with that title — narnety, the Freedman of Phry- 
nichus, and that Menander, in his Beaten Slave, had the 
word freedwoman (d.Tre\ev8epa), and was proceeding to men- 
tion other instances ; he asked again — What is the differ- 
ence between aTreXevOepos l and e$e\ev0ipoc. However, it was 
agreed upon to postpone this part of the discussion for the 

83. And Galen, when we were just about to lay hands on the 
loaves, said — We will not begin supper until you have heard 
what the sons of the Asclepiadse have said about loaves, 
and cheesecakes, and meal, and flour. Diphilus the Siphnian, 

1 There is no classical authority for i£e\evdepos ; though Demosthenes 
has ££eAev6epiKhs, relating to a freedman. 

C. 83.] LOAVES. 101 

in his treatise on What is Wholesome to be eaten by People 
in Health and by Invalids, says, " Loaves made of wheat 
are by far more nutritious and by far more digestible than 
those made of barley, and are in every respect superior 
to them ; and the next best are those which are made of 
similago ; and next to those come the loaves made of sifted 
flour, and next to them those called syncomisti, which are 
made of unsifted meal ; — for these appear to be more nutri- 
tious." But Philistion the Locrian says " that the loaves 
made of similago are superior to those made of groats, as 
far as their strengthening properties go ; and next to them 
he ranks loaves made of groats, then those made of sifted 
flour. But the rolls made of bran give a much less whole- 
some juice, and are by far less nutritious. And all bread is 
more digestible when eaten hot than cold, and it is also more 
digestible then, and affords a pleasanter and more wholesome 
juice ; nevertheless, hot bread is apt to cause flatulence, 
though it is not the less digestible for that ; while cold bread 
is filling and indigestible. But bread which is very stale and 
cold is less nutritious, and is apt to cause constipation of the 
bowels, and affords a very unpleasant juice. The bread called 
encryphiasis is heavy and difficult of digestion, because it is 
not baked in an equal manner ; but that which is called 
ipnites and caminitcs is indigestible and apt to disagree with 
people. That called escharites, and that which is fried, is 
more easily secreted because of the admixture of oil in it, but 
is not so good for the stomach, on account of the smell which 
there is about it. But the bread called 'the clibanites' has 
every possible good quality; for it gives a pleasant and whole- 
some juice, and is good for the stomach, and is digestible, and 
agrees exceedingly well with every one, for it never clogs the 
bowels, and never relaxes them too much." 

_ But Andreas the physician says that there are loaves in 
Sicily made of the sycamine, and that those who eat them lose 
their hair and become bald. Mncsithcus says "that wheat- 
1 »read is more digestible than barley-bread, and that those which 
are made with the straw in them are exceedingly nutritious ; 
for they arc the most easily digested of all food. But bread 
which is, made of rye, if it be eaten in any quantity, is h< ayy 
and difficult of digestion ; on which account those who eat 
it do not keep their health." But you should know that corn 


■which has not been exposed to the fire, and which has not 
been ground, causes flatulence, and heaviness, and vertigo, 
and headache. 

84. After all this conversation it seemed good to go to 
supper. And when the Ureeum was carried round, Leonidas 
said, " Euthydemus the Athenian, my friends, in his treatise 
on Pickles, says that Hesiod has said with respect to every 
kind of pickle; — 

* * * * * * * i 

Some sorrily-clad fishermen did seek 

To catch a lamprey ; men who love to haunt 

The Bosporus's narrow strait, well stored 

With fish for pickling fit. They cut their prey 

In large square portions, and then plunge them deep 

Into the briny tub : nor is the oxyrhyncus 

A kind to be despised by mortal man ; 

Which the bold sons of ocean bring to market 

Whole and in pieces. Of the noble tunny 

The fair Byzantium the mother is, 

And of the scombrus lurking in the deep, 

And of the well-fed ray. The snow-white Paros 

Nurses the colius for human food ; 

And citizens from Bruttium or Campania, 

Fleeing along the broad Ionian sea, 

Will bring the orcys, which shall potted be, 

And placed in layers in the briny cask, 

Till honour'd as the banquet's earliest course. 

Now these verses appear to me to be the work of some cook 
rather than of that most accomplished Hesiod ; for how is it 
possible for him to have spoken of Parium or Byzantium, and 
still more of Tarentum and the Bruttii and the Campanians, 
when he was many years more ancient than any of these 
places or tribes ? So it seems to me that they are the verses 
of Euthydemus himself." 

And Dionysiocles said, " Whoever wrote the verses, my good 
Leonidas, is a matter which you all, as being grammarians of 
the highest reputation, are very capable of deciding. But 
since the discussion is turning upon pickles and salt fish, con- 
cerning which I recollect a proverb which was thought deserv- 
ing of being quoted by Charchus the Solensian, — 
For old salt-fish is fond of marjoram. 

1 The beginning of this fragment of Hesiod is given up as hopelessly 
corrupt by the commentators ; and there is probably a great deal of 
corruption running through the whole of it. 

c. 85.] fish. 19.3 

I too myself will say a word on the subject, which is not un- 
connected with my own art. 

85. Diodes the Carystian, in his treatise on the Whole- 
somes, as it is entitled, says, " Of all salt-fish which are desti- 
tute of fat, the best is the horseum ; and of all that are fat, 
the best is the tunny-fish." But Icesius says, " that neither 
the pelamydes nor the horsea are easily secreted by the 
stomach ; and that the younger tunnies are similar in most 
respects to the cybii, but that they have a great superiority 
over those w T hich are called horsea." And he says the same of 
the Byzantine horsea, in comparison with those which are 
caught in other places. And he says '-that not only the tunnies, 
but that all other fish caught at Byzantium is superior to that 
which is caught elsewhere." 

To this Daphnus the Ephesiau added, — Archestratus, who 
sailed round the whole world for the sake of finding out what 
was good to eat, and what pleasures he could derive from the 
use of his inferior members, says — 

And a large slice of fat Sicilian tunny, 
Carefully carved, should be immersed in brine. 
But the saperdes is a worthless brute, 
A delicacy fit for Ponticans 
And those who like it. For few men can tell 
How bad and void of strengthening qualities 
Those viands are. The scombrus should be kept 
Three days before you sprinkle it with salt, 
Then let it lie half pickled in the cask. 
But when you come unto the sacred coast, 
"Where proud Byzantium commands the strait, 
Then take a slice of delicate horseum, 
For it is good and tender in those seas. 

But that epicure Archestratus has omitted to enumerate the 
pickle-juice called elephantine, which is spoken of by Crates 
the comic poet, in his Samians ; who says of it — 

A sea-born turtle in the bitter waves 
Bears in its skin the elephantine pickle; 
And crabs swift as the wind, and thin-wing'd pike, 
i * * -x * * 

But that the elephantine pickle of Crates was very celebrated 
Aristophanes bears witness, in his Thesmophoriazus;e, in these 
words — 

1 The text here is so corrupt as to be quite unintelligible. 
VOL. I. — ATII. O 


Sure comic poetry is a mighty food ; 
Listen to Crates, he will tell you, how 
The elephantine pickle, easily made, 
Is dainty seas'ning; many other jokes 
Of the same kind he utter'd. 

86. And there was another kind, which Alexis calls raw 
pickle, in his Apeglaucornenos. And the same poet, in his 
Wicked Woman, introduces a cook talking about the prepara- 
tion of salt-fish and pickled fish, in the following verses : — 

I wish now, sitting quiet by myself, 
To ponder in my mind some dainty dishes; 
And also to arrange what may be best 
For the first course, and how 1 best may flavour 
Each separate dish, and make it eatable. 
Now first of all the pickled horceum comes ; 
This will but cost one penny; wash it well, 
Then strew a large flat dish with seasoning, 
And put in that the fish. Pour in white wine 
And oil, then add some boil'd beef marrow-bones, 
And take it from the fire, when the last zest 
Shall be by assafoetida imparted. 

And, in his Apeglaucornenos, a man being asked for his con- 
tribution to the feast, says — 

A. Indeed you shall not half a farthing draw 
From me, unless you name each separate dish. 

B. That reasonable is. 

A. Well, bring a slate 
And pencil ; now your items. 

B. First, there is 
Eaw pickled fish, and that will fivepence cost. 
A. AVhatnext] 

B. Some mussels, sevenpencc for them. 

A. Well, there's no harm in that. What follows next 1 

B. A pennyworth of urchins of the sea. 
A. Still I can find no fault. 

B. The next in order 
Is a fine dish of cabbage, which you said . . . 
A. Well, that will do. 

B. For that I paid just twopence. 
A. What was't I said ] 

B. A erbium for threepence. 

A. But are yoix sure you've nought embezzled here] 

B. My friend, you've no experience of the market ; 
You know not how the grubs devour the greens. 

A. But how is that a reason for your charging 
A double price for sal t-fish 1 

B. The greengrocer) 
Is also a salt-fishmonger; go and ask him. 

C. 88.] FISH. 10 J 

A conger, tenpence. 

A. That is not too much. 
What next 1 

B. I bought a roast fish for a drachma. 

A. Bah ! how he runs on now towards the end, 
As if a fever had o'ertaken him. 

B. Then add the wine, of which I bought three gallons 
AVhen you were drunk, ten obols for each gallon. 

87. And Tcesius says, in the second book of his treatise 
on the Materials of Nourishment, that pelamydes are a large 
kind of cybium. And Posidippus speaks of the cybium, in 
his Transformed. But Euthydemus, in his treatise on Salt 
Fish, says that the fish called the Delcanus is so named from 
the river Delcon, where it is taken ; and then, -when pickled 
and salted, it is very good indeed for the stomach. But Dorion, 
in his book on Fishes, calls the leptinus the lebianus, and 
says, " that some people say that is the same fish as the del- 
canus ; and that the ceracinus is called by many people 
the saperdes ; and that the best are those 'which come from 
the Palus Moeotis. And he says that the mullet which are 
caught about Abdera are excellent ; and next to them, those 
which are caught near Sinope ; and that they, when pickled 
and salted, are very good for the stomach. But those, he 
says, which are called mulli are by some people called agno- 
tidia, and by some platistaci, though they are all the same 
fish ; as also is the chellares. For that he, being but one fish, 
has received a great variety of names ; for that he is called 
a bacchus, and an oniscus, and a chellares. And those of 
the larger size are called platistaci, and those of middle size 
mulli, and those which are but small are called agnotidia. 
But Aristophanes also mentions the mulli, in his Holcades — 

Scombri, and colia;, and lebii, 

And mulli, and saperdaj, and all tunnies. 

88. When Dionysiocles was silent upon this, Varus the 
grammarian said, — But Antiphanes the poet, also, in his Deu- 
calion, mentions these kinds of pickled salt-fish, where he 
says — 

If any one should wish for caviar 
From mighty sturgeon, fresh from Cadiz' sea; 
Or else delights in the Byzantine tunny, 
And courts its fragrance. 

And in his Parasite he says — 



Caviar from the sturgeon in the middle, 
Fat, white as snow, and hot. 

And Nicostratus or Philetserus, in his Antyllus, says — 

Let the Byzantine salt-fish triumph here, 
And paunch from Cadiz, carefully preserved. 

And a little further on, he proceeds — 

But, ye earth and gods ! I found a man, 

An honest fishmonger of pickled fish, 

Of whom I bought a huge fish ready scaled, 

Cheap at a drachma, for two oboli. 

Three days' hard eating scarcely would suffice 

That we might finish it ; no, nor a fortnight, 

So far does it exceed the common size. 

After this Ulpian, looking upon Plutarch, chimed in, — It 
seems to me that no one, in all that has been said, has in- 
cluded the Mendesian fish, which are so much fancied by you 
gentlemen of Alexandria ; though I should have thought that 
a mad dog would scarcely touch them ; nor has any one 
mentioned the hemineri or half-fresh fish, which you think 
so good, nor the pickled shads. And Plutarch replied, — 
The heminerus, as far as I know, does not differ from the 
half-pickled fish which have been already mentioned, and 
which your elegant Archestratus speaks of; but, however, 
Sopater the Paphian has mentioned the heminerus, in his 
Slave of Mystacus, saying — 

He then received the caviar from a sturgeon 
Bred in the mighty Danube, dish much prized, 
Half-fresh, half-pickled, by the wandering Scythians. 

And the same man includes the Mendesian in his list — 

A slightly salt Mendesian in season, 

And mullet roasted on the glowing embers. 

And all those who have tried, know that these dishes are by 
far more delicate and agreeable than the vegetables and figs 
which you make such a fuss about. Tell us now also, whe- 
ther the word rapi^os is used in the masculine gender by tire 
Attic writers ; for we know it is by Epicharmus. 

89. And while Ulpian was thinking this over with him- 
self, Myrtilus, anticipating him, said, — (Jratinus, in his Dionys- 
alexander, has — 

I will my basket fill with Pontic pickles, 
(where he uses rdpi^oi as masculine ;) and Plato, in his Jupiter 
Illtrcated, says — 

c. 89.] fish. 197 

All that I have amounts to this, 

And I shall lose my pickled fish (raplxovs). 

And Aristophanes says, in Ins Daitaleis — 

I'm not ashamed to wash this fine salt-fish (rhv rdpixov rovrovl), 
From all the evils which I know he has. 

And Crates says, in his Beasts — 

And you must boil some greens, and roast some fish, 

And pickled fish likewise, (rovs raplxovs,) and keep your hands 

Prom doing any injury to us. 

But the noun is formed in a very singular manner by Her- 
niippus, in his Female Bread-Sellers — 

And fat pickled fish (rdpixos fiova). 
And Sophocles says, in his Phineus — 

A pickled corpse (venpos rdpixos) Egyptian to behold. 
Aristophanes has also treated us to a diminutive form of the 
word, in his Peace — 

Bring us some good raplx'oy to the fields 
And Cephisodorus says, in his Pig — 

Some middling meat, or some rapixtor. 

And Pherecrates, in his Deserters, has — 

The woman boil'd some pulse porridge, and lentils, 
And so awaited each of us, and roasted 
Besides an orphan small raplx'ov. 

Epicharmus also uses the word in the masculine gender, 
o TapiY/)s. And Herodotus does the same in his ninth book; 
where he says — " The salt-fish (ot Taproot) lying on the fire, 
leaped about and quivered." And the proverbs, too, in which 
the word occurs, have it in the masculine gender : — 

Salt-fish (rdpixos) is done if it but see the fire. 

Salt-fish (rdpixos) when too long kept loves marjoram. 

Salt-fish (rdpixos) does never get its due from men. 
But the Attic writers often use it as a neuter word ; and the 
genitive case, as they use it, is tov rapi^us. Chionides says, 
in his Beggars — 

Will you then eat some pickled fish (rot raplxovs), ye gods ! 
And the dative is Tappet, like £[<\>a, — 

Beat therefore now upon this pickled fish (rcZ raplx^t t£5«). 
And Menander uses it Tttp/.yos, in the accusative case, in his 
Man selecting an Arbitrator — 

I spread some salt upon the pickled fish (M rd rdpixos). 


But when the word is masculine the genitive case does not 
end with o\ 

90. The Athenians were so fond of pickled fish that they 
enrolled , as citizens the sons of Chserephilus the seller of 
salt-fish ; as Alexis tells us, in his Epidaurus, when he says — 

For 'twas salt-fish that made Athenians 
And citizens of Chterep'hilus's sons. 

And when Tiniocles once saw them on horseback, he said 
that two tunny-fish were among the Satyrs. And Hyperides 
the orator mentions them too. And Antiphanes speaks of 
Euthynus the seller of pickled fish, in his Couris, in these 
terms : — 

And going to the salt-fish seller, him 

I mean with whom I used to deal, there wait for me ; 

And if Euthynus be not come, still wait, 

And occupy the man with fair excuses, 

And hinder him from cutting up the fish. 

And Alexis, in his Hippiscus, and again in his Soraci, makes 
mention of Phidippus ; and he too was a dealer in salt-fish — 

There was another man, Fhidippus bight, 
A foreigner who brought salt-fish to Athens. 

91. And while we were eating the salt-fish and getting very 
anxious to drink, Daphnus said, holding up both his hands, — 
Heraclides of Tarentum, my friends, in his treatise entitled 
The Banquet, says, " It is good to take a moderate quantity of 
food before drinking, and especially to eat such dishes as one 
is accustomed to ; for from the eating of things which have 
not been eaten for a long time the wine is apt to be turned 
sour, so as not to sit on the stomach, and many twinges and 
spasms are often originated. But some people think that these 
also are bad for the stomach ; I mean, all kinds of vegetables 
and salted fish, since they possess qualities apt to cause pangs ; 
but that glutinous and invigorating food is the most whole- 
some, — being ignorant that a great many of the things which 
assist the secretions are, on the contrary, very good for the 
stomach ; among which is the plant called sisarum, (which. 
Epicharmus speaks of, in his Agrostinus, and also in his 
Earth and Sea ; and so does Diodes, in the first book of 
his treatise on the Wholesomes ;) and asparagus and white 
beet, (for the black beet is apt to check the secretions,) and 
cockles, and solens, and sea mussels, and chema?, and peri- 
winkles, and perfect pickles, and salt-fish, which are void of 

c. 92.] fish. 109 

smell, and many kinds of juicy fishes. And' it is good that, 
before the main dinner, there should be served up what is called 
salad, and beet-root, and salt-fish, in order that by having- tho 
edge of our appetite taken off we may go with less eagerness 
to what is not equally nutritious. But at the beginning of 
dinner it is best to avoid abundant draughts ; for they are 
bad as generating too great a secretion of humours in the 

" But the Macedonians, according to the statement of 
Ephippus the Olynthian, in his treatise Concerning the Burial 
of Alexander and Heph&'stion, had no notion of moderation in 
drinking, but started off at once with enormous draughts be- 
fore eating, so as to be drunk before the first course was off 
the table, and to be unable to enjoy the rest of the banquet." 
92. But Diphilus the Siphnian says, " The salt pickles which 
are made of fish, whether caught in the sea, or in the lake, or 
in the river, are not very nourishing, nor very juicy, but are 
inflammatory, and act strongly on the bowels, and are pro- 
vocative of desire. But the best of them are those which are 
made of animals devoid of fat, such as cybia, and horrea, and 
other kinds like them. And of fat fish, the best are the dif- 
ferent kinds of tunny, and the young of the tunny ■ for the 
old ones are larger and harsher to the taste ; and above all, the 
Byzantine tunnies are so. But the tunny, says he, is the same 
as the larger pelamys, the small kind of which is the same as 
the erbium, to which species the horpeum also belongs. But 
the sarda is of very nearly the same size as the colias. And 
the scombrus is a light fish, and one which the stomach 
easih rid of; but the colias is a glutinous fish, very 

like a squill, and apt to give twinges, and has an inferior 
juice, but nevertheless is nutritious. And the lust are those 
which are called the Amyclsean, and the Spanish, which is 
also called the Saxitan ; fin- they are lighter and sweeter." 

But Strabo, in the third book of his work on Geography, 
says that near the Islands of Hercules, 1 and oft' the city of 
Carthagena, is a city named Sexitania, from which the salt- 
fish above-mentioned derive their name ; and there is another 
city called Scombroaria, so called from the scombri which 
are caught in its neighbourhood, and of them the besl sauce 
is made. But there are also fish which are called melandryse, 
1 The Balearic Isles. 


which are mentioned by Epicbarmus also, in his Ulysses the 
Deserter, in this way — 

Then there was salt and pickled fish to eat, 
Something not quite unlike melandryre. 

Bnt the melandrys is the largest description of tunny, aa 
Pamphilus explains in bis treatise on Names ; and that when 
preserved is very rich and oily. 

93. " But the raw pickle called omotarichum," says Diphi- 
lus, " is called by some people cetema. It is a heavy sticky 
food, and moreover very indigestible. But the river coracinus, 
which some people call the peltes, the one from the Nile, 
I mean, which the people at Alexandria have a peculiar name 
for, and call the heminerus, is rather fat, and has a juice which 
is far from disagreeable ; it is fleshy, nutritious, easily diges- 
tible, not apt to disagree with one, and in every respect 
superior to the mullet. Now the roe of every fish, whether 
fresh or dried and salted, is indigestible and apt to disagree. 
And the most so of all is the roe of the more oily and larger 
fish ; for that i - emains harder for a long time, and is not 
decomposed. But it is not disagreeable to the taste when 
seasoned with salt and roasted. Every one, however, ought to 
soak dried and salted fish until the water becomes free from 
smell, and sweet. But dried sea-fish when boiled becomes 
sweeter ; and they are sweeter too when eaten hot than cold." 
And Mnesitheus the Athenian, in his treatise on Comestibles, 
says, " Those juices which are salt, and those which are sweet, 
all have an effect in relaxing the bowels ; but those which 
are sharp and harsh are strongly diuretic. Those too which 
arc bitter are generally diuretic, but some of them also relax 
the bowels. Those which are sour, however, check the 

And Xenophon, that most accomplished of writers, in his 
treatise entitled Hiero, or the Tyrant, abuses all such food, 
and says, " For what, said Hiero, have you never noticed all 
the multitudinous contrivances which are set before tyrants, 
acid, and harsh, and sour ; and whatever else there can be of 
the same kind? — To be sure I have, said Simonides, and all 
those things appeared to me to be very contrary to the natu- 
ral taste of any man. And do you think, said Hiero, that 
these dishes are anything else but the fancies of a diseased 
and vitiated taste ; since those who eat with appetite, you 

c. 94.] fish. 201 

well know, have no need of these contrivances and provo- 
catives 1" 

91. After this had been said, Cynulcus asked for some 
spiced and boiled water to drink ; saying that he must wash 
down all those salt arguments with sweet drink. And Ulpian 
said to him with some indignation, and slapping his pillow 
with his hand, — How long will it be before you leave oft' your 
barbarian tricks 1 Will you never stop till I am forced to leave 
the party and go away, being unable to digest all your absurd 
speeches ? And he replied, — Now that I am at Rome, the 
Sovereign City, I use the language of the natives habitually ; 
for among the ancient poets, and among those prose writers 
who pique themselves on the purity of their Greek, you may 
find some Persian nouns, because of their having got into a 
habit of using them in conversation. As for instance, one 
finds mention made of parasangs, and astandse, and angari 
(couriers), and a schcenus or perch, which last word is used 
either as a masculine or feminine noun, and it is a measure on 
the road, which retains even to this day that Persian name 
with many people. I know, too, that many of the Attic 
writers affect to imitate Macedonian expressions, on account 
of the great intercourse that there was between Attica and 
Macedonia. But it would be better, in my opinion, 

To drink the blood of hulls, and so prefer 
'The death of great Themistocles, 

than to fall into your power. For I could not say, to drink 
the water of bulls ; as to which you do not know what it is. 
Nor do you know that even among the very best poets and 
prose writers there are some things said which are not quite 
allowable. Accordingly Cephisodorus, the pupil of Isocrates 
the orator, in the third of his treatises addressed to Aristotle, 
says that a man might find several things expressed incor- 
rectly by the other poets and sophists ; as for instance, the 
expression used by Archilochus, That every man was im- 
modest ; and that apophthegm of Theodoras, That a man 
ought to get all he can, but to praise equality and modera- 
tion ; and also, the celebrated line of Euripides about the 
tongue 1 having spoken ; and even by Sophocles, the lines 
which occur in the ./Ethiopians — 

1 7j y\ucra vfj-wixo^', 7} 8c ippijv avduoros. Eur. Hip. 7G3. 


These things I say to you to give you pleasure, 
Not wishing to do aught by violence : 
And do thou, like wise men, just actions praise, 
And keep thy hands and heart from unjust gain. 

And in another place the same poet says — 

I think no words, if companied by gain, 

Pernicious or unworthy. 
And in Homer, we find Juno represented as plotting against 
Jupiter, and Mars committing adultery. And for these senti- 
ments and speeches those writers are universally blamed. 

95. If therefore I have committed any errors, you 
hunter of fine names and words, do not be too angry with 
me ; for, according to Timotheus of Miletus, the poet, — 

I do not sing of ancient themes, 

For all that's new far better seems. 

Jove 's the new king of all the world ; 

While anciently 'twas Saturn hurl'd 

His thunders, and the Heavens ruled ; 

So I'll no longer be befool'd 

With dotard's ancient songs. 
And Antiphanes says, in his Alcestis — 

Dost thou love things of modern fashion? 

So too does he ; for he is well assured 

That new devices, though they be too bold, 

Are better far than old contrivances. 

And I will prove to you, that the ancients were acquainted 
with the water which is called dicoctas, in order that you ma}- 
not be indignant again, when I speak of boiled and spiced 
water. For, according to the Pseudheracles of Pherecrates — 

Suppose a man who thinks himself a genius 
Should something say, and I should contradict him, 
Still trouble not yourself; but if you please, 
Listen and give your best attention. 

But do not grudge, I entreat you, said Ulpian, to explain 
to me vhat is the nature of that Bull's water which you 
spoke of ; for I have a great thirst for such words. And 
Oynulcus said, — But I pledge you, according to your fancy; 
you thirst for words, taking a desire from Alexis, out of his 
Female Pythagorean, 

A cup of water boil'd ; for when fresh-drawn 

"Pis heavy, and' indigestible to drink. 

But it was Sophocles, my friend, who spoke of Bull's water, 
in his iEgeus, from the river Taurus near Trcezen, in the 
neighbourhood of which there is a fountain called Hyoessa. 

C. 96.] WATER DRINKING. 203 

96. But the ancients did also at times use very cold water 
in their draughts before dinner. But I will not tell you, un- 
less you first teach rne, whether the ancients were in the habit 
of drinking warm water at their banquets. For if their cups 
got their name 1 from what took place in reference to them, 
and if they were set before the guests full of mixed liquors, 
then they certainly did not contain warm drink, and were not 
put on the fire like kettles. For that they were in the habit 
of drinking warm water Eupolis proves, in his Demi — 

Warm for us now the brazen ewer quick, 

And bid the slaves prepare the victims new, 

That we may feast upon the entrails. 

And Antiphanes says, in his Omphale — 
May I ne'er see a man 
'Boiling me water in a bubbling pail; 
For I have no disease, and wish for none. 
But if I feel a pain within my stomach, 
Or rouud about my navel, why I have 
A ring I lately gave a drachma for 
To a most skilful doctor. 

And, in his Anointing Woman, (but this play is attributed to 
Alexis also,) he says — 

But if you make our shop notorious, 

I swear by Ceres, best of goddesses, 

That I will empt the biggest ladle o'er you, 

Filling it with hot water from the kettle ; 
And if I fail, may I ne'er drink free water more. 

And Plato, in the fourth book of his Polity, says — " Desire in 
the mind must be rnuch the same as thirst is in the body. Now, 
a man feels thirst for hot water or for cold ; or for much water 
or fora little; or perhaps, in a word, for some particular drink. 
And if there be any heat combined with the thirst, then that 
will give a desire for cold water ; but if a sensation of cold be 
united with it, that will engender a wish I'm- warm wain-. 
And if by reason of the violence of the cause the thirst be 
great, that will give a desire for an abundant draught ; bnl if 
the thirst be small, then the man will wish for but a small 
draught. But the thirst itself is not a desire of anything 
except of the thing itself, namely, drinking. And hunger, 
again, is not a desire of anything else except food." 

And Smuts tin' Delian, in the second book < I' his Nei ia , 
or treatise on Islands, says that in the island of Cimolus, cold 

1 nparr\p, from Kcpa.vvvjj.1, to mix. 


places are prepared by being dug out against the summer, 
where people may put down vessels full of warm water, and 
then draw them up again in no respect different from snow. 
.But warm water is called by the Athenians metaceras, a word 
used by Sophilus, in his Androcles. And Alexis says, in 
his Locrians — 

But the maid-servants pour'd forth water, 

One pouring boiling water, and the other warm. 

And Philemon, in his Corinthian Women, uses the same 
word. And Amphis says, in his Bath — 

One call'd out to the slaves to bring hot water, 
Another shouted for metaceras. 

97. And as the Cynic was proceeding to heap other proofs 
on these, Pontianus said, — The ancients, my friends, were in 
the habit also of drinking very cold water. At all events 
Alexis says, in his Parasite — 

I wish to make you taste this icy water, 

For I am proud of my well, whose limpid spring 

Is colder than the Ararus. 

And Hermippus, in his Cercopes, calls water drawn from wells 
(fipearicuov v8wp. Moreover, that men used to drink melted 
snow too, is shown by Alexis, in his Woman eating Man- 
dragora — 

Sure is not man a most superfluous plant, 

Constantly using wondrous contradictions. 

Strangers we love, and our own kin neglect; 

Though having nothing, still we give to strangers. 

We bear our share in picnics, though we grudge it, 

And show our grudging by our sordidness. 

And as to what concerns our daily food, 

We wish our barley-cakes should white appear, 

And yet we make for them a dark black sauce, 

And stain pure colour with a deeper dye. 

Then we prepare to drink down melted snow ; 

Yet if our fish be cold, Ave storm and rave. 

Sour or acid wine we scorn and loathe, 

Yet are delighted with sharp caper sauce. 

And so, as many wiser men have said, 

Not to be born at all is best for man ; 

The next best thing, to die as soon as possible. 

And Dexicrates, in the play entitled The Men deceived by 
Themselves, says — 

But when I'm drunk I take a draught of snow, 
And Egypt gives me ointment for my head. 

C. 98.] DRINKING SNOW. 205 

And Euthycles, in his Prodigal Men, or The Letter, says — 

He first perceived that snow was worth a price ; 
He ought to be the first to eat the honeycombs. 

And that excellent writer Xenophon, in his Memorabilia, shows 
that he was acquainted with the fashion of drinking snow. 
But Chares of Mitylene, in his History of Alexander, has told 
us how we are to proceed in order to keep snow, when he 
is relating the siege of the Indian city Petra. For he says that 
Alexander dug thirty large trenches close to one another, and 
filled them with snow, and then he heaped on the snow branches 
of oak ; for that in that way snow would last a long time. 

98. And that they used to cool wine, for the sake of 
drinking it in a colder state, is asserted by Strattis, in his 
Psychastae, or Cold Hunters — 

For no one ever would endure warm wine, 

But on the contrary, we use our wells 

To cool it in, and then we mix with snow. 

And Lysippus says, in his Bacchoe — 

A. Hermon, what is the matter! Where are we] 

B. Nothing 's the matter, only that your father 

Has just dropt down into the well to cool himself, 
As men cool wine in summer. 

And Diphilus says, in his Little Monument — 
Cool the wine quick, Doris. 

And Protagoras in the second book of his Comic Histories, 
relating the voyage of king Antiochus down the river, says 
something about the contrivances for procuring cold water, in 
these terms : — " For during the day they expose it to the 
sun, and then at night they skim off the thickest part which 
rises to the surface, and expose the rest to the air, in largo 
earthen ewers, on the highest parts of the house, and two 
slaves are kept sprinkling the vessels with water the whole 
night. And at daybreak they bring them down, and again 
they skim off the sediment, making the water very thin, and 
exceedingly wholesome, and then they immerse the ewers to 
straw, and after that they use the water, which has become so 
cold as not to require snow to cool it." And Anaxilax speaks 
of water from cisterns, in his Flute Player, using the following 
expressions : — 

A. I want some water from a cistern now. 

B. I have some here, and you arc welcome to it. 


And, in a subsequent passage, he says — 

Perhaps the cistern water is all lost. 
But Apollodorus of Gela mentions the cistern itself, Aukkos, 
as we call it, in his Female Deserter, saying — 

In haste I looked the bucket of the cistern, 

And then that of the well ; and took good jare 

To have the ropes all ready to let down. 

99. Myrtilus, hearing this conversation, said, — And T too, 
being very fond of salt-fish, my friends, wish to drink snow, 
according to the practice of Simonides. And Ulpian said, — 
The word ^tAorapt^os, fond of salt-fish, is used by Antiphancs, 
in his Omphale, where he says — 

I am not anxious for salt-fish, my girl. 
But Alexis, in his Gynascocracy, speaks of one man as £w/xo- 
Tapixos, or fond of sauce made from salt-fish, saying — 

But the Cilician here, this Hippocles, 
This epicure of salt-fish sauce, this actor. 

But what you mean by " according to the practice of Si- 
monides," I do not know. No ; for you do not care, said 
Myrtilus, to know anything about history, you glutton ; for 
you are a mere lickplatter ; and as the Saurian poet Asius, 
that ancient bard, would call you, a flatterer of fat. But 
Callistratus, in the seventh book of his Miscellanies, says that 
Simonides the poet, when feasting with a party at a season of 
violently hot weather, while the cup-bearers were pouring out 
for the rest of the guests snow into their liquor, and did not 
do so for him, extemporised this epigram : — 

The cloak with which fiei'ce Boreas clothed the brow 
Of high Olympus, pierced ill-clothed man 

While in its native Thrace ; 'tis gentler now, 
Caught by the breeze of the Pierian plain. 

Let it be mine ; for no one will commend 

The man who gives hot water to a friend. 

So when he had drunk, Ulpian asked him again where the 
word KvtcroAot^os is used, and also, what are the lines of Asiu.^' 
in which he uses the word kvlo-ckoXo.!; 1 These, said Myrtilus, 
are the verses of Asius, to which I alluded : — 

Lame, branded, old, a vagrant beggar, next 

Came the cnisocolax, when Meles held 

His marriage feast, seeking for gifts of soup, 

Not waiting for a friendly invitation ; 

There in the midst the hungry hero stood, 

Shaking the mud from off his ragged cloak. 

C. 100.] CHEESECAKES. 20-7 

And the word /ci/io-oA-oi^cs is used by Sophilus, in his Philar- 
chus, in this passage, — 

You are a glutton and a fat-licker. 
And in the play which is entitled, The Men running to- 
gether, he has used the word Ki/icroXot^ta, in the following 
lines : — 

That pandar, with his fat-licking propensities, 
Has hid me get for him this black blood-pudding. 

Antiphanes too uses the word /a/to-oXot^os, in his Bombylium. 

Now that men drank also sweet wine while eating is 
proved by what Alexis says in his Dropidas — 

The courtesan came in with sweet wine laden, 
In a large silver cup, named petachnon, 
Most beauteous to behold. Not a flat dish. 
Nor long-neck'd bottle, but between the two. 

100. After this a cheesecake was served up, made of milk 
and sesame and honey, which the Romans call libum. And 
Cynulcus said, — Fill yourself now, O Ulpian, with your na- 
tive Chthorodlapsus ; a word which is not, I swear by Ceres, 
used by any one of the ancient writers, unless, indeed, it 
should chance to be found in those who have compiled his- 
tories of the affairs of Phoenicia, such as Sancboniatho and 
Mochus, your own fellow-countrymen. And Ulpian said, — 
But it seems to me, you dog-fly, that we have had quite 
enough of honey-cakes : but I should like to eat some groats, 
with a sufficient admixture of the husks and kernels of pine- 
cones. And when that dish was brought — Give me, said he, 
come crust of bread hollowed out like a spoon ; for I will n®t 
say, give me a spoon (pvcrrpov) ; since that word is not used 
by any of the writers previous to our own time. You have a 
very bad memory, my friend, quoth /Emilianus ; have you 
not always admired Meander the Colophonian, the Epic 
poet, as a man very fond of ancient authors, and a man too 
of very extensive learning himself 1 And indeed, you have 
already quoted him as having used the word ■n-arkpiov, for 
peppt r. And this same poet, in the first boot of his Georgics, 
speaking of this use of groats, has used also the word pxarpov, 

But when you seek to dress a dainty dish 

Of new-slain kid, or tender house-fed lamb, 

Or poultry, take some unripe grains, and pound them, 

And strew them all in hollow plates, and Btir them, 


Mingled with fragrant oil. Then pour thereon 
Warm broth, which take from out the dish before you, 
That it be not too hot, and so boil over. 
Then put thereon a lid, for when they're roasted, 
The grains swell mightily ; then slowly eat them, 
Putting them to your mouth with hollow spoon. 
In these words, my fine fellow, Nicander describes to ns the 
way in which they ate groats and peeled barley ; bidding the 
eater pour on it soup made of kid or lamb, or of some poultry 
or other. Then, says he, pound the grains in a mortar, and 
having mingled oil with them, stir them up till they boil; 
and mix in the broth made after this recipe as it gets warm, 
making it thicker with the spoon ; and do not pour in any- 
thing else ; but take the broth out of the dish before you, so 
as to guard against any of the more fatty parts boiling over. 
And it is for this reason, too, that he charges us to keep it 
close while it is boiling, by putting the lid on the dish ; for 
that barley grains when roasted or heated swell very much. 
And at last, when it is moderately warm we are to cat it, 
taking it up in hollow spoons. 

And Hippolochus the Macedonian, in his letter to Lynceus, 
in which he gives an account of some Macedonian banquet 
which surpassed all the feasts which had ever been heard of 
in extravagance, speaks of golden spoons (which he also 
calls jxxi<jTpa) having been given to each of the guests. But 
since you, my friend, wish to set up for a great admirer of the 
ancients, and say that you never use any expressions which 
are not the purest Attic, what is it that Nicophon says, the 
poet I mean of the old comedy, in his Cherogastores, or the 
Men who feed themselves by manual Labour? For I find 
him too speaking of spoons, and using the word fj-varpov, when 
he says- 
Dealers in anchovies, dealers in wine ; 
Dealers in figs, and dealers in hides ; 
Dealers in meal, and dealers in spoons (nvcrrpiowiiAris) ; 
Dealers in books, and dealers in sieves ; 
Dealers in cheesecakes, and dealers in seeds. 
For who can the /xva-TpLoirwXaL be, but the men who sell 
fjLvo-Tpo.1 So learning from them, my fine Syrian- Atticist, the 
use of the spoon, pray eat your groats, that you may not 
But I am languid, weak for want of food. 

101. And I have been surprised at your not asking where 

c. 101.] XONAP02. 209 

the -word yoVSpo?, groats, comes from. Whether it is a Me- 
garian word, or whether it comes from Thessaly, as Myrtilus 
does. And Ulpian said, — I will stop eating if you will tell me 
by whom these Megarian, or Thessalian groats are spoken of. 
And JEmilianus said, — But I will not refuse you ; for seeing 
a very splendid preparation for supper, I wish that you should 
arm yourself for the fkvy, being filled with barley like a game 
cock ; and I wish you to instruct us about the dishes which 
we are going to partake of. And he, getting out of temper, 
said, — Whence do you get this word eSeo-paTa ? for one has no 
breathing time allowed one while constantly forced to ask 
these questions of these late-learned sophists. But, says JEmi- 
lianus, I can easily answer you this question ; but I will first 
speak of the word ^oVSpos, quoting you these lines of Anti- 
phanes, out of his Antea, — 

A. What have you in your baskets there, my friend] 

B. In three of them I've good Megarian groats. 

A. Do they not Bay Thessalian are the best] 

B. I also have some similago fetch'd 
From the far distant land Phoenicia. 

But the same play is also attributed to Alexis, though in 
some few places the text is a little different. And, again, Alexis 
says, in his play called The Wicked Woman — 
There's a large parcel of Thessalian groats. 

But Aristophanes, in his Daitaleis, calls soup xovopos, say- 
He would boil soup, and then put in a fly, 
_ And so would give it you to drink. 

He also speaks of similago ; and so, though I do not remem- 
ber his exact words, does Strattis, in his Anthroporaistes, or 
Man-destroyer. And so does Alexis, in his Isostasium. But 
Strattis uses o-c/xiSoAiSos as the genitive case, in these words — 

Of these two sorts of gentle semidalis. 

The word eSe'o-p,aTa is used by Antiphanes, in his Twins, 
where he says — ■ 

Many nice eatables I have enjoy'd, 

And had now three or four most pleasant draughts; 

And feel quite frisky, eating as much food 

As a whole troop of elephants. 

So now we may bring this book to an end, and let it have its 
vol. I. — atu. r 


termination with, the discussions about eatables ; and the 
next book shall begin the description of the Banquet. 

Do not do so, Athenoeus, before you have told us of the 
Macedonian banquet of Hippolochus. — Well, if this is your 
wish, TiniocrateSj we will prepare to gratify it. 


1 . Hippolochus the Macedonian, my friend Timocrates, lived 
in the time of Lynceus and Douris of Samos, pupils of 
Theophrastus 1 the Eresian. And he had made a bargain with 
Lynceus, as one may learn from his letters, that if ever he 
was present at any very expensive banquet, he would relate 
to him the whole of the preparations which were made ; and 
Lynceus in return made him the same promise. And there 
are accordingly some letters of each of them on the subject 
of banquets; in which Lynceus relates the banquet which 
Avas given at Athens by Lamia the Attic female flute-player 
to King Demetrius, surnamed Poliorcetes, (and Lamia was 
the mistress of Demetrius.) And Hippolochus reports the 
marriage feast of Caranus the Macedonian. And we have 
also met with other letters of Lynceus, written to the same 
Hippolochus, giving an account of the banquet of King 
Antigonus, when he celebrated the Aphrodisian festival at 
Athens, and also that given by King Ptolemy. And I will 
show you the very letters themselves. But as the letter 
of Hippolochus is very scarce, I will run over to you the 
principal things which are contained in it, just for the sake 
of conversation and amusement at the present time. 

2. In Macedonia, then, as I have said, Caranus made a 
marriage feast; and the guests invited were twenty in 
number. And as soon as they had sat clown, a silver bowl 
was given to each of them as a present. And Caranus had 
previously crowned every one of them, before they entered 
the dining-room, with a golden chaplet, and each chaplet was 
valued at five pieces of gold. And when they had emptied 

1 Theophrastus was a disciple of Aristotle, and succeeded him as head 
of the Lyceum, so that this time would be about 310 e.c. 


the bowls, then there was given to each of the guests a loaf 
in a brazen platter of Corinthian workmanship, of the same 
size ; and poultry, and ducks, and besides that, pigeons, and 
a goose, and quantities more of the same kind of food heaped 
up abundantly. And each of the guests taking what was set 
before him, with the brazen platter itself also, gave it to the 
slaves who waited behind him. Many other dishes of va- 
rious sorts were also served up to eat. And after them, a 
second platter was placed before each guest, made of silver, 
on which again there was placed a second large loaf, and on 
that geese, and hares, and kids, and other rolls curiously 
made, and doves, and turtledoves, and partridges, and every 
other kind of bird imaginable, in the greatest abundance. 
Those also, says Hippolochus, we gave to the slaves; and 
when we had eaten to satiety, we washed our hands, and 
chaplets were brought in in great numbers, made of all sorts 
of flowers from all countries, and on each chaplet a circlet of 
gold, of about the same weight as the first chaplet, And 
Hippolochus having stated after this that Proteas, the de- 
scendant of that celebrated Proteas the son of Lanice, who 
had been the nurse of Alexander the king, was a most extra- 
ordinary drinker, as also his grandfather Proteas, who was the 
friend of Alexander, had been; and that he pledged every 
one present, proceeds to write as follows : — 

3. " And while Ave were now all amusing ourselves with 
agreeable trifling, some flute-playing women and musicians, 
and some Bhodiau players on the sambuca come in, naked as 
I fancied, but some said that they had tunics on. And they 
having played a prelude, departed; and others came in in 
succession, each of them bearing two bottles of perfume, 
bound with a golden thong, and one of the cruets was silver 
and the other gold, each holding a cotyla, 1 and thej presented 
them to each of the guests. And then, instead of supper, there 
w r as brought in a great treasure, a silver platter with a golden 
edge of no inconsiderable depth, of such a size as to receive 
the entire bulk of a roast boar of huge size, which lay in it 
on his back, showing his belly uppermost, stuffed with many 
good things. For in the belly there were roasted thrushes, 
and paunches, and a most countless number of figpeckers, 
and the yolks of eggs spi-ead on the top, and oysters, and 
1 A eotvla, hold about half a pint. 


periwinkles. And to every one of the guests was presented 
a boar stuffed in this way, nice and hot, together with the 
dish on which he was served up. And after this we drank 
wine, and each of us received a hot kid, on another platter 
like that on which the boar had been served up, with some 
golden spoons. Then Caranus seeing that we were cramped 
for the want of room, ordered canisters and bread-baskets to 
be given to each of us, made of strips of ivory curiously 
plaited together; and we were very much delighted at all 
this, and applauded the bridegroom, by whose means we were 
thus enabled to preserve what had been given to us. Then 
chaplets were again brought to us, and another pair of cruets 
of perfume, one silver and one gold, of the same weight as 
the former pair. And when quiet was restored, there entered 
some men, who even in the Potfeast 1 at Athens had borne a 
part in the solemnities, and with them there came in some 
ithyphallic dancers, and some jugglers, and some conjuring 
women also, tumbling and standing on their heads on swords, 
and vomiting fire out of their mouths, and they, too, were 

4. And when we were relieved from their exhibition, then 
we had a fresh drink offered to us, hot and strong, and 
Thasian, and Mendsean, and Lesbian wines were placed upon 
the board, very large golden goblets being brought to every 
one of us. And after we had drunk, a glass goblet of two 
cubits in diameter, placed on a silver stand, was served up, full 
of roast fishes of every imaginable sort that could be col- 
lected. And there was also given to every one a silver bread- 
basket full of Cappadocian loaves ; some of which we ate and 
some we delivered to the slaves behind us. And when we 
had washed our hands, we put on chaplets ; and then again we 
received golden circlets twice as large as the former ones, and 
another pair of cruets of perfume. And when quiet was 
restored, Proteas leaping up from his couch, asked for a cup 
to hold a gallon ; and having filled it with Thasian wine, and 
having mingled a little water with it, he drank it off, saying — 

He who drinks most will be the happiest. 
And Caranus said — "Since you have been the first to drink, 
do you be the first also to accept the cup as a gift ; and this 

1 Held on the thirteenth day of the month Authesterion ; being the 
first day of the great festival Anthesteria. 


also shall be the present for all the rest who drink too." 
And when this had been said, at once nine of the guests rose 
up snatching at the cups, and each one trying to forestall the 
other. But one of those who were of the party, like an 
unlucky man as he was, as he was unable to drink, sat down 
and cried because he had no goblet; and so Caranus pre- 
sented him with an empty goblet. After this, a dancing- 
party of a hundred men came in, singing an epithalamium 
in beautiful tune. And after them there came in dancing girls, 
some arranged so as to represent the Nereids, and others 
in the guise of the nymphs. 

5. And as the drinking went on, and the shadows were 
beginning to fall, they opened the chamber where everything 
was encircled all round with white cloths. And when these 
curtains were drawn, the torches appeared, the partitions 
having been secretly removed by mechanism. And there 
were seen Cupids, and Dianas, and Pans, and Mercuries, and 
numbers of statues of that kind, holding torches in silver 
candlesticks. And while we were admiring the ingenuity of 
the contrivance, some real Erymanthean boars were brought 
round to each of the guests on square platters with golden 
edges, pierced through and through with silver darts. And 
what was the strangest thing of all was, that those of us who 
were almost helpless and stupefied with wine, the moment 
that we saw any of these things which were brought in, 
became all in a moment sober, standing upright, as it is said. 
And so the slaves crammed them into the baskets of good 
omen, until the usual signal of the termination of the least 
sounded. For you know that that is the Macedonian custom 
at large parties. 

And Caranus, who had begun drinking in small goblets, 
ordered the slaves to bring round the wine rapidly. «And so 
Ave drank pleasantly, taking our present liquor as a sort of 
antidote to our previous hard drinking. And while we were 
thus engaged, Mandrogcnes the buffoon came in, the de- 
scendant, as is reported, of that celebrated Strato the Athe- 
nian, and he caused us much laughter. And after this he 
danced with his wife, a woman who was already more than 
eighty years of age. last the tables, to wind up the 
whole entertainment, were brought in. And sweetmeats in 
plaited baskets made of ivory were distributed to every one. 


And cheesecakes of every kind known, Cretan cheesecakes, 
and your Samian ones, my friend Lynceus, and Attic ones, 
with the proper boxes, or dishes, suitable to each kind of 
confection. And after this we all rose up and departed, quite 
sobered, by Jove, by the thoughts of, and our anxiety about, 
the treasures which we had received. 

But you who never go out of Athens think yourself happy 
when you hear the precepts of Theophrastus, and when you 
eat thyme, and salads, and nice twisted loaves, solemnizing 
the Lensean festival, and the Potfeast at the Anthesteria. 
But at the banquet of Caranus, instead of our portions of 
meat, we carried off actual riches, and are now looking, some 
for houses, and some for lands, and some of us are seeking to 
buy slaves." 

6. Now if you consider this, my friend Timocrates, with 
which of the Greek feasts that you ever heard of do you think 
this banquet, which has just been described to you, can be 
compared 1 When even Antiphanes the comic writer jokingly 
said in the GEnomaus, or perhaps it is in the Pelops — 

What could the Greeks, of sparing tables fond, 

Eaters of salads, do ] where you may get 

Four scanty chops or steaks for one small penny. 

But among the ancestors of our nation 

Men roasted oxen, deer, and lambs entire, 

And last of all the cook, outdoing all 

His predecessors, set before the king 

A roasted camel, smoking, hump and all. 

And Aristophanes, in his Acharnians, extolling the magnifi- 
cence of the barbarians, says — 

A. Then he received me, and to dinner ask'd me, 
And set before us whole fat oxen roasted. 

B. Who ever saw a roasted ox ] The braggart ! 
A. I'll take my oath he likewise put on table 

A bird three times as burly as Cleonymus ; 
Its name, I well remember, was Th' Impostor. 

And Anaxandiides, in his Protesilaus, ridiculing the feast 
made at the marriage of Iphicratcs when he married the 
daughter of Cotys king of the Thracians, says — 
7 # If you do this as I bid you, 

You will ask us all to a supper, 

Not to such as that in Thrace, 

Given by Iphicrates — 

Though, indeed, they say that 

Was a very noble feast. 


For that all along the market 
Purple carpets there were spread 
To the northern corner ; 
And a countless host of men 
With dirty hands and hair uncomb'd 
Supped on butter. There were too, 
Brazen goblets, large as cisterns, 
Holding plenty for a dozen 
Of the hardest drinkers known, 
Cotys, too, himself was there, 
Girt around, and bearing kindly 
llich soup in a gold tureen ; 
Tasting all the brimming cups, 
So as to be the first to yield 
Of all the guests t' intoxication. 
There was Antigenides 
Delighting all with his soft flute, 
Argas sung, and from Acharnas 
Cephisodotus struck the ljre, 
Celebrating Lacedaemon 
And the wide land of the Heraclidoe, 
And at other times they sung 
Of the seven-gated Thebes, 
Changing thus their strain and theme. 
Large was the dowry which 'tis said 
Fell to the lucky bridegroom's share : 
First, two herds of chestnut horses, 
And a herd of horned goals, 
A golden shield, a-wide-neck'd bowl, 
A jar of snow, a pot of millet, 
A deep pit full of leeks and onions, 
And a hecatomb of polypi. 
This they say that Cotys did, 
King of Thrace, in heartfelt joy 
At [phicrates's wedding. 
But a finer feast by far 
Shall be in our master's houses ; 
For there's nothing good or fine 
Which our house does stand in need of. 
There is scent of Syrian myrrh, 
There is incense, there is spice ; 
. There are delicate cakes and loaves, 
Cakes of meal and polypi, 
Tripe, and fat, and sausages, 
Soup, and beet, and figs, and pease, 
Garlic, various kinds of tunnies, 
Ptisan, pulse, and toast, and miilii" . 
Beans, and various kinds of vetch 
1 1 onty, cheese, and cheesecakes too, 
Wheat, and nuts, and barley-groats, 
Boasted crabs, and mullets boil'd, 


Boasted cuttle-fish, boil'd turbot, 
Frogs, and perch, and mussels too, 
Sharks, and roach, and gudgeons too, 
Fish from doves and cuckoos named. 
Plaice, and flounders, shrimps, and rays. 
Then, besides these dainty fish 
There is many another dish, — 
Honeycombs and juicy grapes, 
Figs and cheesecakes, apples, pears, 
Cornels, and the red pomegranate, 
Poppies, creeping thyme, and parsley, 
Peaches, olives, plums and raisins, 
Leeks and onions, cabbages, 
Strong smelling assai'eetida, 
Fennel, eggs, and lentils cool, 
And well-roasted grasshoppers, 
Cardamums and sesame, 
Ceryces, salt, and limpets firm, 
The pinna, and the oyster bright, 
The periwinkle, and tlft whelk ; 
And besides this a crowd of birds, 
Doves and ducks, and geese and sparrows, 
Thrushes, larks, and jays, and swans, 
The pelican, the crane and stork, 
Wagtails and ousels, tits and finches ; 
And to wash all these dainties down 
There's wine, both native and imported, 
White and red, and sweet and acid, 
Still or effervescent. 

8. But Lynceus, in his Centaur, ridiculing the Attic ban- 
quets, says — 

A. Yon cook, the man who makes the sacrifice 
And seeks now to receive me as my host, 
Is one of Ehodes. And I, the guest invited, 
Am call'd a citizen of fair Perinthus. 
And neither of us likes the Attic suppers; 
For melancholy is an Attic humour; 
May it be always foreign unto me. 
They place upon the tuble a large platter 
Holding five smaller plates within its space, 
One full of garlic, while another holds 
Two boil'd sea-urchins ; in the third, a cake ; 
The fourth displays ten cockles to the guest, 
The last has caviar. — While I eat this, 
He falls on that : or while he dines on this, 
I make that other dish to disappear. 
But I would rather eat up both myself, 
Only I cannot go beyond my powers; 
For I have not five mouths, nor twice five lips. 
True, these detain the eyes with various sights, 


cooks. 217 

But looking at them is not eating them : 

I but appease my eyes and not my belly. 

What shall I do then? Have you oysters ? Give me 

A plate of thcin, I beg ; and that a large one ; 

Have you some urchins'! 

B. Here's a dish of them 
To which you're welcome ; this I bought myself, 
And paid eight obols for it in the market. 
A. Put then this dish on table by itself, 

That all may eat the same at once, and not 
One half the guests cat one thing, half another. 

But Dromeas the parasite, when some one once asked him, 
as Hegesancler the Delphian relates, whether the banquets in 
the city or at Chalcis were the best, said that the prelude to 
the banquets at Chalcis was superior to the whole entertain- 
ment in the city, calling the multitudes of oysters served up, 
and the great variety of fish, the prelude to the banquet. 

9. But Diphilus, in his Female Deserter, introduces a 
cook, and represents him as saying — ■ 

A. What is the number of the guests invited 

To this fine marriage feast ? And are they all 

Athenian citizens, or are there some 

Foreigners and merchants ! 

B. What is that to you, 

Since you are but the cook to dress the dinner'! 
A. It is the first part of my art, lather, 

To know the taste of those who are to eat. 

For instance, if you ask a Ehodian, 

Set a fine shad or lebias before him, 

Well boil'd and hot, the moment that be enters. 

That's what he likes ; he'll like it better so 

Than if you add a cup of myrine wine. 

A. Well, that idea of shads is not a bad one. 

B. Then, if a Byzantine should be your guest, 
Steep all you oiler such a man in wormwood. 
And let your dishes taste of salt and garlic. 
For fish are all so plenty in their country, 
That the men all are full of rheum and phlegm 

And Menander says, in his Trophonius — 

A. This feast is for a guest's reception. 

B. What guest! whence comes he? for those points, believe me, 
Do make a mighty difference to the cook. 

For instance, if some guests from the islands come 

Who always feed on fish of every sort 

Fresh from the sea, such men like not salt dishes, 

But think them make-shifts. Give such men their food 

Well-season'd, forced, and stufTd with choicest spices. 

But if you ask a guest from Arcady 


He is a stranger to the sea, and loves 
Limpets and shell-fish;— but the rich Ionian 
"Will look at nought but Lydian luxuries, 
Rich, stimulating, amatory meats. 

10. The ancients used food calculated to provoke the appe- 
tite, as for instance salt olives, which they call colyinbades : 
and accordingly Aristophanes says, in his Old Age — 

Old man, do you like flabby courtesans, 

Or tender maidens, firm as well-cured olives 1 

And Philemon, in his Follower, or Sauce, says — 

A. What did you think, I pray, of that boil'd fish 1 

B. He was but small ; do'st hear me? And the pickle 
Was white, and much too thick ; there was no smell 
Of any spice or seasoning at all, 

So that the guests cried out, — How pure your brine is ! 

They also eat common grasshoppers and the monkey grass- 
hopper as procreatives of the appetite. Aristophanes says, in 
his Anagyrus — 

How can you, in God's name, like grasshoppers, 
Catching them with a reed, and cercopes 1 l 

But the cercope is a little animal like a grasshopper or 
prickly roach, as Speusippus tells us in the fourth book of his 
Similitudes ; and Epilycus mentions them in his Coraliscus. 
And Alexis says in his Thrasou— 
I never saw, not even a cercope 
A greater chatterer than you, woman, 
Nor jay, or nightingale, or dove, or grasshopper. 

And Nicostratus says, in his Abra — 

The first, a mighty dish shall lead the way, 
Holding an urchin, and some sauce and capei\s, 
A cheesecake, fish, and onions in rich stuffing. 

11. And that they used to eat, for the sake of encouraging 
the appetite, rape dressed with vinegar and mustard, is plainly 
stated by Nicander, in the second book of his Georgics, where 
he says — 

The rape is a mix'd breed from radishes; 
It's grown in garden beds, both long and stiff; 
One sort they wash and dry in the north wind, 
A friend to winter and to idle servants : 
Then it revives when soak'd in water warm. 
Cut thou the roots of rape, and gently scrape 

1 The cercope, or monkey-grasshopper, was so called from having a 
long tail like a monkey (/cep/ccoi}/). 


The not yet juiceless rind in shavings thin ; 
Then dry them in the sun a little while, • 
Then dip them in hot water, and in brine, 
And pack them closely ; or at other times 
Pour in new wine and vinegar, half and half, 
Into one vessel, and put salt on the top. 
And often 'twill be well to pound fresh raisins, 
And add them gently, scattering in some seeds 
Of biting mustard ; and some dregs of vinegar, 
To reach the head and touch the vigorous brain : 
A goodly dish for those who want a dinner. 

And Diphilus or Sosippus, in the Female Deserter, says — 

Have you now any sharp fresh vinegar 1 
I think, too, we've some fig-tree juice, my boy. 
In these I'll press the meat as tight as may be ; 
And some dried herbs I'll spread around the dish ; 
For of all condiments these do most surely 
The body's sensitive parts and nerves excite. 
They drive away unpleasant heaviness, 
And make the guests sit down with appetite. 

12. And Alexis, in his Tarentines, when speaking of their 
banquets, says that the Athenians used to dance at their 
drinking parties — 

A . For this now is a common native practice. 
At the divine and all-accornplish'd Athens. 
They all rise up and dance together when 

The first sweet scent of wine doth reach their nostrils. 

B. You tell me of a strange and novel custom. 
A. So you would say, indeed, if unexpected 

You on a sudden dropp'd in at a feast ; 

And beardless boys are sure to meet with favour ; 

But when I see that rogue Theodotus, 

Or some impure and cheating parasite, 

Affecting nice and delicate airs, such loathing 

Does seize me, that I'd gladly seize the man, 

And nail him to the vilest cross. 

And Antiphanes, in his Carians, with reference to the 
fashion of dancing, turns one of the sophists into ridicule, as 
dancing at a banquet, in the following verses — 

Do you not see that eunuch capering, 

Waving his hands, no signs of shame he shows; 

He who was lecturing us on Heraclitus, 

The only master of Theodcctes' school, 

The spouter of Euripidcs's proverbs. 

And it will not be foreign to the subject to quote here what 
is said by Eriphus the comic poet, in his (Eolus — 


For 'tis an ancient proverb, and a wise one ; 

That old men seek for wine to make them dance, 

Spite of their age, against their will, my father. 
And Alexis, in the play entitled Isostasium, says — 

They drank in picnic fashion, only seeking 

For some excuse to dance. There was the name 

Of meat and vegetables ; fish, and crabs, 

Gudgeon and tench, and similago fine. 
13. But Matron the parodist, says Plutarch, has given a 
very agreeable account of an Attic banquet ; and as it is 
very rare I will not scruple, my friends, to repeat it to you — 

The feast for much and varied food renown'd, 

Given by Xenocles, Muse, resound ; ' 

For when at Athens he his cards sent round, 

I went invited, hungry as a hound. 

What loaves I saw, how large, how round, how fine, 2 — 

So white, on them alone one well might dine ! 

Boreas, enamour'd of the well-baked train, 

Gazed on them fondly ; 3 while along the plain 

The stately Xenocles survey 'd the ground, 

And placed the guests the goodly board around. 

Near him the parasite Clwerephoon stood, 

And like a cormorant gazed upon the food, 4 

Ever at other's cost well pleased to eat : 

Meanwhile the cooks prepared the dainty treat, 

The skilful cooks, to whom is given all sway 

The sumptuous feast to quicken or delay. 

Then all the rest the herbs and greens did seize, 

But me the solid meats did rather please ; 

Rich oysters guarded in their solid shell, 

While to Phoenician-brine I said farewell ; 

And threw away the urchin's tasteless meat, 

Which rattled falling at the servant's feet, 

Loud as the waves the rocky shore which flout, 5 

While they in fun the prickly spines pull'd out. 

There came th' anchovy of Fhaleric race 

Holding a dirty veil before its face, 

Friend of the Triton, to the Cyclops dear ; 


And pinna's sweet, and cockles fat were there 

Which the wave breeds beneath its weedy bed, 

The gristly turbot, and the mullet red. 

First in the fray on them I laid my hand, 

And called on Phoebus, by his slave to stand ; 

But when Stratocles, scorning fear, I saw 

Hold in his hand the mullet's luscious jaw, 

' See Pope's Homer for his version of the different parts parodied. 
Odyss. i. 1. - Hiad, x. 436. 3 lb. xx. 223. 

4 Odyss. v. 51. s Iliad, xxiii. 51. G Odyss. i. S?4. 


I seized it too, and while it came apart, 

Quick with the dainty bit rejoiced my heart. 

There, too, the silver-footed Thetis came, 

The fair-hair' d cuttle-fish, the mighty dame, 

Fairest of Nereus' daughters, none but she 

Offish can both with black and white agree.' 

There, too, the congei - , Tityos of the main, 

Lay on nine tables and o'erspread the plain. 2 

Next came the eel, who charm'd the mighty Jove, 

And soften' d his stern soul to tender love. 

So mighty that two wrestlers, of the days 

Of old Astyanax, could scarcely raise 

Her from the ground and place her on the board, 

Nine fathoms long, and full nine cubits broad. 

Up stairs, down stairs the busy cooks did haste, 

"While more fresh dishes on the board they placed. 

Next forty large black pots appear' d in view, 

And forty platters from Euboea too. 

Then various Iris, Jove's commands to bear, 

In shape of cuttle-fish flew through the air. 

The shining perch, the black tail next appear'd ; 

A mortal fish to join immortals dared. 

Alone, apart in discontented mood, 

A gloomy dish, the sullen tunny stood ; 3 

For ever sad with proud disdain he pined, 

And the lost arms for ever stung his mind. 

The shark, to masons and upholders dear, 

Good nurse of youth, though rough its skin appear; 4 

Nor do I know on earth a nicer food, 

Though what came next is very near as good, 

A roasted cestreas; nor alone it lay, 

For twelve fine sargi came the self-same way."' 

And a dark amias, of every sea 

AVho knows the depths, great Neptune's comrade he. 

And squills the minstrels of Olympian Jove, 

Whom none to look at, all to taste of, love. 

The chrysophrys, for shining beauty famed, 

The crab's hard shell refusing to be tamed. 

All these, and many more besides, I saw 

Crush'd in each hungry guest's devouring jaw. 

The royal sturgeon led the second band, 

Towards whom, though nearly full, I stretch'd my hand ; 

He like ambrosia to my senses look'd, 

Which I had always thought for gods alone was cook'd. 

Then came a lamprey, large and richly fed, 

As when he seeks the dragon's daughter's bed. 

And next, (the goddesses such sandals wear,) 

Of mighty soles a firm and well-mateh'd pair. 

1 This was a Greek proverb. See Aristophanes, Eq. 1279. 

2 Odyss. xi. 575. a lb. xi. 543. 4 lb. ix. 27. i Iliad, ii. 745. 


Then the sea thrushes young and fierce, who dive 

Mid the deep rocks and tear their prey alive. 

The sargus, mormyrus, hippurus, spar, 

The shad, the gale ; so countless fishes are. 

The feast to view the guests' eyes joyful heam'd, 

And all the house with the rich odour steam'd. 

The host bade all sit down : myself, I thought 

This woman's food, and something solid sought. 

Large in the centre lay a vacant space, 

"Which herbs and salads did with verdure grace. 

Then a sea blackbird came, a morsel nice, 

And disappear' d, devoured in a trice. 

Then came a ham, t' its foes a helpless prey, 

And while it lasted none could keep away. 

But when the feast was o'er I wept with sorrow 

To think I could not eat on till to-morrow, 

But must fall back on barley-meal and cheese. 

Black broth subdued him and boil'd pettitoes ; 

Then came some ducks from Salamis, sacred isle, 

Borne by the cook, who with a cheerful smile, 

Marshall'd them where the Athenian phalanx stood ; 

And Chaerephon survey'd the various food, 

That he might know to choose and eat the best ; 

Then like a lion leapt he on the feast, 1 

And seized a mighty leg of turkey hot, 

To make his supper when he home had got. 

Then groats which Vulcan made into a cake, 

And in Attic pan full thirteen months did bake 

But when our wish for food was satisfied, 

We wash'd our hands in ocean's foaming tide ; 

One beauteous slave came round with rich perfume, 

Another garlands strew'd around the room. 

Then foam'd around old Bacchus' rosy tide, 

And each guest merrily with his fellow vied. 

Then the dessert was served; the juicy pear, 

The apple and pomegranate too were there. 

The grape, the nurse of Bacchus, and the plum, 

And fig, and medlar on the table come. 

But I ate nought, I was so full before, 

Till I that lovely child of Ceres saw, 

A large sweet round and yellow cake ; how then 

Could I from such a dish, my friends, abstain ] 

Had I ten mouths, aye, and as many hands, 

A brazen stomach within brazen bands, 2 

They all would on that lovely cake have sprung. 

And so the feast of Stratocles I've sung. 

14. And Alexis, in his Men running together, ridiculing 
the Attic banquets, says — 

1 Odyss. ix. 292. 2 Iliad, ii. : .'. 


I wish that I could get a brace of cooks, 
The cleverest in their art in all the city. 
For he who a Thessalian would invite, 
Must never stint his fare in Attic fashion, 
Nor practise over strict economy ; 
But have in all things a Avell-order'd feast. 

And the Thessalians are truly fond of eating; as Eriphus 
says in his Light-armed Soldier, thus — 

It is not Corinth now, nor Lais here, 
Nor any feast of sumptuous Thessalians, 
W' hose habits well I know. 

And the author, whoever he was, of the play called The 
Beggars, which is ascribed to Chiouides, says that the Athe- 
nians, when they place a banquet for Castor and Pollux in their 
Prytaneum, serve up on the tables cheese and barley-cakes, 
and olives which have fallen, and leeks, for the sake of re- 
minding people of the ancient manner of living. And Solon 
enjoins them to serve up barley-cakes to those who eat in 
the prytaneum : and besides that, to place bread on the table 
at festivals, in imitation of Homer ; for he, too, when collecting 
the chiefs around Agamemnon, says — 

The cakes were baked. 
And Chrysippus, in the fourth book of his treatise on Beauty 
and Pleasure, says — " But at Athens they say that two fes- 
tivals are celebrated there (neither of them of great antiquity), 
one at the Lyceum and one in the Academy, and when the 
confectioner had brought into the Academy a dish for some 
other purpose, all those who were offering sacrifice at once 
broke the dish, because something had been introduced 
which did not belong to the city, and everything which 
came from afar ought to have been kept away. And that 
the cook at the Lyceum having prepared some salt-fish in 
order to serve up a dish of it, was scourged as a man who 
used his invention in a very wicked manner." And Plato, in 
the second book of his Republic, represents his new citizens as 
feasting, and writes — "You make your men feast without any 
second course, says he. You say the truth, I replied; I 
forgot that they will have a second course — namely, salt, and 
olives, and cheese, and onions; and besides, they will boil 
such vegetables as are found in the fields; and moreover, we 
shall serve up some sweetmeats to them, — figs, and beans, 
and vetches. They shall roast myrtle -berries too and beech- 


acorns at the fire, drinking moderately all the time. And in 
this manner they shall pass their lives in peace, growing old, 
as it is probable they will, in the enjoyment of good health, 
and transmit a good constitution to their posterity. 

15 We must next speak of the Lacedaemonian banquets 
Now Herodotus, in the ninth book of his Histories, speaking ot 
the preparation of Mardonius, and mentioning the banquets ot 
the Lacedaemonians, says-" Xerxes, when fleeing from Greece, 
left all his equipment to Mardonius. And when Pausanias 
beheld the appointments of Mardonius's tent, and his tent 
itself all furnished with gold and silver and embroidered cur- 
tains he ordered the bakers and confectioners to prepare him 
a supper exactly as they had been in the habit of preparing 
for Mardonius. And when they had done as they were com- 
manded, Pausanias, beholding the couches of gold and silver 
all ready laid and covered, and the silver tables, and the 
superb banquet which was prepared, marvelling at what he 
saw bv way of ridicule ordered his own slaves to prepare 
a banquet in the Lacedaemonian fashion. But when it was 
made ready, Pausanias laughed, and sent for all the generals 
of the Greeks ; and when they were come he showed them 
both the banquets which were prepared before him and said: 
Greeks, I have assembled you, because I was desirous to 
exhibit to you the folly of the general of the Medes ; who, 
while he was used himself to live in the manner which you 
behold, came against us who are in the habit of living m the 
hard way which you see here." 

And some say that a citizen of Sybaris, who was staying at 
Sparta, and who dined at their Phiditia, said-" It is natural 
enough for the Lacedaemonians to be the bravest of men; 
for any man in his senses would rather die ten thousand 
times over, than live in such a miserable way as this. 

16 And Polemo, in his treatise on the Wicker Carriage 
mentioned by Xenophon, says "that Cratinus m his Plnti, 
mentioning the feast which is called by the Lacedemonians 
Copis, speaks as follows — 

Tell me, I pray you, is it true that all 
The strangers in that country, who arrive, 
May banquet at the Copis at their pleasure 1 
And at their parties do there hang around 
Cakes tix'd on pegs, that every one who will, 
Young men and old, may take a bite at them I 

c. 17.] THE COPIS. 225 

And Eupolia says in his Helots — 

And let a Copis be this clay prepared. 
Now the Copis is a peculiar sort of entertainment, just 
as that which is called Aiclon. And when it takes place, 
first of all they erect tents near the temple of the god ; and 
in them they place beds of leaves ; and on them they strew 
carpets, and then they feast those who recline on them, not 
only those who arrive, being natives of the country, but those 
foreigners also who are sojourning in the place. And at 
these copides they sacrifice goats, but no other victim ; and 
they give portions of its flesh to every one, and they distri- 
bute also what they call a physicillus, which is a little loaf 
like an encris, made of oil and honey, only rounder in shape. 
And they give to every one who is present a newly made 
cheese, and a slice of paunch, and black-pudding, and sweet- 
meats, and dried figs, and beans, and green kidney-beans. 
And any one of the rest of the Spartans who chooses, par- 
takes of this Copis. 

" They also celebrate copides in the city at the festival 
culled Tithenidia, 1 which is celebrated on behalf of the chil- 
dren. For the nurses at this season bring the male children 
into the fields, and to the Diana sumamed Corythallia ; 
Avhose temple is near the fountain called Tiassus, in the parts 
towards Cleta ; and there they celebrate copides, in a man- 
ner similar to those which have been already mentioned. 
And they sacrifice small sucking-pigs, and they also at the 
feast set before the guests some of the loaves called ipnitse. 
But this aiclon is called by all the other Dorians SeLirrov. At 
all events Epicharmus, in his Hope, says — 

For some one of his own accord has ask'd you to an alic\ov, 
And do thou gladly go in haste of your accord to eat it. 

And he repeats the same lines in his Pcriallus. But at 
Lacedsemon, after supper is over, they set what they call 
mkXov (not cukXov) before all those who come to the Phidi- 
tium ; namely, loaves of bread in a small basket, and a slice 
of meat for each person. And an attendant follows the servant 
who distributes the portions, proclaiming the cukAov, adding 
to his proclamation the name of him who has sent it round." 

17. This was the statement of Polemo, But Didymus 
the Grammarian contradicted him, (and Demetrius, of Tr< ezen, 
calls him a Bookforgetter, on account of the number of books 
1 From TiSyvT), a nurse. 

VOL. I. — ATir. Q 


which he has edited, for they amount to three thousand and 
five hundred,) and said — " Polycrates, in his history of Lace- 
daemonian affairs, relates that the Lacedaemonians celebrate the 
festival called Hyacinthia for three days, and on account of 
their lamentation for Hyacinthus, they do not wear crowns at 
their feasts, nor do they bring bread there, but they dis- 
tribute cheesecakes, and other things of the same kind. 
And they sing no paean to the god, nor do they introduce 
anything of that sort, as they do in other sacred festivals, but 
they eat their supper in a very orderly manner, and then 
depart. But on the middle one of the three days there is a 
very superb spectacle, and a veiy considerable and important 
assembly ; for boys play upon the harp, girt up in their 
tunics, and singing to the music of the flute, running over all 
the strings of the harp at the same time •with the plectrum, in 
an anapaestic rhythm, with a shrill tone, and in that manner 
they sing a hymn in honour of the god. And others riding 
on horses and handsomely dressed go through the theatre ; 
and very numerous choruses of young men enter, and they 
sing some of their native poems. And dancers mingled with 
them perform an ancient sort of dance to the music of a 
flute and singing. And virgins also, some in wooden curved 
chariots, called canathra, beautifully made, and others in 
crowds of large waggons drawn by horses, make a procession ; 
and the whole city is in a state of agitation and of delight at 
the spectacle. And they sacrifice great numbers of victims 
all this day. And the citizens give a banquet to all their 
friends, and to their own slaves ; and no one omits attending 
the sacred feast, but the whole city is evacuated by the whole 
body of citizens flocking to the spectacle. 

" And the copis is also mentioned by Aristophanes or Phi- 
lyllius in the Cities, and by Epilycus in the Coraliscus, where 
he says — 

When I shall hear a copis to the fane 

Of sacred Amyclae, then many baraces, 

And loaves, and luscious sauce shall show my coming : 

saying expressly that barley-cakes are set before the guests 
at the copides, (for that is the meaning of the word ftdpaKes, 
which does not mean cheesecakes, as Lycophron asserts, nor 
barley-meal porridge, as Eratosthenes believes,) and loaves, 
and a particular sort of broth very highly seasoned. More-' 
over, what the copis is, is very perspicuously explained by 

c. 17.] the copis. 227 

Molpis in his treatise on the Polity of the Lacedaemonians, 
where he writes, They also have feasts which they call 
copides. But the copis is a supper consisting of barley- 
cakes, loaves, meat, raw vegetables, soup, figs, sweetmeats, 
and -warmed wine. Moreover, sucking-pigs are not called 
opOayopLCTKOL, as Polemo pronounces the word, but 6p6payo- 
pLo-KOL, since they are sold at early dawn (7rpos ruv opdpov), as 
Persaeus relates in his treatise on the Lacedaemonian Polity. 
And Dioscorides, in the second book of his Polity, and Aristo- 
cles, in the first book of the treatise which he also wrote con- 
cerning the Lacedaemonian Polity, make the same statement. 
Besides, Polemo says, that supper is called ollkXov by the 
Lacedaemonians, and that all the rest of the Dorians give it 
the same name. For Alcman says — 

At the mill and also at the suppers (reus <rwatK\eiais) , 
where he uses cruratKAeiai as equivalent to avvSuTvvia. And 
in a subsequent passage he says — 

Alcman prepared an &'CkKov. 
But the Lacedaemonians do not call that portion which is 
given after the supper aUXov, nor that which is given after 
supper at the phiditia ; for that consists of bread and meat : 
but that is called kiraiKXov, being, as it were, an addition to 
the aUXov, which is regularly appointed as a part of the 
phiditia ; and that is what I imagine the name implies. For 
the preparation of what is called the eirdu<Xa is not simple, as 
Polemo supposed, but of a two-fold nature. For that which 
they give to the boys is very slight and trifling, being merely 
meal steeped in oil, which Nicocles, the Lacedaemonian, says 
that they eat after supper, wrapped up in leaves of the bay- 
tree, from which those leaves are called Ka^/zcn-iSes, 1 and the 
calas themselves are called Ka.fxp.aTa. And that it was a 
custom of the ancients to eat the leaves of the bay-tree at 
dessertj Callias or Diocles asserts in the Cyclopes, speaking 
thus — 

You will eat the leaves meant for supper, 

And this belongs to the figures which . . . 
But what they serve up at the phiditia of the men is pre- 
pared of some few regular animals, one of those who are rich 
men providing them for the phiditia, or sometimes several 
men club together to furnish it. But Molpis tells us that the 
€7rui'/<Aa. are also surnamed /Man-u^." 

1 From KaiTTw, to swallow. 



18. But concerning the k-n-aiK\a, Persajus, in his treatise 
on the Lacedaemonian Constitution, writes as follows : — " And 
immediately he levies on the rich men a tax of money to pro- 
vide the eVaucAa ; and this word means the sweetmeats which 
come on after supper. But he enjoins the poor to bring a 
reed, or a straw, or a leaf of the bay-tree, in order that they 
may be able to eat the e7rai/cAa after supper. For it consists 
of meal steeped in oil; and this is wholly like the arrange- 
ment of some small state. For in these eTrdhcXa they attend 
to all such points as these : who ought to sit down first, or 
second, or who ought to sit down on a small couch ; and so 
on." And Dioscorides gives the same account. But con- 
cerning the words /coi/x^a-riSes and Ka.fxp,ara Nicocles writes as 
follows : — " But the Ephor, having heard the cause, pronounces 
an acquittal or a condemnation. And he who has gained the 
caiise is slightly taxed to provide some Kap-fxara or KafifiariSe?. 
Now the KdjxjxaTa are cakes; but the Ka/i/xa/ruSes are what 
they wrap them in in order to eat them." 

19, But concerning the banquet of the Phiditia, Dioscorides 
gives this account in his book entitled Tripoliticus. " In the 
first place, each individual has his supper put down separately 
before him, and he has no participation with any one else ; 
and after that each has as much barley-cake as he pleases. 
And again, a cup is placed before each person, to drink when- 
ever he pleases. And the meat is always the same for every 
one, being boiled pork; but sometimes they have no meat at 
all, except some little bit weighing at the outside about four 
minaD ; and besides this, nothing at all except the broth 
Avhich comes from it ; which is sufficient for every one at the 
whole banquet to have some. And sometimes there may be 
some olives, or some cheese, or a few figs : and sometimes they 
have some small addition — a fish, or a hare, or a pigeon, or 
something of that sort : and then, after they have eaten very 
rapidly, the things are brought round which are called inaiKXa. 
And every one contributes to the phiditium about three Attic 
semimedimni ' of meal, and about eleven or twelve choes 2 of 
wine ; and in addition to this they contributed a certain 
weight of cheese and figs ; and moreover, for purchasing 
meat, they gave ten /Eginetan obols." a 

1 The Attic mcdimnus contained nearly twelve gallons. 

2 The x°v s held about three quarts. 

3 An obol was about three half-pence or rather more. 

C. 20.] THE PHIDITIA. 229 

But Sphserus, in the third book of his treatise on the 
Lacedaemonian Constitution, writes — " The partakers of the 
phiditium do also themselves contribute the en-ai/cXa. And 
sometimes most of them make their contributions consist of 
■what has been caught by them in hunting. Not but what 
the rich contribute also bread and whatever vegetables or 
fruits may be in season, in such quantities as are sufficient 
for one meal ; thinking that to provide more than is just 
enough is superfluous, as it will not be eaten." And Molpis 
says — " But after the supper is over something is always con- 
tributed by some one or other, and sometimes by man}'- join- 
ing together • and the /xarrvr], which they call the enaiKkov, 
is prepared by them at their own houses : but no one goes to 
any expense in buying what he contributes for this purpose. 
For they do not contribute it for the purpose of giving plea- 
sure, or of indulging in any immoderate eating, but with the 
view of making a display of their own skill in hunting. And 
many also who breed flocks of sheep, give their produce very 
liberally. And this fiarrvr] consists of pigeons, geese, two 
hen-doves, thrushes, blackbirds, hares, lambs, kids. And the 
cooks always proclaim the name of him who has contributed 
each dish, in order that all men may see his devotion to 
hunting, and his eagerness to contribute to their enjoyment." 

But Demetrius the Scepsian says, in the first book of his 
treatise on the Trojan Array, "that the festival of the 
< Jarnea among the Lacedaemonians is a representation of a 
military expedition. For that there are nine spots marked 
out ; and they are called sciades, 1 having something like tents 
in them ; and in each of them nine men sup ; and every- 
thing is proclaimed by the crier as if it were a military 
order. Now each scias has three phratrkc. And this festival 
of'the Carnea lasts nine days." 

20. Subsequently the Lacedaemonians relaxed the rigour 
of this way of living, and became more luxurious. At all 
events, Phylarchus, in the fifteenth and again in the twentieth 
book of his Histories, writes thus concerning them : — '•' The 
Lacedemonians had given up assembling for the phiditia, 
according to the custom of their country, and whenever they 
met, after having had a few things brought round, for the sake 
of a seeming compliance with the law, other things were then 
1 From ai<ta, shade. 


prepared ; couches furnished in a very expensive way and of 
exceeding size, and all differing from one another in their 
adornment ; so that some of the strangers who were invited 
used to be afraid to put their elbows on the pillows ; and 
those who formerly used to rest on a bare bench during the 
whole banquet, perhaps once leaning on their elbows for a few 
minutes, had now come to such a pitch of luxury as I have 
spoken of, and to a serving up of many cups of wine, and of 
all sorts of food procured from all countries and dressed in 
every kind of luxurious way ; and besides that, they had 
come to use foreign perfumes, and also foreign wines and 
sweetmeats. And the people began this fashion who lived 
a short time before the reign of Cleomenes, namely Areus 
and Aci - otatus, rivalling the indulgences of the court of 
Persia ; and they in their turn were so far exceeded by some 
private individuals, who lived in Sparta at that time, in their 
own personal extravagance, that Areus and Acrotatus ap- 
peared people of such rigid economy as to have surpassed the 
most simple of their predecessors in self-denial." 

21. " But Cleomenes was a man of eminent wisdom in his 
discernment of matters, (although he was but a young man,) 
and also was exceedingly simple in his manner of life. For 
he, being king, and having such important affairs intrusted 
to his management, disjnayed such behaviour to any who 
were invited to any sacrifice, as to make them see that what 
they had daily prepared at home for themselves was in no 
respect inferior to what he allowed himself. And when many 
embassies were sent to him he never made a banquet for 
the ambassadors at an earlier hour than the regular time ; 
and there never was anything more laid than a common pen- 
taclinum ; and when there was no embassy, what was laid 
was a triclinium. And there were no orders issued by the 
regulator of the feasts, as to who should come in or who 
should sit down first : but the eldest led the way to the 
couch, unless he himself invited any one else to do so ; and 
he was generally seen supping with his brother or with some 
of his friends of his own age. And there was placed on a 
tripod a brazen wine-cooler, and a cask, and a small silver 
cup holding two cotyke, 1 and a cyathus ; 2 and the spoon was 

1 A cotyla held about half a pint. 

2 A cyathus held about a twelfth part of a pint. 

C. 22.] CLEOHENES. 231 

made of brass. And wine was not brought round to drink 
unless any one asked for it ; but one cyathus was given to 
each guest before supper : and generally it was given to him- 
self first ; and then, when he had thus given the signal, the 
rest also asked for some wine. But what was served up was 
placed on a very common-looking table ; and the dishes were 
such that there was neither anything left, nor anything 
deficient, but just a sufficient quantity for every one; so 
that those who were present should not feel the want of 
anything. For he did not think it right to receive guests 
as sparingly, in respect of soup and meat, as men are treated 
at the phiclitia ; nor again, to have so much superfluity as to 
waste money for no purpose, exceeding all moderation and 
reason in the feast ; for the one extreme he counted illiberal, 
and the other arrogant. And the wine was of rather a better 
quality when he had any company. But while they were 
eating they all kept silence ; but a slave stood by, holding in 
his hand a vessel of mixed wine, and poured out for every 
one who asked for it. And in the same manner, after supper 
there was given to each guest not more than two cyathi of 
wine, and this too was brought to each person as he made a 
sign for it. And there was no music of any kind accom- 
panying the meal, but Cleomenes himself conversed all the 
time with each individual, having invited them, as it were, 
for the purpose of listening and talking ; so that all departed 
charmed with his hospitality and affability." 

But Antiphanes, ridiculing the Lacedaemonian banqttets, 
in the style of the comic poets, in his drama which is entitled 
Archon, speaks as follows : — 

If you should live in Lacedaemon's walls, 
You must comply with all their fashions there. 
Go to their spare phiditia for supper, 
And feast on their black broth ; and not disdain 
To wear fierce whiskers, and seek no indulgence 
Further than this ; but keep the olden customs, 
Such as their country doth compel. 

22. And concerning the Cretan banquets, or crvo-aiTia, 
Dosiades speaks in the fourth book of his treatise on Cretan 
Affairs, speaking as follows : — " But the Lyctians collect men 
for the common meal (crvcraLTia) of the nation in this way : — 
Every one brings a tenth part of the fruits which his land 
produces and throws into the common stock of the mess • 


and they also bring their share of the taxes due to the city, 
which the chief magistrates of the city distribute among each 
separate family. And each one of the slaves pays an ^Egine- 
tan stater 1 a head. The citizens are all divided into messes ; 
and they call them avSpeta. And a woman has the super- 
intendence of their meals, having three or four of the people 
under her to obey her orders. Now each one of the company 
is followed by two servants bearing wood ; and their title is 
calophori. And there are in every town of Crete two houses 
set apart for these <tv(t<tltuu, one of which they call the men's 
house, and the other, that, namely, in which they receive stran- 
gers, they call the sleeping house. And in the house which is 
set apart for these public meals, there are first of all two tables 
set out, called the strangers' tables, at which those foreigners 
who are present sit ; and after that tables are laid for the 
rest. And the younger men have half the quantity of meat ; 
and they touch none of the other dishes. Then a bowl of 
wine is placed on each table, mingled with water ; and all 
drink of this in common at the common table; and when 
they have finished supper then another bowl is put on the 
table. But for the boys one common bowl is likewise mixed ; 
but the elders have liberty to drink more if they feel inclined 
to. And the woman who has the superintendence of the 
mess takes away from off the table, without any disguise or 
concealment, the best of what is served up, and puts it before 
those who are distinguished for warlike achievements or for 
wisdom. And when they have finished supper, then, first of 
all, they are in the habit of deliberating on the affairs of the 
state ; and then, after that, they converse about exploits which 
have been performed in war, and extol those who have be- 
haved like valiant men, and so exhort the younger men to 
acts of valour and virtue." 

And Pyrgion, in the third book of his treatise on Cretan 
Laws, says — " At their public meals the Cretans sit and feast 
merrily. And those who are orphans have dishes served up 
to them without any seasoning ; and the youngest of them 
minister to the others ; and having uttered words of good 
omen they pour libations to the gods, and distribute the 
dishes served up to all the guests. They distribute some 
also to the sons who are sitting just behind the seat of their 
1 A stater was about 3s. Zd. 


fathers ; giving them one-half as much as is given to men ; 
hut the orphans have an equal share. And whatever is served 
up to them has no seasoning nor any luxurious mixtures com- 
pounded in it. There -were also three seats designed for 
strangers, and a third table, on the right hand side as you 
■went in to the house where the men ate ; and that they 
called the table of the Jupiter of Hospitality, and the table 
of Hospitality. 1 ' 

23. And Herodotus, comparing the drinking parties of the 
Greeks with the banquets in fashion among the Persians, 
says — " But the Persians are accustomed to honour that day 
above all others on which they were born. And on that day 
they think it right to have a more splendid feast than on any 
other day. And on that day those of them who are rich 
serve up an ox, and an ass, and a horse, and a camel, all 
roasted whole in ovens : but those who are poor serve up 
only the smaller animals, such as sheep ; and they do not 
eat a great deal of meat, but great quantities of sweetmeats, 
and no salt. And on this account the Persians say that the 
Greeks, when they cat, leave off being still hungry, because 
after supper nothing is served up to them worth speaking of. 
For that if anything good were put before them they would 
not leave off eating it : but they sit very long at their wine. 
And it is not allowed to them to vomit, nor to make water in 
the presence of one another. And these laws arc strictly 
observed among them. And after they have drunk hard they 
are accustomed to deliberate on the most important affairs. 
And whatever they determine on at these deliberations, the 
next day the master of the house, wherever they were when 
they deliberated, proposes to them over again when they arc 
quite sober ; and if they adopt the same determination when 
sober, then they act upon it, but if not, they abandon it : 
and whatever they decide on when sober, they reconsider 
when they are drunk." 

24. But concerning the luxury of the kings among the 
Persians, Xenophon, in his Agesilaus, writes as follows ; — 
" For men travel over the whole earth in the service of the 
king of Persia, looking to find out what may be pleasant for 
him to drink ; and ten thousand men are always contriving 
something nice for him to eat ; and no (me can tell the num- 
ber of contrivances they propose to cause him to sleep well. 


But Agesilaus, because he was a man fond of exertion, drank 
whatever was set before bini with pleasure, and ate whatever 
came across him with appetite ; and every place suited him 
to sleep pleasantly in." And in his treatise entitled Hiero, 
speaking of the things which are prepared for kings, and also 
of the dishes which are prepai'ed for private individuals to 
eat, he uses the following expressions : — " ' And I know,' said 
he, ' Simonides, that most men consider that we eat and 
drink more pleasantly than private individuals in this respect, 
because they think that they should more gladly eat of what 
is served up to us than of what is set before them. For that 
whatever is out of the ordinary routine gives pleasure ; on 
which account all men gladly receive invitations to festivals, 
except kings. For as their tables are always loaded to satiety, 
it is quite impossible that they should be susceptible of any 
addition at the time of feasts ; so that in this particular 
pleasure which is derived from hope they are surpassed by 
private individuals. And in the next place,' he continued, 
' I am sure that you yourself know from experience that 
the more any one sets before people that which is more than 
sufficient, in that exact proportion is a disgust at eating 
quicker in coming on ; so that a man who has a very large 
and varied dinner set before him is inferior to those who live 
moderately also in the duration of his pleasure.' ' But, by 
Jove,' said Simonides, ' as long as the mind feels an appe- 
tite, so long are those who are bred up amid more expensive 
preparations delighted in a much higher degree than those who 
are in the habit of living in a most economical manner.' " 

25. But Theophrastus, in the Book on Royal Authority, 
addressed to Cassander, (if indeed the book under that title, 
attributed to him, be a genuine work of his, for many say 
that it was written by Sosibius, to whom Callimachus the 
poet addresses a triumphal hymn in elegiac metre,) says that 
" the Persian kings were so luxurious as to offer by proclama- 
tion a large sum of money to any one who could invent any 
new pleasure." And Theopompus, in the thirty-fifth book of 
his Histories, says, that " the king of the Paphlagonians, 
whose name was Thys, whenever he supped, ordered a hun- 
dred dishes of every sort to be placed on his table, beginning 
with oxen. And that when he was led captive to the king 
of Persia and kept in prison, he still continued to have the 


same profusion served up to him, living in the most splendid 
manner. So that Artaxerxes, when he heard of it, said that 
he appeared to him to be living like a man who knew that ho 
should soon die." But the same Theopompus, in the four- 
teenth book of his History of the Exploits of Philip, says — 
" When the king comes to any one of his subject cities, 
twenty talents are expended on his supper, and sometimes 
thirty ; and some even spend a mucli larger sum still. For 
it is a very old custom, that every city is bound to supply a 
supper in proportion to its greatness, just on the same prin- 
ciple as its tribute to the revenue and its taxes are exacted." 

20. But Heraclides the Curnaean, who compiled a history 
of Persia, in the second book of that work, which is entitled 
Preparatory, says — " And those who wait upon the Persian 
kings while they are at supper, all minister after having 
bathed, wearing beautiful clothes ; and they remain nearly 
half the day in attendance at the feast. But of those who are 
invited to eat with the king, some dine outside, and every 
one who chooses can see them, but some dine inside with the 
king : and even these do not actually eat with him ; but there 
are two rooms opposite to one another, in one of which the 
king eats his meal, and in the other the guests eat theirs. And 
the king beholds them through the curtain which is at the 
door; but they cannot see him. But sometimes, when there 
is a feast, then they all sup in one room, namely, in the same 
room as the king, being the large room. And when the king- 
has a drinking party, (and he has one very often,) his guests 
are about a dozen in number, and when they have supped, 
the king by himself, and his guests by themselves, then one 
of the eunuchs summons those who are to drink with the 
king : and when they come, then they drink with him, but 
they do not have the same wine ; also they sit on the ground 
and he reclines on a couch with golden feet ; and when they 
are veiy drunk indeed they go away. But for the most 
part the king bz'eakfasts and sups by himself: but some- 
times his wife sups with him ; and sometimes some of his 
sons do so. And at supper his concubines sing and play 
to him ; and one of them leads, and then all the rest 
sing in concert. But the supper," he continues, "which ffl 
called the king's supper, will appear to any one who bears 
of it to be very magnificent; still, when it is examined into, it 


will turn out to be economically and carefully managed, and 
in the same manner as the meals of the other Persians who 
are in office. For the king has a thousand victims slain every 
day : and among them are horses, and camels, and oxen, and 
asses, and stags, and an immense number of sheep ; and a 
great many birds too are taken ; and the Arabian ostrich 
(and that is a very large animal), and geese, and cocks; and 
a moderate quantity of them is served up to each of the 
mess-mates of the king, and each of them carries away what 
is left for his breakfast. But the greater part of these victims 
and of this meat is carried out into the court to the spear- 
bearers and light-armed troops whom the king maintains ; 
and in the court the masters of the feasts portion out the 
meat and the bread into equal portions ; and as the mer- 
cenary troops in Greece receive money for their hire, so do 
these men receive food from the king, on account, as if it 
were money. And in the same way, at the courts of the 
other Persians, who hold office as magistrates, all the food is 
placed at once upon the table : and when the mess-mates of 
the magistrate have finished their supper, then he who super- 
intends the meal distributes what is left on the table (and 
the greater part of the bread and meat is left) to each of the 
servants. And each attendant,' when he has received his 
share, has his food for the day. For the most honourable of 
the mess-mates (their title is ol oaV8a7n/oi) never come to 
the king except to dinner ; because, forsooth, they have re- 
quested permission not to be bound to come twice in the 
day, in order that they themselves may be able to receive 
guests at their own houses." 

27. But Herodotus, in his seventh book, says, that c: the 
Greeks, who received Xerxes in hospitality, and invited him 
to supper, all en me to the very extremity of ruin, so as to 
be utterly turned out of their houses ; as for instance, among 
the Thasians, who, because of the cities which they had on 
the continent, received the army of Xerxes and entertained 
it at supper. Antipater, one of these citizens, expended four 
hundred talents in that single entei'tainment ; and he placed 
on the tables gold and silver cups and goblets ; and then 
the soldiers, when they departed after the supper, took them 
away with them. And wherever Xerxes took two meals, 
dining as well as supping, that city was utterly ruined." 


And in the ninth book of his Histories, the same author 
tells us, " The king provides a royal entertainment ; and this 
is provided once every year, on the day on which the king 
was born. And the name of this feast is in Persian tvktu, 
but in Greek Te'Actov ; and that is the only day that he has 
his head rubbed, and gives presents to the Persians." 

But Alexander the Great, whenever he supped with any of 
his friends, as Ephippus the Olynthian relates in his book 
on the Deaths of Alexander and Hephrestion, expended each 
day a hundred mime, as perhaps sixty or seventy of his friends 
supped with him. But the king of the Persians, as Ctesias 
and Dinon relate in the Histories of Persia, supped with fifteen 
thousand men, and there were expended on the supper four 
hundred talents ; and this amounts in Italian money to twenty 
four hundred thousand of sesterces. And this sum when divided 
among fifteen thousand men is a hundred and sixty sesterces 
of Italian money for each individual ; so that it comes to very 
nearly the same as the expense of Alexander ; for he expended 
a hundred min?e, according to the account of Ephippus. 

But Menander, in his play called Drunkenness, estimates 
the expense of the most sumptuous bancpiet at a talent. 
Then we do not in these matters act as Ave should do 
"When to the gods we sacrifice; for then we go arid buy 
A sheep, an ottering for the gods, for scarce ten drachmas' price. 
And then we send for flute players, and ointments, and perfumes, 
And harps, and singing women, eels, and cheese, and honey too; 
And ample jars of Thasian wine ; hut these can scarcely come, 
When all together rcckon'd up, to a small talent's sum. 

And it is as the very extravagance of expense that he has 
named a talent at all. And in his Morose Man he speaks 
as follows : — 

See how these housebreakers do sacrifice ! 

Bearing such beds and couches, not to please 

The gods, but their own selves. Incense is pious, 

So is the votive cake ; and this the god 

Receives woll-baked in the holy fire. 

But they when they have offer'd the chump end 

Of a lean loin, the gall bladder, and bones, 

j^ot too agreeable or easy to cat, 

Unto the gods, consume the rest themselves. 

28. And Philoxenus of Cythera, in the play which is 
entitled The Supper, (for he it is whom Plato the comic 


writer mentions in his Phaon, and not Philoxeuus the 
Leucadian,) mentions the following as the preparation made 
for a banquet — 

And then two slaves brought in a well-rubb'd table, 

And then another, and another, till 

The room was fill'd, and then the hanging lamps 

Beam'd bright and shone upon the festive crowns, 

And herbs, and dishes of rich delicacies. 

And then all arts were put in requisition 

To furnish forth a most luxurious meal. 

Barley-cakes white as snow did fill the baskets, 

And then were served up not coarse vulgar pots, 

But well-shaped dishes, whose well-order'd breadth 

Fill'd the rich board, eels, and the well-stuff d conger, 

A dish fit for the gods. Then came a platter 

Of equal size, with dainty sword-fish fraught, 

And then fat cuttle-fish, and the savoury tribes 

Of the long hairy polypus. After this 

Another orb appear'd upon the table, 

Eival of that just brought from off the fire, 

Fragrant with spicy odour. And on that 

Again were famous cuttle-fish, and those 

Fair maids the honey 'd squills, and dainty cakes, 

Sweet to the palate, and large buns of wheat, 

Large as a partridge, sweet, and round, which you 

Do know the taste of well. And if you ask 

What more was there, I'd speak of luscious chine, 

.And loin of pork, and head of boar, all hot; 

iCutlets of kid, and well-boil'd pettitoes, 

»A.nd ribs of beef, and heads, and snouts, and tails. 

(Then kid again, and lamb, and hares, and poultry, 

Partridges and the bird from Phasis' stream. 

And golden honey, and clotted cream was there, 

And cheese, which I did join with all in calling 

Most tender fare. And when we all had reach'd 

Satiety of food and wine, the slaves 

Bore off the still full tables ; and some others 

Brought us warm water for to wash our hands. 1 

29. And Soci-ates the Rhodian, in the third book of his 
History of the Civil War, describing the entertainment given 
by Cleopatra the last queen of Egypt, who married Antony 
the Roman general in Cilicia, speaks in the following manner : 

1 I have only attempted here to extract a few of the sentences and 
words which appeared a little intelligible. The whole quotation is 
perhaps the most hopelessly corrupt in all Athenams. Schweighauser 
says, — " Even the most learned men have given up the whole extract 
in despair," and that it is only a very few words from which he can 
extract any sense by the greatest freedom of conjecture. 

C. 29.] CLEOPATRA. 239 

— " But Cleopatra having met Antony in Cilicia, prepared 
him a royal entertainment, in which every dish was golden 
and inlaid with precious stones, wonderfully chased and em- 
bossed. And the walls," continues he, " were hung with 
cloths embroidered in gold and purple. And she had twelve 
triclinia laid ; and invited Antony to a banquet, and desired 
him to bring with him whatever companions he pleased. And 
he being astonished at the magnificence of the sight, expressed 
his surprise ; and she, smiling, said that she made him a pre- 
sent of everything which he saw, and invited him to sup with 
her again the next day, and to bring his friends and captains 
with him. And then she prepared a banquet by far more 
splendid than the former one, so as to make that first one 
appear contemptible ; and again she presented to him every- 
thing that there was on the table ; and she desired each of his 
captains to take for his own the couch on which he lay, and the 
goblets which were set before each couch. And when they were 
departing she gave to all those of the highest rank palanquins, 
with the slaves for palanquin bearers; and to the rest she 
gave horses, adorned with golden furniture : and to every 
one she gave Ethiopian boys, to bear torches before them. 
And on the fourth day she paid more than a talent for roses; 
and the floor of the chamber for the men was strewed a cubit 
deep, nets being spread over the blooms." And he relates 
further, that "Antony himself, when he was staying at Athens, 
a short time after this, prepared a very superb scaffold to 
spread over the theatre, covered with green wood such as is 
seen in the caves sacred to Bacchus ; and from this scaffold he 
suspended drums and fawn-skins, and all the other toys which 
one names in connexion with Bacchus, and then sat there with 
his friends, getting drunk from daybreak, — a band of musi- 
cians, whom he had sent for from Italy, playing to him all 
the time, and all the Greeks around being collected to see 
the sight, And presently," continues he, " he crossed over to 
the Acropolis, the whole city of Athens being illuminated with 
lamps suspended from the roof; and after that he ordered 
himself to be proclaimed as Bacchus throughout all the cities 
in that district." 

And Cams the emperor, surnamed Caligula, because he was 
born in the camp, was not only called tlic young Bacchus, 
but was also in the habit of going about dressed in the entire 


dress of Bacchus, and he used to sit on the tribunal as judge 
in that dress. 

30. Now a man looking at these instances which have 
occurred in our country before our time, may marvel at the 
poverty of the Greeks, especially if he sets his eyes upon the 
banquets which take place among the Thcbans ; concerning 
whom Clitarchus, in the first book of his Histories relating to 
Alexander, speaks, and says that all their wealth, when the 
city was razed to the ground by Alexander, was found to 
amount to four hundred and forty talents, because they were 
meanspirited and gluttons in eating and drinking, preparing 
in their banquets forced-meat balls, and boiled fish and 
anchovies, and encrasicholi, and sausages, and ribs of beef, and 
soup ; on which Attaginus the son of Phrynon feasted Mar- 
donius, with fifty other Persians; a man whom Herodotus 
mentions in his ninth book as having amassed an enormous 
amount of riches. And I think that they would never have 
escaped, and that there would have been no necessity for the 
Greeks being marshalled against them at Plattea, as they 
would certainly have been killed by such food as that. 

31. But Hecatams of Miletus, describing an Arcadian ban- 
quet in the third book of his Genealogies, says that it consists 
chiefly of barley-cakes and pork. But Harmodius of Lepreum, 
in the third book of his treatise on the Laws of the People 
of Phigalea, says — " The man among the Phigaleans who is 
appointed superintendent of the food, brought every day 
three choes of wine, and a medimnus of flour, and five minse 
weight of cheese, and other things suitable for the preparing 
of the victims. And the city provided each of the choruses 
with three sheep, and a cook, and a water-carrier, and tables, 
and seats for the guests to sit clown upon, and all other 
similar appointments ; only that the choregus supplied the 
vessels which the cook required. And the banquet, was of 
the following description : Cheese, and barley-cake, for the 
sake of preserving the laws, served up in brazen baskets, 
which are by some people called mazonoma, having derived 
their name from the use to which they are put ; and together 
with the barley-cake and cheese, paunches and salt are 
given the guests to eat. And when they have offered these 
things to the gods, then they give every one a portion of 
wine to drink in a small mug, made of earthenware : and he 


who brings the wine says, May you sup well. And then there 
is put on the table for general use some soup and some minced 
meat ; and every one has two slices of meat put within his 
reach. And it was a custom of theirs at all their banquets, 
and most especially at those which were called Mazones, or 
barley-feasts, (for even now the feast in honour of Bacchus 
has this name,) to give those of the young men who ate most 
manfully, a larger quantity of broth, and also to set before 
them barley-cakes and loaves, for such an one was considered 
a noble-minded and a valiant man ; for a large appetite was 
considered an admirable and a famous thing among them. 
But after supper was over, they used to make libations, with- 
out having washed their hands, but merely wiping them on 
pieces of bread ; and each of them took away with him that 
on which he had wiped his hands, doing this on account of 
the nightly objects of fear which arise to frighten men in the 
cross roads : and after the libations a psean is sung. But when 
they sacrifice to the Heroes, a very large sacrifice of oxen takes 
place, and they all feast with the slaves; and the children 
sit at table with their fathers, sitting naked on the stones." 

But Theopompus, in the forty-sixth book of his account of 
the Exploits of Philip, says — " The Arcadians in their ban- 
quets admit both masters and slaves, and prepare but one 
table for all ; and they place the food for all in the middle, and 
they mix the same bowl of wine for the whole company." 

32. But among the Naucratitae, according to the account 
given by Hermeas in the second book of his treatise respect- 
ing the Grynean Apollo, they sup in the prytaneum on the 
birthday festival of Vesta Prytanitis; and at the Dionysiac 
festival ; and again at the assembly of the Comsean Apollo, 
— all of them coming in white robes, which even to this day 
they call prytanic garments. And when they have sat down 
to eat, they rise up again on their knees while the herald of 
the sacred festival repeats the national prayers, all making 
a libation together; and, after that, sitting down again, each 
of them takes two cotyla) of wine, except the priests of the 
Pythian Apollo, and of Bacchus, for each of them receives 
a double portion of wine and of all other things; and then 
a loaf of white bread is set before each of them, made very 
broad, on which another loaf is placed, which they ("ill 
cribanites. And a joint of pork is placed before them, and 

vol. l. — atii. it 


a platter of ptisan or of some vegetable or herb which is in 
season, and a couple of eggs, and a slice of cheese, and some 
dry figs, and a cheesecake, and a garland. And whatever maker 
of a sacrifice prepares anything beyond this is liable to be 
fined by the magistrates, who are called ti/aoCi^oi. And those 
who eat in the prytaneum are not permitted to take anything 
away to be eaten ; but they only eat what is set before them, 
and give what is left to their slaves. And on all the other 
days of the year it is lawful for any one who pleases of those 
who are fed at the prytaneum to go into the prytaneum to 
sup, having prepared at his own home some vegetable, or 
some pulse, or some salt meat, or some fish, or a very little 
bit of pork ; and when he eats this, he may also have a cotyla 
of wine. But no woman is allowed to go into the prytaneum 
excepting the woman alone who plays the flute. And no 
spoon may be brought into the prytaneum. But if any one 
of the Naucratitse makes a marriage feast, as it is written in 
the law which regulates the ceremonial of marriage, it is for- 
bidden for him to have eggs or honey cheesecakes served up ; 
but what is the reason of these restrictions we may hope to 
be told by Ulpian. 

33. But Lynceus, in his treatise on the Affairs and Consti- 
tution of Egypt, comparing the Egyptian banquets to the 
Persian ones, says — " When the Egyptians made an expedition 
against Ochus, king of Persia, and w r ere defeated, when the 
king of the Egyptians was taken prisoner, Ochus treated him 
with great humanity, and invited him to supper. And as 
there was a very splendid preparation made, the Egyptian 
laughed at the idea of the Persian living so frugally. ' But 
if you wish,' said he, ' king, to know how happy kings ought 
to feast, permit those cooks who formerly belonged to me to 
prepare for you an Egyptian supper.' And when the Persian 
had ordered that they should do so, when it was prepared, 
Ochus was delighted at the feast, and said, ' May the gods, 
Egyptian, destroy you miserably for a wicked man, who 
could leave such a supper as this, and desire a much more 
frugal repast.' " But what the Egyptian feasts were like 
Protagorides teaches us in the first book of his treatise on the 
Daplmic Contests, speaking as follows : — " And the third de- 
scription of suppers is the Egyptian, whose tables are not 
laid at all, but dishes are brought round to the guests." 


34. "But among the Galatians," says Ph} T larchus in his sixth 
book, " it is the custom to place on the tables a great number 
of loaves broken promiscuously, and meat just taken out of 
the kettles, •which no one touches without first waiting for the 
king to see whether he touches anything of what is served up 
before him." But in his third book the same Phylarchus 
says that " Ariamnes the Galatian, being an exceedingly rich 
man, gave notice that he would give all the Galatians a ban- 
quet every year; and that he did so, managing in this manner : 
He divided the country, measuring it by convenient stages 
along the roads ; and at these stages he erected tents of stakes 
and rushes and osiers, each containing about fom* hundred 
men, or somewhat more, according as the district 'required, 
and with reference to the number that might be expected to 
throng in from the villages and towns adjacent to the stage in 
question. And there he placed huge kettles, full of every 
sort of meat; and he had the kettles made in the preceding 
year before he was to give the feast, sending for artizans 
from other cities. And he caused many victims to be slain, 
— numbers of oxen, and pigs, and sheep, and other animals, — 
every day ; and he caused casks of wine to be prepared, and a 
great quantity of ground com. And not only," he continues, 
" did all the Galatians who came from the villages and cities 
enjoy themselves, but even all the strangers who happened to 
be passing by were not allowed to escape by the slaves who 
stood around, but were pressed to come in and partake of 
what had been prepared." 

35. Xenophon . also mentions the Thracian suppers in the 
seventh book of his Anabasis, describing the banquet given by 
Seuthes in the following words — " But when they all came to 
the supper, and the supper was laid so that they might all sit 
round in a circle, then tripods were brought to all the guests; 
and they were about twenty in number, all full of meat ready 
carved : and leavened loaves of large size were stuck to the 
joints of meat with skewers. And most especially were tables 
always placed before the guests, for that was the custom. 
And first of all Seuthes behaved in this manner : taking the 
loaves which were near him, he broke them into small pieces, 
and threw the pieces to whoever he chose; and he acted in the 
same way with the meat, leaving before himself only just as 
much as he could eat; and the rest also did the same, — those 


I mean before whom the tables were set. But a certain 
Arcadian, Arystas by name, a terrible fellow to eat, said that 
throwing the bread and meat about was folly; and taking 
a large loaf in his hand, of the size of three chcenixes, 1 and 
putting the meat upon his knees, made his supper in that 
manner. And they brought round horns of wine, and all 
pledged one another; but Arystas, when the cup-bearer came 
to him with the wine, said, as he saw that Xenophon was no 
longer eating any supper, ' Give him the wine, for he has 
time to drink it, but I have not time yet.' And then there 
arose laughter. And as the liquor went round, a Thracian 
came in, having a white horse, and taking a horn full of wine, 
said, ' Seuthes, I pledge you, and I make you a present of 
my horse : and if you ride him you will catch whatever you 
wish to catch; and when you retreat you will never need to 
fear an enemy.' And another man brought in his son, and 
gave him to him in the same manner, pledging him in wine : 
and another gave him garments for his wife. And Timasion, 
pledging him, gave him a silver goblet, and a scimitar worth 
ten mina?. But Gnesippus, an Athenian, rising up, said that 
there was an ancient and excellent law, that those who had 
anything should give it to the king as a compliment, and that 
the king should make presents to those who had nothing. 
But Xenophon rose up boldly, and taking the horn, said — 
' I, Seuthes, give you myself and these my companions to 
be faithful friends to you ; and not one of them is unwilling 
that I should do so : and now they are present here asking 
for nothing, but being willing to encounter labour and danger 
on your behalf.' And Seuthes, rising up, drank to Xeno- 
phon, and spilt the rest of the contents of the horn at the 
same time that he did. And after this there came in men 
who played on horns such as are used for giving orders with, 
and also on trumpets made of raw bull's-hide, in excellent 
tune, as if they had been playing on a magadis. 2 " 

3G. And Posidonius the Stoic, in the histories which he 
composed in a manner by no means inconsistent with the 
philosophy which he professed, writing of the laws that were 

1 A chcenix held about a quart. 

2 The magadis was a three-cornered instrument like a harp, with 
twenty strings arranged in octaves, like the tttjktis. It was also a 
Lydian name for a peculiar kind of flute or flageolet, producing a high 
and low note at the same time. V. Liddell and Scott in voc. 


established and the customs which prevailed in many nations, 
says — " The Celine place food before their guests, putting 
grass for their seats, and they serve it up on wooden tables 
raised a very little above the ground : and their food consists 
of a few loaves, and a good deal of meat brought up floating 
in water, and roasted on the coals or on spits. And they eat 
their meat in a cleanly manner enough, but like lions, taking 
up whole joints in both their hands, and gnawing them ; and 
if there is any part which they cannot easily tear away, they 
cut it off with a small sword which they have in a sheath in 
a private depositor}'. And those who live near the rivers eat 
fish also, and so do those who live near the Mediterranean 
sea, or near the Atlantic ocean ; and they cat it roasted with 
salt and vinegar and cummin seed : and cummin seed they 
also throw into their wine. But they use no oil, on account of 
its scarcity ; and because they are not used to it, it seems 
disagreeable to them. But when many of them sup together, 
they all sit in a circle ; and the bravest sits in the middle, 
like the corypheeus of a chorus ; because he is superior to the 
rest either in his military skill, or in birth, or in riches : and 
the man who gives the entertainment sits next to him ; and 
then on each side the rest of the guests sit in regular order, 
according as each is eminent or distinguished for anything. 
And their armour-bearers, bearing their large oblong shields, 
called Ovpiol, stand behind ; and their spear-bearers sit down 
opposite in a circle, and feast in the same manner as their 
masters. And those who act as cup-bearers and bring round 
the wine, bring it round in jars made either of earthenware or 
of silver, like ordinary casks in shape, and the name they 
give them is afj./3u<o<;. And their platters on which they serve 
up the meat are also made of the same material ; but sumo 
have brazen platters, and some have wooden or plaited bas- 
kets. And the liquor which is drunk is, among the rich, wine 
brought from Italy or from the country about Marseilles; 
and this is drunk unmixed, but sometimes a little water is 
mixed with it. B\it among the poorer classes what is drunk 
is a beer made of wheat prepared with honey, and oftener 
still without any honey; and they call it corma. And they .ill 
drink it out of the same cup, in small draughts, nut drink- 
ing more than a cyathus at a time ; but they take frequent 
draughts: and a slave carries the liquor round, beginning at 


the right hand and going on to the left ; and this is the way 
in which they are waited on, and in which they worship the 
gods, always turning towards the right hand." 

37. And Posidonius continuing, and relating the riches of 
Lyemius the father of Bityis, who was subdued by the 
Romans, says that " he, aiming at becoming a leader of the 
populace, used to drive in a chariot over the plains, and 
scatter gold and silver among the myriads of Celts who fol- 
lowed him ; and that he enclosed a fenced space of twelve 
furlongs in length every way, square, in which he erected 
wine-presses, and filled them with expensive liquors; and that 
he prepai'ed so vast a quantity of eatables that for very many 
days any one who chose was at liberty to go and enjoy what 
was there prepared, being waited on without interruption or 
cessation. And once, when he had issued beforehand invita- 
tions to a banquet, some poet from some barbarian tribe came 
too late and met him on the way, and sung a hymn in which 
he extolled his magnificence, and bewailed his own misfortune 
in having come too late : and Lyernius was pleased with 
his ode, and called for a bag of gold, and threw it to him as 
he was running by the side of his chariot ; and that he picked 
it up, and then went on singing, saying that his very foot- 
prints upon the earth over which he drove produced benefits 
to men." These now are the accounts of the Celtae given 
by Posidonius in the third and in the twentieth books of his 

38. But in the fifth book, speaking of the Parthians, he says 
— " But a friend who is invited does not share the same table, 
but sitting on the ground while the king reclines near on a 
lofty couch, eats whatever is thrown to him from the king, like 
a dog. And very often he is torn away from his feast on the 
groimd for some trifling cause, and is scourged with rods and 
knotted whips ; and when he is all covered with blood he falls 
down on his face on the floor, and adores the man who has 
punished him as his benefactor." 

And in his eleventh book, speaking of Seleucus the king, 
and relating how he came against Media, and warred against 
Arsaces, and was taken prisoner by the barbarian, and how 
he remained a long time in captivity to Arsaces, being treated 
like a king by him, he writes thus — " Among the Parthiaus, 
at their banquets, the king had a couch on which he reclined 

C. 39.] ROMAN BANQUETS. 247 

by himself higher than all the rest, and apart from them; 
and a table also was laid for him by himself, as for a hero, 
laden with all sorts of barbaric delicacies." And when he 
is speaking of Heracleon the Bercoan, who was promoted to 
honour by that king Antiochns who was surnamed Grypus, 
and who very nearly turned his benefactor out of his king- 
dom, he writes as follows in the fourth book of his Histories : 
" He also gave entertainments to the soldiers, making them 
sit down on the ground in the open air by thousands : and 
the entertainment consisted of large loaves and meat ; and 
their drink was any sort of wine that could be got, mingled 
with cold water. And they were waited on by men girded 
with swords, and there was an orderly silence throughout the 
whole company." 

Again, in his second book, he says — " In the city of the 
Komans when they feast in the temple of Hercules, when 
a general who is celebrating a triumph furnishes the enter- 
tainment, the whole preparation of the banquet is of a Her- 
culean character ; for honey-wine is served out to the guests 
as wine, and the food consists of huge loaves, and smoked 
meat boiled, and also great abundance of roast meat from the 
victims which have been lately slain. But among the Etrus- 
cans luxurious tables are spread twice a-day; and couches 
embroidered with flowers, and silver drinking cups of every 
sort. And a great number of well-appointed slaves is at 
hand, dressed in expensive garments." And Timseus, in the 
first book of his Histories, says that all the female servants 
in that, nation always wait at table naked till they are quite 
grown up. 

39. And Megasthenes, in the second book of his Indian 
History, says — " Among the Indians at a banquet a table is 
set before each individual ; and it is like a sideboard or 
beaufet; and on the table is placed a golden dish, in which 
they throw first of all boiled rice, just as if a person were 
going to boil groats, and then they add many sorts of meat 
dressed after the Indian fashion." 

But the Germans, as Posidonius relates in his thirtieth 
book, cat for dinner meat roasted in separate joints; and they 
drink milk and unmixed wine. And some of the tribes of the 
Campanians practise single combat at their drinking parties. 
But Nicolaus of Damascus, one of the philosophers of the 


Peripatetic school, in the hundred-and-tenth book of his His- 
tory, relates that the Romans at their feasts practise single 
combats, writing as follows — " The Romans used to exhibit 
spectacles of single combats, not only in their public shows 
and in their theatres, having derived tbe custom from the 
Etruscans, but they did so also at their banquets. Accord- 
ingly, people often invited their friends to an entertainment, 
promising them, in addition to other things, that they should 
see two or three pairs of single combatants. And when they 
had had enough of meat and drink, they then called in the 
combatants : and as soon as one of them was killed, the 
guests clapped, being delighted at the exhibition. And in 
one instance a man left it in his will that some beautiful 
women, whom he had purchased as slaves, should engage in 
single combat : and in another case a man desired that some 
youthful boys whom he had loved should do so ; but the 
people would not tolerate such notorious proceedings, and 
declared the will invalid." And Eratosthenes says, in the 
first book of his Catalogue of the Victors at Olympia, that 
the Etruscans used to box to the music of the flute. 

40. But Posidonius, in the third, and also in the twentieth 
book of his Histories, says — " The Celta; sometimes have 
single combats at their entertainments. For being collected 
in arms, they go through the exercise, and make feints 
at, and sometimes they even go so far as to wound one 
another. And being irritated by this, if the bystanders do 
not stop them, they will proceed even to kill one another. 
But in olden times," he continues, " there was a custom that 
a hind quarter of pork was put on the table, and the bravest 
man took it ; and if any one else laid claim to it, then the 
two rose up to fight till one of them was slain. And other 
men in the theatre having received some silver or gold 
money, and some even for a number of earthen vessels full of 
wine, having taken pledges that the gifts promised shall really 
be given, and having distributed them among their nearest 
connexions, have laid themselves down on doors with their 
faces upwards, and then allowed some bystander to cut their 
throats with a sword." 

And Euphorion the Chalcidian, in his Historical Memo- 
rials, writes as follows — "But among the Romans it is 
common for five minoe to be offered to any one who chooses to 


take it, to allow his head to be cut off with an axe, so that 
his heirs might receive the reward : and very often many 
have returned their names as willing, so that there has been 
a regular contest between them as to who had the best right 
to be beaten to death." 

41. And Hermippus, in "the first book of his treatise on 
Lawgivers, asserts that the Mantineans were the original inven- 
tors of men to fight in single combat, and that Demonax, one of 
their citizens, was the original suggestor of such a course; 
and that the Cyreneans were the next to follow their ex- 
ample. And Ephorus, in the sixth book of his History, says 
— " The Mantineans aud Arcadians were in the habit of prac- 
tising warlike exercises ; and even to this day they call the 
military dress and the ancient fashion of arming the Manti- 
nean, as having been invented by that people. And in 
addition to this, the exercises of single combat were first 
invented in Mantinea, Demeas being the original author of 
the invention. And that the custom of single combatants 
was an ancient one, Aristophanes shows, when he speaks thus 
in his Phoenissse — 

And on the heroes twain, the sons of (Edipus, 
Has savage Mars descended ; and they now 
Seek the arena dread of single combat. 

And the word /xovd/xaxos appears not to be derived from the 
noun fjidxr], but rather from the verb fxax^-crOai. For as often 
as a word compounded of fjiaxq ends in os, as in the words 
(Ti'/x^a^o?. TrpwTujJ.ayp';, CTri/xa^o?, (Arrt/xa^o?, and the <£<Ao/.(.avos 
race of Perseus, spoken of by Pindar, then it is acuted on 
the antepenultima ; but when it has the acute accent on the 
penultima, then the verb pAx^Oai comes in ; as is shown in 
the words '*, vaw/xu-^o? ; in the expression avrov <re 
TrvXa/xuxe irpwTov, in Stesichorus ; and the nouns cVAo/za^o?, 
rei^o/xa^o?, 7n.'pyo/xaY/>5. Put Posidippus the comic writer, in 
his 1'ornoboscus, says — 

The man who never went to sea has never shipwrcck'd been, 
But we have been more miserable than iiovopaxovvTis (gladiators 
in single combat). 

And that even men of reputation and captains fought in 
single combat, and did so in accordance with premeditated 
challenges, we have already said in other parts of this dis- 
cussion. And Diyllus the Athenian says, in the ninth book 


of his Histories, that Cassander, when returning from Boaotia, 
after he had buried the king and queen at JEgse, and with 
them Cynna the mother of Eurydice, and had paid them all 
the other honours to which they were entitled, celebrated 
also a show of single combats, and four of the soldiers 
entered the arena on that occasion. 

4-2. But Demetrius the Scepsian, in the twelfth book of 
Trojan Array, says, " that at the court of Antiochus the 
king, who was surnamed the Great, not only did the friends 
of the king dance in arms at his entertainments, but even 
the king himself did so. And when the turn to dance came 
to Hegesianax the Alexandrian from the Troas, who wrote 
the Histories, he rose up and said — ' Do you wish, king, to 
see me dance badly, or would you prefer hearing me recite 
my own poems very well 1 ' Accordingly, being ordered 
rather to recite his poems, he sang the praises of the king in 
such a manner, that he was thought worthy of payment, and 
of being ranked as one of the king's friends for the time to 
come. But Duris the Samian, in the seventeenth book of 
his Histories, says that Polysperchon, though a very old man, 
danced whenever he was drunk, — a man who was inferior to 
no one of the Macedonians, either as a commander or in 
respect of his general reputation : but still that he put on a 
saffron robe and Sicyonian sandals, and kept on dancing a 
long time." But Agatharchides the Cnidian, in the eighth 
book of his History of Asia, relates that the friends of Alex- 
ander the son of Philip once gave an entertainment to the 
king, and gilded all the sweetmeats which were to be served 
up in the second course. And when they wanted to eat any 
of them, they took off the gold and threw that away with all 
the rest which was not good to eat, in order that their friends 
might be spectators of their sumptuousness, and their servants 
might become mastei'S of the gold. But they forget that, 
as Duris also relates, Philip the father of Alexander, when 
he had a golden cup which was fifty drachmas in weight, 
always took it to bed with him, and always slept with it at 
his head. And Seleucus says, " that some of the Thracians 
at their drinking parties play the game of hanging; and 
fix a round noose to some high place, exactly beneath which 
they place a stone which is easily turned round when any 
one stands upon it; and then they cast lots, and he who 


draws the lot, holding a sickle in his hand, stands upon 
the stone, and puts his neck into the halter; and then an- 
other person comes and raises the stone, and the man who is 
suspended, when the stone moves from under him, if he is 
not quick enough in cutting the rope with his sickle, is 
killed ; and the rest laugh, thinking his death good sport." 

43. This is what I had to say, my friends and messmates, 
men far the first of all the Greeks, being what I know con- 
cerning the banquets of the ancients. But Plato the philo- 
sopher, in the first book of his treatise on the Laws of 
Banquets, speaks in this manner, describing the whole matter 
with the greatest accuracy — " And you would never see any 
Avhere in the country or in the cities which are under the 
dominion of Lacedsemon, any drinking parties, nor any of 
their accompaniments, which are calculated to excite as 
much pleasure as possible. Nor is there any one who woidd 
not at once impose as heavy a fine as possible on any one 
whom he met carrying his revely to the degree of drunken- 
ness ; and he would not even excuse him if he had the 
pretext of the Dionysiac festival of Bacchus. As I have 
known to be the case among you, in the case of men carried 
in carriages, and at Tarentum among our own colonists, 
where I have seen the whole city drunk at the time of the 
Dionysiac festival. But at Lacedsemon nothing of the sort 
ever takes place." 

44. And Cynulcus said on this, — I only wish that you had 
played at that Thracian game and been hanged yourself. 
For you have kept us in suspense till we are almost famished, 
as if we were waiting for the rising star, till which arises, those 
Avho have invented this beautiful philosophy say that it is 
unlawful to taste of any food at all. But I, wretched man 
that I am, according to the words of Diphilus the comic 
poet — 

Am almost become a mullet from the extremity of hunger. 

And you yourselves also have forgotten those admirable 
verses of the poet, who said — 

For it is not a bad thing to eat supper at a proper season. 

And the admirable Aristophanes has said in his Cocalus— 

But it is now, father, altogether noon, 
When it is right for the young men to sup. 


But for me it would be much better to sup as the men are 
represented as supping in the banquet given by Parmeniscus 
the Cynic, than to come hither and see everything carried 
round us as if we all had fevers. And when we laughed at this, 
one of us said. — But my most excellent fellow, do not grudge 
giving us the account of that Parmeniscean banquet. And 
he, raising himself up, said — 

I swear to you most solemnly, my friends, 

according to the words of the sweet Antiphanes, who, in the 
Woman given in Marriage, said — 

I swear to you, men, by the god himself, 
From whom the joys of drunkenness and wine 
Do come to mortal men, that I prefer 
This happy life which here is mine at present, 
To all the splendid pomp of king Seleucus. 
'Tis sweet to eat e'en lentils without fear, 
But sad to sleep on down in daily terror. 

45. But Parmeniscus began in this manner — " Parmeniscus 
to Molpis, greeting, — As I have often in my conversations with 
you talked about illustrious invitations and entertainments, I 
am afraid lest you should labour under such a plethora as to 
blame me; on which account I wish to make you a partaker 
in the feast which was given by Cebes of Cyzicus. There- 
fore, having first taken a drink of hyssop, come at the proper 
hour to the feast. For at the time when the festival of 
Bacchus was being celebrated at Athens, I went to sup with 
him; and I found six Cynics sitting at table, and one dog- 
leader, Carneus the Megarian. But, as the supper was 
delayed, a discussion arose, what water is the sweetest. And 
while some were praising the water of Lerna, and some that 
of Pirene, Carneus, imitating Philoxenus, said — That is the 
best water which is poured over our hands. So then when 
the tables were laid we went to supper, 

And much pulse porridge then we ate, but more did still flow in. 
Then again lentils were brought on the table steeped in 
vinegar; and that child of Jupiter laid his hands on them 
and said — 

Jove, may the man who made these lentils grow, 
Never escape thy notice or thy memory. 

And then some one else immediately cried out — 

May a lentil deity and a lentil fate seize you. 


But to me may there be, according to the words of the comic 
poet Diphilus, which he uses in his Peliades — 

A. A flowery supper very sumptuous, 

A bowl quite full of pulse for every man. 

B. That first part is not flowery. 

A. After that 
Let a saperdes dance into the middle, 
A little strong to smell. 

B. That is a flower 
Which soon will drive the thrushes all away. 

And as a great laugh arose, immediately that spoon of the 
theatre Melissa came in, and that dogfly Nicium, each of 
them being a courtesan of no small renown : and so they, 
looking on what was set upon the table and admiring it, 
laughed. And Nicium said, — Is not there one of all you 
men so proud of your beards that eats fish 1 Is it because 
your ancestor Meleager the Gadarean, in his poem entitled 
the Graces, said that Homer, being a Syrian by birth, repre- 
sented the ancients as abstaining from fish in accordance 
with the custom of his own country, although there was a 
great abundance of them in the Hellespont ? Or have you 
ever read that one treatise of his which embraces a com- 
parison between peas and lentils '? for I see that you have 
made a great preparation of lentils. And when I see it, I 
should advise you, according to the rules of Antisthenes the 
pupil of Socrates, to relieve yourselves of life if you stick to 
such food as this. And Cam ens replied to her — Euxitheus the 
Pythagorean, Nicium, as Clearchus the Peripatetic tells us, 
in the second book of his Lives, said that the souls of all men 
were bound in the body, and in the life which is on earth, for 
the sake of punishment; and that God has issued an edict 
that if they do not remain there until he voluntarily releases 
them himself, they shall fall into more numerous and more 
important calamities. On which account all men, being- 
afraid of those threatenings of the gods, fear to depart from 
life by their own act, but only gladly welcome death when he 
comes in old age, trusting that that deliverance of the soul 
then takes place with the full consent of those who have the 
power to sanction it. And this doctrine we ourselves believe. 
But I have no objection, replied she, to your selecting one of 
three evils, if you please. For do you not know, wretched 
men, that these heavy kinds of food shut in the dominant 

254 THE DElPNOSOnilSTS. [b. IV. 

principle of the soul, and do not allow wisdom to exist 
unimpaired in it 1 

46. Accordingly Theopompus, in the fifth book of his History 
of the Actions of Philip, says — " For to eat much, and to eat 
meat, takes away the reasoning powers, and makes the intel- 
lect slower, and fills a man with anger, and harshness, and all 
sorts of folly." And the admirable Xenophon says, that it is 
sweet to a hungry man to eat barley-cakes and cardamums, 
and sweet to a thirsty man to draw water out of the river 
and drink it. But Socrates was often caught walking in the 
depth of evening up and down before his house ; and to those 
who asked him what he was doing there, he used to reply 
that he was getting a relish for supper. But we shall be 
satisfied with whatever portion we receive from you, and we 
are not angry as if we received less than we ought, like the 
Hercules in Anticlides. For he says, in the second book of 
his Returns — " After Hercules had accomplished his labours, 
when Eurystheus was solemnizing some sacrificial feast, he 
also was invited. And when the sons of Eurystheus were 
setting before each one of the company his proper portion, 
but placing a meaner one before Hercules, Hercules, thinking 
that he was being treated with indignity, slew three of the 
sons, Perimedes, Eurybius, and Eurypylus." But we are nor, 
so irascible, even though in all other points we are imitators 
of Hercules. 

47. For lentils are a tragic food, 
said Archagathus .... to have written ; which also 
Orestes ate when he had recover'd from his sickness, 

as Sophilus the comic writer says. But it is a Stoic doctrine, 
that the wise man will do everything well, and will be able to 
cook even lentils cleverly. On which account Timon the 
Phliasian said — 

And a man who knows not how to cook a lentil wisely. 

As if a lentil could not be boiled in any other way except ac- 
cording to the precepts of Zeno, who said — 

Add to the lentils a twelfth part of coriander. 
And Crates the Theban said — 

Do not prefer a dainty dish to lentils, 

And so cause factious quarrels in our party. ' 

C. 48.] LENTILS. 255 

And Chrysippus, in his treatise on the Beautiful, quoting 
some apophthegms to us, says — 

Eat not an olive when you have a nettle ; 

But take in winter lentil-macaroni — 

Bah ! bah ! 

Lentil-macaroni 's like ambrosia in cold weather. 
And the witty Aristophanes said, in his Gerytades — 

You're teaching him to boil porridge or lentils. 
And, in his Amphiaraus — 

You who revile the lentil, best of food. 
And Epicharmus says, in his Dionysi — 

And then a dish of lentils was boil'd up. 
And Antiphanes says, in his Women like one another — 

Things go on well. Do you now boil some lentils, 

Or else at least now teach me who you are. 
And I know that a sister of Ulysses, the most prudent and 
wisest of men, was called <&a.Kr} (lentil), the same whom some 
other writers call Callisto, as Mnaseas of Patra relates, in the 
third book of his History of the Affairs of Europe, and as Lysi- 
machus also tells us, in the third book of his Eeturns. 

48. And when Plutarch had burst into a violent fit of 
laughter at this, the Cynic, who could not endure to have his 
extensive learning on the subject of lentils disregarded, said — 
" But all you fine gentlemen from Alexandria, Plutarch, are 
fed from your childhood on lentils ; and your whole city is 
full of things made of lentils : which are mentioned by Sopater 
the lentil parodist, in his drama entitled Bacchis, where he 
speaks as follows : — 

I could not bear to eat a common loaf, 

Seeing a large high brazen pile of lentils. 
For, what is there of which mortals have need, (according to 
your own idol, Euripides, you most learned of men,) except 
two things only, 

The corn of Ceres and a draught of water! 

And they are here, and able to support us. 

But we are not with plenty such as this 

Contented, but are slaves to luxury 

And such contrivances of other food. 
And in another place that dramatic philosopher says — 

The moderate fare shall me content 

Of a plain modest table ; 

And I will never seek nor e'en admit 

Whatever is out of season and superfluous. 


And Socrates said that he differed from other men in this, 
that they lived that they might eat, but he ate that he 
might live. And Diogenes said to those who accused him 
of scratching himself, — I wish I could scratch my stomach, so 
as to rub all poverty and want out of it. And Euripides, in 
his Suppliant Women, says of Capaneus — 

This man is Capaneus, a man who had 

Abundant riches, but no pride therefrom 

Lodged in his, more than in a poor man's bosom. 

But those who boasted of their luxury 

lie blamed, and praised the contented spirit. 

For virtue did not, as he said, consist 

In eating- richly, but in moderation. 

49. Capaneus was not, as it seems, such as the honest Chrysip- 
pus describes, in his treatise On those things which are not 
eligible for their own sakes. For he speaks in this manner : 
— " Some men apply themselves with such eagerness to the 
pursuit of money, that it is even related, that a man once, 
when near his end, swallowed a number of pieces of gold, and 
so died. Another person sewed a quantity of money into 
a tunic, and put it on, and then ordered his servants to bury 
him in that dress, neither burning his body, nor stripping it 
and laying it out." For these men and all like them may 
almost be said, as they die, to cry out — 

Oh gold, the choicest of all gifts to men ! 
For no fond mother does such raptures know, 
Nor children in the house, nor any father, 
Such as do flow from you, and are enjoy'd 
By those who own you. If like yours the face 
Of Venus, when she rose up from the sea, 
No wonder that she has ten thousand lovers. 

Such great thirst for money was there among the men of that 
time, concerning which Anacharsis, when some one asked him. 
what the Greeks used money for? said, To count with. But 
Diogenes, in his treatise on Polity, proposed to establish a 
law that bits of bone should be taken as coins ; and well 
too has Euripides said — 

Speak not of wealth ; that god I worship not, 
Who comes with ease into a bad man's power. 

And Chrysippus, in his elementai-y work, which is entitled, 
A Treatise on Good and Evil Things, says that " a certain 
young man from Ionia came to sojourn at Athens, clothed m 
a purple robe having golden fringes ; and when some one 

C. 51.] LENTILS. 257 

asked of him what countryman he was, he replied that lie 
was rich. And, perhaps, it may be the very same person 
whom Alexis mentions in his Thebans, where he says — 

A . But from what country does this person come 1 

B. From Richland ; and by general consent 
The natives of that hind are counted noble ; 
Nor can one find a noble beggar anywhere. 

50. When Cynulcus had said this, and when no one applauded 
him, he got out of temper ; and said, — But since these men, 
you master of the feast, are made so uncomfortable by a 
diarrhoea of words as to feel no hunger ; or perhaps, it may 
be that they laugh at what is said about lentils, (having in 
their mind what is said by rherecrates, in his Coriander — 

A. Come now, I'll sit me down ; and bring me here, 
O slave, a table, and a cup of wine, 

That I may eat to flavour what I drink. 

B. Here is a cup, a table, and some lentils. 
A . No lentils bring to me, I like them not : 

For if one eats them, they do taint the breath.) — 

Since then, on this account, these wise men guard against the 
lentils, at all events cause some bread to be given to us, with 
a little plain food ; no expensive dishes, but any of those 
vulgar lentils, if you have them, or what is called lentil soup. 
And when every one laughed, especially at the idea of the 
lentil soup, he said, You are very ignorant men, you feasters, 
never having read any books, which are the only things 
to instruct those who desire what is good. I mean the books 
of the Silli of Timon the Pyrrhonian. For he it is who 
speaks of lentil soup, in the second book of his Silli, writing 
as follows : — 

The Teian barley-cakes do please mc not, 
Nor e'en the Lydian sauces : but the Greeks, 
And their dry lentil soup, delight me more 
Than all that painful luxury of excess. 

For though the barley-cakes of Teos are preeminently good, 
(as also are those from Eretria, as Sopatcr says, in his Suitors 
of Bacchis, where he says — 

We came to Eretria, for its white meal famed ;) 
and also, the Lydian sauces ; still Timon prefers the lentil 
si>ii|) to both of them put together. 

51. To this our admirable entertainer, Laurentius him i 
replied, saying, — you men who drive the dogs, according to 

vol. I. — atil 8 


the Jocasta of Strattis, the comic poet, who in the play 
entitled The Phoenician Women, is represented as saying — ■ 

I wish to give you both some good advice : 
When you boil lentils, pour no perfume o'er them. 

And Sopater, too, whom you were mentioning just now, in 
his Descent to Hell, speaks in these terms : — 

Ulysses, king of Ithaca — 'Tis perfume 

On lentils thrown : courage, my noble soul ! 

And Clearchus the Peripatetic philosopher, in his treatise on 
Proverbs, gives the saying, " Perfume thrown on lentils j" 
as a proverb which my grandfather Varro also mentions, he, 
I mean, who was nicknamed Menippius. And many of the 
Roman grammarians, who have not had much intercourse 
with many Greek poets or historians, do not know where it is 
that Varro got his Iambic from. But you seem to me, 
Cynulcus, (for you delight in that name, not using the name 
by which your mother has called you from your birth,) ac- 
cording to your friend Timon, to be a noble and great man, 
not knowing that the lentil soup obtained mention from the 
the former Epicharmus, in his Festival, and in his Islands, 
and also from Antiphanes the comic poet ; who, using the 
diminutive form, has spoken of it in his Wedding, under the 
following form of expression — 

A little lentil soup (kojxiov), a slice of sausage. 
And Magnus immediately taking up the conversation, said, — 
The most universally excellent Laurentius has well and cle- 
verly met this hungry dog on the subject of the lentil soup. 
But I, like to the Galatians of the Paphian Sopater, among 
whom it is a custom whenever they have met with any emi- 
nent success in war to sacrifice their prisoners to the gods, — 

I too, in imitation of those men, 
Have vow'd a fiery sacrifice to the gods- 
Three of these secretly enroll'd logicians. 
And now that I have heard your company 
Philosophise and argue subtlety, 
Persisting firnily, I will bring a test, 
A certain proof of all your arguments : 
First smoking you. And if then any one 
When roasted shrinks and draws away his leg, 
He shall be sold to Zeno for his master 
For transportation, as bereft of wisdom. 

52. For I will speak freely to them. If you are so fond of 

C. 53.] SPARE LIVERS. 259 

contentment, philosopher, why do you not admire those dis- 
ciples of Pythagoras, concerning whom Antiphanes says, in his 
Monuments — 

Some miserable Pythagoreans came 

Gnawing some salt food in a deep ravine, 

And picking up such refuse in a 'wallet. 

And in the play which is especially entitled the Wallet, he 

says — 

First, like a pupil of Pythagoras, 
He eats no living thing, but peels some husks 
Of barley which he 's bought for half an obol, 
Discolour'd dirty husks, and those he eats. 

And Alexis says, in his Tarentines — 

For, as we hear, the pupils of Pythagoras 

Eat no good meat nor any living thing, 

And they alone of men do drink no wine. 

But Epicharides will bitches eat; 

The only one of all the sect ; but then 

He kills them first, and says they are not living, 

And proceeding a little further, he says — 
A. Shreds of Pythagoras and subtleties 

And well-fill'd thoughts are their sufficient food. 
Their daily meals are these — a simple loaf 
To every man, and a pure cup of water. 
And this is all. 

B. You speak of prison fare. 

A. This is the way that all the wise men live. 
These are the hardships that they all endure. 

B. Where do they live in such a way 1 

A. Yet they procure 
Dainties after their sort for one another; 
Know you not Alelanippides and Phaon, 
Phyromachus and Plianus are companions? 
And they together sup on each fifth day 
On one full cotyla of wheaten meal. 

And, in his Female Pythagorean, he says — 

A. The banquet shall be figs and grapes and cheese, 
For these the victims are which the strict law 
Allows Pythagoras' sect to sacrifice. 

B. By Jove, as fine a sacrifice as possible. 

And a few lines afterwards, he says — 

One must for a short time, my friend, endure 
Hunger, and dirt, and cold, and speechlessness, 
And sullen frowns, and an unwashen face. 

53. But you, my philosophical friends, practise none of these 
things. But what is fur worse than any of them, you talk 



about what you do not in the least understand; and, as if you 
were eating in an orderly manner, you take in mouthfuls like 
the man in that sweet poet Antiphanes ; for he says, in his 
Runaway Slave-catcher — 

Taking a moderate mouthful, small outside, 

But large within his hand, as women do. 
And in the same way you eat a great deal and eat very fast ; 
when it is in your power, according to the words of the same 
poet which he uses in the Thombycius, " to buy fur a single 
drachma food well suited to you, such as garlic, cheese, onions, 
and capers ; for all these only cost a drachma." And Aristo- 
phanes says, in his Pythagoreans — 

What? do we think, I ask you in God's name, 

That these philosophers of olden time, 

The pupils of Pythagoras, went thus 

In dirt and rags all of their own accord ? 

I don't believe one word of such a thing. 

No ; they were forced to do so, as they had not 

A single farthing to buy clothes or soap. 

And then they made a merit of economy, 

And laid down rules, most splendid rules for beggars. 

But only put before them fish or meat ; 

And if they do not their own fingers bite 

For very eagerness, I will be bound 

To let you hang me ten times over. 
And it is not foreign to the present discussion to mention an 
epigram which was made with reference to you, wdiich Hege- 
sander the Delphian has quoted, in the sixth book of his 
Commentaries — 

Men drawing up your eyebrows, and depressing 

Your scornful nostrils till they reach the chin, 

Wearing your beards in sacks, strippers of dishes. 

Wearing your cloak outside, with unshod feet 

Looking like oil, and eating stealthily 

Like hungry vagrants 'neath night's friendly cover, 

Cheaters of youth, spouters of syllables. 

Pretenders to vain wisdom, but pretending 

To make your only object Virtue's self. 
54. But Archestratus of Gela, in his treatise on Gastronomy, 
(which is the only poetical composition which you wise men 
admire ; following Pythagoras in this doctrine alone, namely 
silence, and doing this only because of your want of words ; 
and besides that, you profess to think w r ell of the Art of Love 
of Sphodrias the Cynic, and the Amatory Conversation of 
Protagorides, and the Convivial Dialogues of that beautiful 

c. 55.] pers^us. 261 

philosopher Persseus, compiled out of the Commentaries of 
Stilpon and Zeno, in which he inquires, How one may guard 
against guests at a banquet going to sleep ; and, How one 
ought to use drinking of healths ; and, When one ought to 
introduce beautiful boys and girls into a banquet ; and when 
one ought to treat them well as if they were admired, and 
when one ought to send them away as disregarding them; 
and also, concerning various kinds of cookery, and concern- 
ing loaves, and other things ; and all the over-subtle discus- 
sions in which the son of Sophroniscus has indulged concerning 
kissing. A philosopher who was continually exercising his 
intellect on such investigations as these, being entrusted, as 
Hermippus relates, with the citadel of Corinth by Antigonus, 
got drunk and lost even Corinth itself, being outwitted and 
defeated by Aratus the Sicyonian ; who formerly had argued 
in his Dialogues against Zeno the philosopher, contending 
that a wise man would in every respect be a good general ; 
and this excellent pupil of Zeno proved this especial point 
admirably by his own achievements. For it was a witty say- 
ing of Bion the Borysthenite, when he saw a brazen statue 
of his, on which was the inscription, Perseus of Citium, 
the Pupil of Zeno, that the man who engraved the inscrip- 
tion had made a blunder, for that it ought to have been, 
Perseeus the servant (oucmea not kitUol) of Zeno ; for he had 
been born a slave of Zeno, as Nicias of Nicsea relates, in his 
History of Philosophers; and this is confirmed by Sotion the 
Alexandrian, in his Successions. And I have met with two 
books of that admirable work of Persceus, which have this 
title, " Convivial Dialogues." 

55. But Ctesibius the Chalcidian, the friend of Menedemns, 
as Antigonus the Carystian relates in his Lives, being asked by 
somebody, What he had ever got by philosophy? replied, The 
power of getting a supper without contributing to it himself. 
On which account Timon somewhere or other said to him — 
Oh you mad dinner hunter, with the eyes 
Of a dead corpse, and heart both bold and shameless. 
And Ctesibius was a man who made very good guesses, and 
was a very witty man, and a saycr of amusing things ; on 
which account every one used to invite him to their parties ; 
he was not a man like yon, you Cynic, who never sacrificed 
to the Graces, nor even to the Muses. And therefore Virtue 


avoiding you, and all like you, sits by Pleasure, as Mnasalces 
the Sicyonian says, in his Epigrams — 

Here I most miserable Virtue sit 
By Pleasure's side, and cut my hair for grief, 
Crush'd in my spirit ; for profane Delight 
Is judged by all my better, and my chief. 

And Baton the comic writer says in his Homicide — 
Now I invite those moderate philosophers, 
Who ne'er allow themselves a single pleasure, 
Who keep on looking for the one wise man 
In all their walks and conversations, 
As if he were a slave who 'd run away. 
wretched man, why, when you have a ticket, 
Will you refuse to drink ? Why dost thou now 
Do so much wrong to the Gods'! why dost thou make 
Money of greater value than the rate 
Which nature puts on it-! You drink but water, 
And so must be a worthless citizen; 
For so you cheat the farmer and the merchant ; 
But I by getting drunk increase their trade. 
Then you at early dawn bear round a cruet, 
Seeking for oil, so that a man must think 
You have an hour-glass with you, not a bottle.) 

56. However, Archestratus, as I was saying before this long 
digression, whom you praise as equal to Homer, because of 
his praises of the stomach — though your friend Timon says of 
the stomach, 

Than which no part more shameless can be found — 
when speaking of the Sea-dog, writes as follows : — 

There are but few so happy as to know 

This godlike food, nor do men covet it 

Who have the silly souls of common mortals. 

They fear because it is an animal 

Which living preys on man. But every fish 

Loves human flesh, if it can meet with it. 

So that 'tis fit that all who talk such nonsense 

Should be confined to herbs, and should be sent 

To Diodorus the philosopher 

And starve, and so pythagorize with him. 

But this Diodorus was by birth an Aspendian; but desiring 
to be thought a Pythagorean, he lived after the fashion of 
you Cynics, letting his hair grow, being dirty, and going 
barefoot. On which account some people fancied that it was 
an article of the Pythagorean creed to let the hair grow, 
which was in reality a fashion introduced by Diodorus, as 

c. 57.] diodorus. 263 

Hermippus asserts. But Timseus of Taurornenium, in the 
ninth book of his Histories, writes thus concerning him — 
" Diodorus, who was by birth an Aspendian, introduced a 
novel fashion of dress, and pretended to resemble the Pytha- 
goreans. Stratonicus wrote and sent a messenger to him, 
desiring him who carried the message to seek out a disciple 
of Pythagoras who kept the portico crowded by his insane 
vagaries about dress, and his insolence. And Sosicrates, in 
the third book of the Succession of Philosophers, relates that 
Diodorus used to wear a long beard, and a worn-out cloak, 
and to keep his hair long, indulging in these fashions out of 
a vain ostentation. For that the Pythagoreans before him 
wore very handsome clothes, and used baths, and perfumes, 
and hair of the ordinary length. 

57. And if you in reality, O philosopher, do admire content- 
ment and moderation in your feasts, why is it that you have 
come hither without being invited 'I Did you come as to a 
house of intemperance, in order to learn to make a catalogue 
of a cook's instruments 1 or in order to spout some verses of 
Cepholion the Athenian 1 For according to the Cedalion of 
Sophocles, you are 

A branded lot, all knaves and parasites. 
And he says that you philosophers always have your minds 
set upon banquets; and that you think it constantly neces- 
sary to ask fur something to eat or to devour some Cynic 
food. For there is no need for our picking our phrases. 
And all this is plain from what Alexis relates in his book 
Avhich is entitled Linus : and in that he supposes Hercules to 
have been educated by Linus, and to have been ordered by 
him to select any one out of a number of books that were at 
hand to read. And he having taken a coukcry-book in his 
hand, retained it with great eagerness. And Linus then 
speaks to him in the following terms — 

Lin. Come here, and take whatever book you please, 

And read it carefully, when you have scann'd 

The titles, and the subjects well considcr'd. 

There's Orpheus here, and llesiod, and plays, 

Chcerilus, Homer, Epicharmus too, 

All sorts of works. For thus your choice will show mo 

Your nature, and your favourite pursuit. 
Her. I will take this. 

Lin. First show me what it is. 
Her. A cookery book, as says the title-page. 


Lin. You're a philosopher, that's very plain, 
Who passing over all these useful books, 
Choose out the art of Simus. 

Her. Who is Simus ? 
Lin. A very clever man; now he has turn'd 
To tragic studies ; and of all the actors 
Is the most skilful cook, as those who cat 
His dishes do declare. And of all cooks 
By far the cleverest actor. 

Her. He 's a man 
Of noble appetite ; say what you wish ; 
For be of this assured, that I am hungry. 
58. When Magnus had run through these quotations, Cynul- 
cus, looking at the philosophers who were present, said — 
Have you seen the Tkasian brine, 1 and heard how he does bark] 
How speedily the fellow did revenge himself, and thoroughly; 
It does not seem a case of one blind speaking to a deaf man : 
as Cratinus says, in his Archilochi. For he, forgetting before 
what a tribunal he was making an exhibition of his fine 
iambics, read his colabri with his natural greediness, and at 
the same time with his usual elegance of expression, and 

Melodies out of time, and tuneless cymbals : 
and after all this fine ignorant stupidity, he goes round to 
people's houses, seeking out where any handsome banquet is 
prepared, carrying his conduct to a length even beyond the 
Athenian Cheerephon, of whom Alexis says in his Fugitive — 
That. Chserephon has always got some trick, 
And now he 's looking for some feast to share 
Where he himself will not be call'd upon 
For any contribution. For wheresoever 
A pot, such as is let to cooks, does stand, 
Thither he goeth at the earliest dawn; 
And if he sees one come to hire it 
For any feast, he asks the cook the name 
Of him who gives the feast, and then as soon 
As 1 he door opens, in he walks the first. 
But this man has no hesitation, like the excellent Magnus, 
even to make excursions quite beyond the boundaries for the 
sake of his stomach, as Alexis said in his Men who Died 
together — 

Chajrephon comes to Corinth for a supper, 
Though he has never had an invitation ; 
But still he flies across the sea, so sweet 
It is to eat of what another pays for. 

1 The term a.\/, brine, seems used here of a troublesome fellow ; some- 
thing in the same spirit as we call a person "a pickle." 

C. 60.] EXTRAVAGANCE. 265 

And Theopompus, in his Ulysses, says — 
Well said Euripides, "It is not bad 
For a rich man to dine at other's cost." 

59. And when all laughed at this,Ulpian said, Whence do the 
voluptuaries who talk so loosely get all their elegance of ex- 
pression 1 And Cynulcus replied, But, you well-seasoned 
little pig, Phrynichus the Cynic poet, in his Ephialtes, men- 
tions '• the elegant speaker " in these terms : — 

Is is the hardest work of all to guard against such men ; 
For they do carry always at their finger's end a sting, 
The misanthropic flower of youth ; and then they fawn on all 
With carefully selected sweetness of expression, 
Always the forum haunting when the citizens are seated ; 
And then they lacerate with wounds severe aud unexpected 
Those whom they have been fawning on, and hide themselves and 

And the word ^apiToyAojo-o-eti/ (to speak so as to please) is 
used by ..-Eschylus in the Prometheus Vinctus — 

You shall know this for true; nor is it mine 

And when Ulpian said again, But what, my friends, is meant 
by cooks' instruments? for these things were mentioned, and 
were thought worthy of being enumerated in the Arcadian 
banquets : and also where is the word dcnoTiov (abode of 
luxury) to be found'? For I know that the adjective ao-coro? 
is common enough. And Alexis speaks of a luxurious ex- 
travagant man in his Cnidia, saying — 

Diodorus, most extravagant of men, 
In two brief years did make his patrimony 
Into a football, with such headlong speed 
Did he devour everything. 

And again, in the Pluedrus, he says — 

You tell me of a very slow proceeding; 

For in five days the little Epicharides 

Made ducks and drakes of ail his father's property, 

So quickly and entirely did he swallow it. 

60. And Ctesippus the son of Chabrias carried his extrava- 
gance and intemperance to such a height, that he sold even 
the stones of his father's tomb, on which the Athenians had 
spent a thousand drachnue, to furnish means for his luxury. 
And accordingly Diphilus says in his Men offering Sacrifices 
to the Dead — 


If Cbabrias's son, the young Ctesippus, 

Had not become a friend of Plueuinius, 

I should have brought a wholesome law forward 

To cause his father's monument to be finished. 

That each of all the citizens should give 

A stone of size to fill a waggon, and 

I say that that would not be much for him. 

And Timocles, in his Demosatyri, says — 
Ctesippus, the fine son of Chabrias, 
Has ceased to shave himself three times a-day. 
A great man among women, not with men. 

And Menander, in his " Anger," says this of him — 

And I too once was a young man, woman, 

Nor did I then five several times a-day 

Bathe, as I now do bathe ; nor at that time 

Had I a soft cloak, such as now I have, 

Nor such perfumes as now ; now I will paint myself, 

And pluck my hair, by Jove. Aye, I will be 

Ctesippus, not a man ; and in brief time 

I too, like him, will eat up all the stones, 

For I'll not be content with earth alone. 

And perhaps it was on account of this extravagant luxury 
and debauchery that Demosthenes has handed down his 
name in his treatise on Immunities. But those who Lave 
devoured their patrimony ought to he punished in such. 
a way as this, like the Nauclerus of Menander. For Menan- 
der says — 

dearest mother of all mortals, Earth, 

How kind you are to all possess'd of sense ; 

How worthy of all honour ! Sure that man 

Who like a spendthrift eats his patrimony, 

Should be condemn'd to sail about for ever 

And never reach the shore ; that he might feel 

To what great good he 'd been insensible. 

61. And Axionicus speaks of a certain Pj'thodelus as a 
very intemperate man, in his Etrurian, saying — 

Here Pythodelus comes, who is surnamed 
Isoballion, greediest of men, 
And on his steps does follow that wise woman 
Ischas, bearing a drum, and very drunk. 

And Anaxandrides attacks Polyeuctus, turning him into 
ridicule in the comedy called Tereus — 
A. You shall be call'd a bird. 

B. Why so, by Vesta ] 
Is it because I ate my patrimony 


Like that most fashionable Polyeuctus'? 
A. No, but because you, though you were a man, 
Were torn in pieces by the womeii so. 

And Theopompus, in the tenth book of his account of the 
Exploits of Philip, (a book from which some separate the con- 
clusion, in which there is the mention made of the dema- 
gogues at Athens.) says that Eubulus the demagogue was an 
intemperate man. And he uses the following expressions — 
" And he so far exceeded the whole nation of the Tarentines 
in luxury and extravagance, that this latter is only im- 
moderate in its indulgence in feasts; but he spent on his 
luxury even the revenues of the Athenian people. But 
Callistratus," he continues, " the son of Callicrates, who was 
himself also a demagogue, was very intemperate in his 
pleasures, but still he was very attentive to the business of 
the state." And speaking of the Tarentines, in the fifty- 
second book of his Histories, he writes as follows — " The 
city of the Tarentines sacrifices oxen nearly every month, and 
celebrates public festivals; and the chief body of private 
individuals is always occupied in banquets and drinking 
parties. And the Tarentines hold some such language as 
this : That other men, because they are fond of personal 
exertion, and because they devote themselves to actual 
labour, prepare their subsistence in this way for the future : 
but that they, by means of their banquets and pleasures, are 
not about to live, but are living already." 

62. But concerning the intemperance and general habits 
and life of Philip and his companions, Theopompus gives the 
following account, in the forty-ninth book of his Histories — 
" When Philip became master of great treasures, he did not 
spend them quickly, but he threw them away and squandered 
them; being of all the men that ever lived, not only the 
worst manager himself, but all those who were about him 
were so too. For absolutely not one of them had any idea 
of living properly, or of managing his household with mode- 
ration. And of that he himself was the cause, being a most 
insatiable and extravagant man, doing everything in an off- 
hand manner, whether he was acquiring property or giving it 
away. For though he was a soldier, he was unable, out of 
pure laziness, to count what he had coming in and what lie 
spent. And then his companions were men collected together 


from all quarters; for some of them came from his own 
country, and some from Thessaly, and some from other parts 
of Greece, not being selected with any care; but if among 
either Greeks or barbarians there was any lascivious, or im- 
pure, or avaricious man, he had almost every one of the same 
character assembled in Macedonia, and they were all called 
friends of Philip. And even if any one came who was not 
entirely of that disposition, still under the influence of the 
life and manners of the Macedonians, he very soon became 
like the rest. For their wars, and military expeditions, and 
other great expenses, encouraged them to be audacious, and 
to live, not in an orderly manner, but after a prodigal fashion 
and like robbers." 

63. But Duris, in the seventh book of his History of the 
Affairs of Macedonia, speaking of Pasicyprus the king of 
Cyprus, and of his intemperate habits, writes as follows — 
"Alexander, after the siege of Tyre, dismissed Pnytagoras, 
and gave him many presents, and among them he gave him 
the fortified place which he asked for. And that very place 
Pasicyprus the king had previously sold, in a luxurious freak, 
for fifty talents, to Pymatus the Cittisean, selling him both 
the fortress itself and his own royal authority over it. And 
when he had received the money he grew old in Amathus." 
Such also was /Ethiops the Corinthian, as Demetrius the 
Scepsian relates, of whom mention is made by Archilochus ; 
" for he, out of his love of pleasure and intemperance, sailing 
with Archias to Sicily when he was about to found Syracuse, 
sold to his messmate for a cake of honey the lot which he 
had just drawn, and was about to take possession of in 

64. But Demetrius carried his extravagance to such a height, 
he, I mean, who was the descendant of Demetrius Phalereus, 
according to the account of Hegesander, that he had Aris- 
tagora the Corinthian for a mistress, and lived in a most ex- 
pensive manner. And when the Areopagita) summoned him 
before them, and ordered him to live more decorously — 
" But even now," said he, " I live like a gentleman, for I have 
a most beautiful mistress, and I do no wrong to any one, and 
I drink Chian wine, and I have a sufficiency of everything, 
as my own revenues suffice for all these expenses. And I 
do not live as some of 3 r ou do, corrupted by bribes myself, 


and intriguing with other men's wives." And hereupon he 
enumerated some who acted in this manner by name. And 
Antigonus the king, having heard this, made him a thes- 
mothcte. And he, being an hipparch at the Panathensea, 
erected a seat close to the statues of Mercury for Aristagora, 
higher than the Mercuries themselves. And when the mys- 
teries were celebrated at Eleusis, he placed a seat for her 
close to the temple, saying that those who endeavoured to 
hinder him should repent it. 

G5. But Phanodemus, and also Philochorus, have related that 
in former times the judges of the Areopagus used to summon 
before them and to punish profligate and extravagant men, 
and those who had no ostensible means of living : and many 
others have told the same story. At all events, those judges 
sent for Menedemus and Asclepiades the philosophers when 
they were young men and poor, and asked them how they 
managed to look so sleek and comfortable when they spent 
the whole day idling with philosophers, and had no property. 
And they replied that some one of the men about the mill 
had better be sent for. And when he came and said that 
they came every night to the mill and threshed and ground 
the corn, and each earned two drachmae, the judges of the 
Areopagus marvelled, and presented them with two hundred 
drachma; as a reward. 

And the citizens of Abdera brought Democritus to trial, 
ou the ground that he had wasted the estate which ho had 
inherited from his father. And when he had read to them 
his Great World, and his treatise concerning the Things in the 
.Shades below, and had said that he had spent it on these 
works, he was discharged. 

66. But those men who are not so luxurious, as Amphis 
Drink two entire days in every day, 
Shaking their heads through their too mighty draughts. 

And according to Diphilus — 

Having three heads, like to Diana's statue. 
Being enemies to their own estate, as Satyrus in his treatise 
on Characters said, running through their land, tearing to 
pieces and plundering their own houses, selling their own 
property as if it were the spoils of the enemy, considering 
not what has been spent, but what will be spent, and not 


what will remain afterwards, but what will not remain, 
having spent beforehand in their youth the money which 
ought to have carried them safely through old age, rejoicing 
in companionship, not in companions, and in their wine, 
and not in those who drink it with them. But Agatharchides 
the Corinthian, in the twenty-eighth book of his Commentary 
on the Affairs of Europe, says " that Gnosippus, who was a 
very luxurious and extravagant man in Sparta, was forbidden 
by the Ephori to hold intercourse with the young men." 
And among the Romans, it is related, according to the state- 
ment of Posidonius, in the forty-ninth book of his Histories, 
that there was a man named Apicius who went beyond all 
other men in intemperance. This is that Apicius who was 
the cause of banishment to Rutilius, who wrote the history of 
the Romans in the Greek language. But concerning Apicius, 
the man, I mean, who is so notorious for his extravagant 
luxuiy, we have already spoken in our first book. 

67. But Diogenes the Babylonian, in his treatise on Nobility 
of Birth, says " that the son of Phocion, whose name was 
Phocus, was such a man that there was not one Athenian who 
did not hate him. And whenever any one met him they said 
to him, ' you man who are a disgrace to your family !' For 
he had expended all his patrimony on intemperance ; and 
after this he became a flatterer of the prefect of Munychia ; 
on which account he was again attacked and reproached by 
every one. And once, when a voluntary contribution was 
being made, he came forward and said, before the whole 
assembly, ' I, too, contribute my share.' And the Athenians 
all with one accord cried out, 'Yes, to profligacy.' And Phocus 
was a man very fond of drinking hard; and accordingly, when 
he had conquered with horses at the Panathenasa, and when 
Sopater entertained his companions at a banquet, the prepa- 
ration was very splendid, and foot-tubs full of wine and spicvs 
were set before all who came in. And his father, seeing this, 
called Phocus, and said, ' Will you not stop your companion 
from polluting your victory in this fashion V" 

And I know too of many other intemperate and extrava- 
gant men, whom I leave you to find out, with the exception 
of Callias the son of Hipponicus, whom even the tutors 
of little children have heard of. But concerning the others 
whom I have been a little hasty in mentioning, if you have 

c. 6*8.] cook's apparatus. 271 

anything to say, I have the doors of my ears open. So speak ; 
fur I want to know something. 

Besides Magnus used the words kirfLvOiuv and kiri^ayeiv. 
And iEniilianus said, you have the word darwnov used by 
Strattis, in his Chrysippus, where he says — 

He will not e'en have time to ease himself, 

Nor to turn to an acwTiov, nor e'en, 

If a man meets him, to converse with him. 

68. But the instruments used by a cook are enumerated by 

Anaxippus, in his Harp-player, as follows : — 
Bring me a ladle and a dozen spits, 
A flesh-hook, and a mortar, and a cheese-scraper, 
A cylinder, three troughs, a knife, four choppers. 
Will you not, man hated by the gods, 
Make haste and put the kettle on the fire J 
And are you now still dawdling at that dish? 
And with that largest chopper ] 

But Aristophanes calls the dish which we commonly call 

Xvrpa, a KaKKafir], in his play of the Women occupying the 

Tents ; saying — 

Warm now the icaKKaBi] of the preceptor. 

And, in his Daitaleis, he says — 

To bring the KaKKaBv from thence. 

And Antiphanes, in his Friend to the Thebans, says — 
We now have everything ; for that fine eel 
From Thebes, a namesake of the one in-doors, 
Mingling within the hollow Ka.KKa.Bt}, 
Is warm, and leaps, is boiled, and bubbles up. 

But Antiphanes calls a dish /3cn-dViov, in his Euthydicus — 
Then came a polypus all cut in pieces, 
And boiled ev BaTavioiaiv. 

And Alexis, in his Asclcpioclidcs, says — 

But I when sojourning in Sicily, 

Learn'd to cook with such dexterity, 

That I make all the guests with eagerness 

Invade the dishes (Bardvta) with their teeth at times. 
But Antiphanes spells the word with a tt ; writing it Trardviou, 
in his Wedding — 

Uaravia, beet, and assafcetida, 

Dishes and candles, coriander and onions, 

And salt and olives, and round dishes too. 
And Philetaarus says, in his CEnopion — 

Here let the cook of dainty dishes (Trarai/iuy) come. 


And, in a subsequent passage, lie says — 

He seems to have more pupils for his dishes 

Than even Stratonicus had. 
And Antiphanes, in his Parasite, said this — 

A. Another bulky man, large as a table, _ 

And nobly born, will come besides this man. 

B. Whom do you mean '? 

A. A new Carystian, 
Born of the earth and warm. 

B. Tell me his name, 
Or else begone. 

A. I mean a Kamax/Sus, 
But you, perhaps, would call it merely dish. 
B. What do I care what name you give to it? 
Whether men like to call it KaKKafios 
Or o-ittujSos, I know the thing you meau. 
But Eubulus, in his Ionian, uses both forms, both (3o.tuvi.ov 
and iro.Ta.viov, where he says — 

Bound dishes, and frardvia, and caccabia, 
And lopadia, and -na-rdvio., in crowds 
Countless, I could not tell you half their names. 

G9. But Alexis made a catalogue of seasonings, in his play 
called the Caldron, saying — 

A. Let me have no excuses, no " I have not," 

B. But tell me what you want— I will take all. 

A. Quite right. Go first of all and take some sesame. 

B. There 's some within. _ 

A. Take some grapes dried and cut, 
Some fennel, anise, assafoetida, 
Mustard and cabbage, some dry coriander, 
Sumach and cummin, capers, marjoram, 
Leeks, garlic, thyme, sage, scseli, 
Some new-made wine boil'd down, some rue and spinach. 

And, in his Woman working all Night, or the Spinners., he 
introduces a cook as saying — 

I must run round, and bawl for what I want ; 

You'll call for supper when you home return, 

And 1 have got no vinegar, nor anise, 

Nor marjoram, nor fig-leaves, nor sweet oil, 

Nor almonds, nor the lees of new-made wine, 

Nor garlic, no, nor leeks, nor onions, 

No fire, no cummin seed, no salt, no eggs, 

No wood, no trough, no frying-pan, no rope ; 

No pail, no cistern, neither well nor pitcher ; 

Here I stand useless with but knife in hand, 

Girt and prepared for action all in vain. 


And, in his Wicked Woman, be says — 

First of all take a dish of goodly size, 

And put in marjoram and pounded herbs, 

Steep' d to a fair extent in vinegar, 

Colour'd with new made wine, and flavoured with 

Plenty of potent assaibetida. 

And Teleclides used the word brecrOUw, in his Prytanes, in 
this manner : — 

Tvpiov tirecrdiovra, eating cheese. 
And Eupolis used the word lin$>a.y&v in his Taxiarchs — 

Wishing to eat (iirKpayuv) of nothing 
But just an onion and three pickled olives. 

And Aristophanes, in his Plutus, says — 

Once, out of poverty, he ate up (ivTjffOtiv) everything. 

70. But there was another class of men somewhat different 
from the cooks, called Tpo-ire^oTrotol, setters otit of tables. But 
what their office was is plainly stated by Antiphancs, in his 
Sojourner — 

Hither I come, and bring this table-setter, 
Who soon shall wash the cloths, and trim the lamps, 
Prepare the glad libations, and do every thing 
Which to his office may pertain. 

And it is worth inquiring whether the Tpa7re£<Mco/ios is the 
same person as the Tpa7re£o7roios. For king Juba, in his treatise 
on Similitudes, says that the Tpa-e^oKo'pos is the same person 
who is called by the Romans structor, quoting from the play 
of Alexander, which is entitled Potation — 

Now for to-morrow I must get a flute-player, 

A table-setter, and a workman too. 

This was my master's reason for despatching me 

On this commision from his country scat. 

But they called him Tpa7re£o7roios who -took care of the tables, 
and of everything else which required order and good manage- 
ment. Philemon says, in his " The Uninvited Guest" — 

There is no need of long deliberation 

About the kitchen, for the table-setter 

Is bound to look to that; that is his office. 

They also used the word €7rn-pa7re£a>/x.aTa, meaning by this the 
food which was placed upon the table. Plato says, in the 
Menclaus — 

How little now is left of the tViTpaTreftijuaTa. 


They also called the man who bought the meat, the 'Ayopa- 
tm}s, but now they call him o^wvarcup, an officer whom Xeno- 
phon mentions, in the second 1 book of the Memorabilia, 
speaking thus : — " Could we expect to get a steward and 
buyer of such a character for nothing ?" But the same word 
is used in a more general sense by Menander, in his Phanius — 

He was a thrifty and a moderate buyer (ayopao-r-ris) : 
And Aristophanes calls him 01//WJ/77S, in his Tagenistse, say- 
How the purveyor (tywvris) seems to delay our supper. 

Cratinus, too, uses the verb Trapoi/wvew, in his Cleobulinse, 

where he says 

* ' * * * * 

And Alexis uses the verb Trapayopa^w, in the same sense, (to 
buy dainty side-dishes,) in his Dropidas. 

There are people called dXiarpoi ; they are those, accord- 
ing to Pamphilus, who invite people to the king's table, 
having their name derived from eAeo's (a kitchen table). But 
Artemidorus calls them henrvoKX-^ropes. 

71. They also used to call the tasters (according to the 
statement of the same Pamphilus) eSlarpoi, because they ate of 
dishes before the king with a view to his safety. But now, 
the person called eSeWpos is the superintendent of the whole 
management of the feast ; and that office is very eminent and 
honourable. Accordingly, Chares, in the third book of his 
Histories, says that Ptolemy surnamed Soter, was originally 
appointed as the taster (eSearpos) of Alexander. And it 
appears that the person whom the Romans now call the 
taster was at that time called by the Greeks TrporevOrjs. As 
Aristophanes, in the earlier of his plays, called the Clouds, 
says — 

A . Why then do not the magistrates receive 

The prytanea on the new-moon's day, 

But on the day before ? 

B. They seem to me 

To act like tasters (Trporevdai) who in hopes to take 

The prytanea with all possible speed, 

Taste them on this account all on one day. 
And Pherecrates mentions them, in his Countrymen — 

Do not you marvel ; we are of the number 

Of skilful tasters (irporivdoiv), but you know us not. 

1 This is a mistake ; the passage occurs in the first book. 

<G. 72.] TASTERS. 275 

And Philyllus says, in his Here ales — 

Must I then tell you who I am to-day 1 
I am that taster called Dorpia. 

And - 1 find also a decree passed, while Cephisodorus was 
archer at Athens, in which the tasters are mentioned as a 
regular guild or college ; just like the men who are called 
parasites. For the decree runs thus : — " Phocus proposed 
that, in order that the council might celebrate the Apaturla 
with the rest of the Athenians, in accordance with the national 
customs, that it should be decreed by the council, that the 
councillors should be released for the day, as also the other 
councils have been dismissed, for a holiday of five days from 
the day which the tasters (01 TrpoTevQai) celebrate." And that 
the ancients had people who were called " tasters" Xenophon 
tells lis in his treatise which is entitled Hiero or the Tyrant, 
where he says, " The tyrant lives, never trusting either meat 
or drink, but they order those who minister to them to taste 
them first, in the place of offering libations to the gods ; 
because they feel a distrust lest they should eat or drink 
something pernicious." And Anaxilas, in his Calypso, says — 
First the old woman here shall taste your drink. 
72. And the ancients used to call those who made sweetmeats 
and cheesecakes hrjfjLiovpyoL Menander, in his False Her- 
cules, blaming the cooks as attempting what they ought not, 
Holloa, you cook, why do you sulky seem 1 
'Tis the third time you 've asked me what's the number 
Of tables which will be required to-day. 
We go to sacrifice one little pig. 
Eight tables are required, or two, or one ; 
What can that be to you] — I want but one. 
May we not make some candyli 1 and dishes 
Such as you 're used to season ; honey, eggs, 
And semilago ; but now everything 
Is contrary ; the cook makes cakes in moulds, 
Eoasts cheesecakes, and boils groats, and brings on table 
J^fter the salted meats fig-leaves and grapes. 
And for the sweetmeat-makers, they, with duties 
Turn'd upside down, roast joints of meat and thrushes 
Instead of delicate confections ; thus 
He who believes he sups doth feed on dainties, 
And when perfumed and crown'd, again doth feast 
On honey'd cheese-cakes interspersed with thrushes. 

1 The candylus or candaulus was the name of a Lydian dish. 
T 2 


But that all these different duties were formerly separated, 
■when the demiurgi, as they called them, attended to the 
sweetmeats, and the cooks to the regular cookery, Antiphanes 
shows us plainly enough, in his Chrysis, where he says — 

Four female flute-players do have their wages, 
Twelve cooks, and just as many sweetmeat-makers, 
Asking for plates for honey. 

And Menander, in his Demiurgus, says — 

A. What now is this, my boy, for you, by Jove, 
Have come in a most business-like set fashion. 

B. Yes, for we are inventing fine inventions, 

And all the night long we've been hard at work, 
And even now we have much left unfinish'd. 

But Seleucus says that Panyasis is the earliest author who 
speaks of sweetmeats, in the book in which he speaks of the 
human sacrifices practised by the Egyptians, saying that 
many sorts of pastry and sweetmeats are put on the table, 
and many kinds of young birds. And before his time Stesi- 
chorus, or Ibycus, in the poem entitled the Contest, wrote as 
follows : — 

Bring gifts unto the maiden, cakes of cesane, 
And groats, and cakes of oil and honey mixed, 
And other kinds of pastry, and fresh honey. 

But that this poem is the work of Stesichorus, Simonides the 
poet is a most undeniable witness ; who, when speaking of 
Meleager, says — 

Who with the spear excell'd his fellows all, 

Hurling beyond the eddying Auauros 

From the grape-famous Iolcos. 

For thus did Homer and Stesichorus 

Sing to the nations. 

For Stesichorus had sung so in the previously quoted poem, 
namely, the Contests — 

Amphiafaus gain'd the prize in leaping, 

And with the dart the godlike Meleager. 

73. But I am not ignorant of what Apollodorus the Athenian 
has said of the Delians, that they supplied all who came to 
their sacred ceremonies with the assistance of cooks and 
table -setters ; and from their actions they were named Magis 
and Gongylis ; — since, says Aristophanes, they furnished them 
at these banquets with round barley-cakes, {yoyyvXai /«i£eu,) as 
if they had been women. And even to this very clay some 
of them are called Chceraci, and Amni, and Artysilai, and 

C. 74.] THE DELPHIANS. 277 

Sesami, and Artusitragi, and Neocori, and Iethyboli. And 
of the women, some are called Cuminantlue. But all are 
called by one common name Eleodytse, because they attend on 
the kitchen tables, and minister at the festivals. Tor eAeos 
means a kitchen or cook's table. Homer says — 

But when he roasted the meat, and placed it eV tA.eo«nV. 
On which account, also, Polycraton the son of Crithon, a 
Rhensean, when instituting a prosecution against them, did 
not call them Delians, but inscribed his action " against the 
whole body of the Eleodytse." And the law of the Amphic- 
tyons commands the Eleodyta; to provide water ; meaning 
by Eleodytse the table-setters, and all attendants of that sort. 
But Criton the comic poet, in his Busy-body, calls the 
Delians the parasites of the god, in these lines — 

When we had forced this great Phoenician, 
The master of a well-provided purse, 
Though captain of the ship, to stay in harbour, 
And * * * two ships 

To come to Delos from Piraeus' port ; 
He heard from all men that this place alone 
Seem'd to have three good things for a parasite, 
A well-stored market, a large population 
From every country, and the native Delians, 
Themselves a tribe of parasites of the god. 

74. But Achneus the Eretrian, in his Alcmceon, a satyric 
drama, calls the Delphians makers of sauces, in these words : — 

I see the sauce-makers, and spit on them. 
Inasmuch, forsooth, as they cut up the victims, it is plain 
that they cooked and seasoned them ; and, having a regard 
to these facts, Aristophanes also said — 

But thou Phoebus, thou who sharpenest 

The Delphian knives, and with an early warning 

Givest instruction to thy ministers. 

And, in the lines immediately following the former passage, 
Achams says — 

Why do you stay conceal'd, 
Namesake of all the knives which cooks employ ?- 

For the Satyrs ridicule the Delphians, as devoting all their 
time and attention to festivals and sacrifices. And Senilis 
says, in the fourth book of his Deliad, " The Delians used to 
provide the Delphians who came to Delos with salt, and vine- 
gar, and oil, and wood, and counterpanes/' And Aristotle, or 


Thcophrastus, in his Commentaries, speaking of the Magne- 
sians who dwell on the banks of the river Mseander, as colonists 
of the Delphians, represents them as showing the same atten- 
tions to all foreigners who came to them ; speaking as follows : 
— " The Magnesians who dwell on the banks of the river 
Marauder, being sacred to the god, and colonists of the Del- 
phians, give shelter to all who come among them, and salt, and 
oil, and vinegar, and lights, and beds, and coverlets, and tables." 

But Demetrius the Scepsian, in the sixteenth book of his 
Trojan Array, says that in Laconia, on the road which 
is called the Hyacinthine road, statues of the heroes Daiton 
and Ceraon were erected by those who made barley-cakes at 
the Phiditia, and by the attendants who mixed the wine. 
And the same writer reports also, in the twenty-fourth book 
of the same work, that Daitas the hero is worshipped among 
the Trojans, who is also mentioned by Mimnermus. And 
Hegesander the Delphian says that Jupiter is worshipped in 
Cyprus, under the names of Eilapinastes or the Feaster, and 
of Sidanchnotomus or the Carver of Entrails. 

75. And while much such conversation as this was proceed- 
ing, on a sudden a noise was heard from some one of the 
neighbouring places, as from an hydraulic organ, very plea- 
sant and agreeable, so that we all turned round towards it, 
being charmed by the melody ; and Ulpian looking towards 
the musical Alcides said, Do you hear, you most musical 
of men, this beautiful harmony which has made us turn 
round, being enchanted by the music I And is it not the 
case, as it is said to be among you Alexandrians, that con- 
stant music of an unaccompanied flute causes pain rather 
than any musical pleasure to those who hear it? And Alcides 
said. — But this engine, the hydraulic organ, whether you choose 
to class it among stringed instruments or among wind instru- 
ments, is the invention of a fellow-countryman of ours, an 
Alexandrian, a barber by trade ; and his name is Ctesibius. 
And Aristocles reports this, in his book on Choruses, saying — 
" The question is asked, whether the hydraulic organ is a 
stringed instrument or a wind instrument." Now Aristoxenus 
did not feel sure on this point ; but it is said, that Plato 
showed a sort of notion of the invention, making a nightly 
clock like the hydraulic organ; being very like an enormous 
hour-glass. And, indeed, the hydraulic organ does seem to be 


a kind of hour-glass. It cannot, therefore, be considered a 
stringed instrument, and one to be played by touching. But 
perhaps it may be called a wind instrument, because the organ 
is inflated by the water ; for the pipes are plunged down into 
the water, and when the water is agitated by a youth, as the 
axles penetrate through the whole organ, the pipes are in- 
flated, and emit a gentle and agreeable sound. And this 
organ is like a round altar ; and 'they say that it was invented 
by Ctesibius the barber, who dwelt at that time in the terri- 
tory of Aspendor, in the reign of the second Ptolemy sur- 
named Euergetes ; and they say that he was a very eminent 
man ; they say also, that he learnt a good deal from his wife 
Thais. But Trypho, in the third book of his treatise on Names, 
(and it is a dissertation on Flutes and Organs,) says Ctesibius 
the mechanic wrote a book about the kydraulis; but I am not 
sure that he is not mistaken as to the name. At all events, 
Aristoxenus prefers stringed instruments which are played 
upon by the touch to wind instruments ; saying that wind in- 
struments are very easy ; for that many people, without having 
been taught, can play on the flute and pipe, as for instance, 

7G. And this is what I have got to z&y to you about the 
hydraulic organ, Ulpian. For the Phoenicians used a kind 
of flute called the gingras, according to the account of 
Xenophon, about a span in length, and of a very shrill and 
mournful tone. And the same instrument is iised also by 
the Carians in their wailings, imless, indeed, when he says 
Phoenicia he means Caria ; and indeed you may find the 
name used so in Corinna and in Bacchylides. And these 
flutes are called gingri by the Phoenicians from the lamenta- 
tions for Adonis; for you Phoenicians called Adonis Gingres, 
as Democlides tells us. And Antiphanes mentions the 
gingri flutes, in his Physician; and Menander does so too, in 
his Carina; and Ampins, in his Dithyrambus, saying — 

A. And I have got that admirable gingras. 
11. What is the gingras .' 

A. Tis a new invention 
Of our countryman, which never yet 
Has been exhibited in any theatre, 
But is a luxury of Athenian banquets. 

B. Why then not introduce it to this people? 
A. Because I think that I shall draw by lot 

Some most ambitious bribe ; For well I know 
They would disturb all things with their applause. 


And Axionicus says, in his Phileuripicles — « 

For they are both so sick with love 
Of the melodious strains of soft Euripides, 
That every other music seems to them 
Shrill as the gingras, and a mere misfortune. 

77. But how much better, most sagacious Ulpian, is 
this hydraulic organ, than the instrument which is called 
nabla; which Sopater the parodist, in his drama entitled 
Pylee, says is also an invention of the Phoenicians, using the 
following expressions — 

JSTor is the noise of the Sidonian nabla, 

Which from the throat doth flow, at all impair'd. 

And in the Slave of Mystacus we find — 

Among the instruments of harmony 

The nablas comes, not over soft or sweet ; 

By its long sides a lifeless lotus fix'd 

Sends forth a breathed music ; and excites men, 

Singing in Bacchic strain a merry song. 

And Philemon says, in his Adulterer — 

A . There should, Parmeno, be here among us 
A nablas or a female flute-player. 

B. What is a nablas '.' 

A. Don't you know? you idiot ! 
B. Indeed I don't. 

A . What, do not know a nablas 1 
You know no good ; perhaps a sambucistria 
You ne'er have heard of either '! 

There is also an instrument called the triangle, which Juba 
mentions in the fourth book of his Theatrical History, and 
says it is an invention of the Syrians ; as is also the 
sambuca, which is called \vpo(j>oLvi£. But this instrument 
Neanthes the Cyzicene, in the first book of his Seasons, saj-s 
is an invention of Ibycus the Pdiegian poet ; as also the lyre 
called barbitos was of Anacreon. But since you are running 
all us Alexandrians down as unmusical, and keep mentioning 
the monaulos as our only national instrument, listen now to 
what I can tell you offhand about that. 

78. For Juba, in the before-mentioned treatise, says that 
the Egyptians call the monaulos an invention of Osiris, just 
as they say that kind of plagiaulos is, which is called photinx, 
and that, too, I will presently show you is mentioned by a 
very illustrious author ; fur the photinx is the same as the 
flute, which is a national instrument. But Sophocles, in his 
Thamyras, speaks of the monaulos, saying — 


For all the tuneful melodies of pipes (nYj/mSes) 
Are lost, the lyre, and monaulos too, 
-:«■ * -x- * 

And Araros, in his Birth of Pan, says — 

But he, can you helieve it 1 seized at once 
On the monaulos, and leapt lightly forth. 

And Anaxandrides, in his Treasure, says — 

I the monaulos took, and sang a wedding song. 

And in his Bottle-bearer he says — 

A. What have you done, you Syrian, with your monaulos ? 

B. What monaulos'? 

A. The reed. 

And Sopater, in his Baechis, says — 

And then he sang a song on the monaulos. 
But Protagorides of Cyzicus, in the second book of his 
treatise on the Assemblies in Honour of Daphne, says, " He 
touched every kind of instrument, one after another, cas- 
tanets, the weak-sounding pandurus, but he drew the sweetest 
harmony from the sweet monaulos. And Posidonius the 
Stoic philosopher, in the third book of his Histories, speaking 
of the war of the Apameans against the Larissreans, writes as 
follows — "Having taken short daggers sticking in their waists, 
and small lances covered with rust and dirt, and having put 
veils and curtains over their heads which produce a shade but 
do not hinder the wind from getting to their necks, dragging 
on asses laden with wine and every sort of meat, by the side 
of which were packed little photinges and little monauli, 
instruments of revelry, not of war." But I am not ignorant 
that Amerias the Macedonian, in bis Dialects, says, that the 
monaulos is called tityrinus. So here you have, excellent 
Ulpian, a man who mentions the photinx. But that the 
monaulos was the same instrument which is now called 
calamaules, or reedfife, is clearly shown by lledylus, in his 
Epigrams, where he says — 

Beneath this mound the tuneful Theon lies, 

'Whom the monaulos knew its sweetest lord ; 
Scirpalus' son; age had destroy'd his sight, 

And when he was a child his sire him call'd 
Eupalamus in his first birthday ode, 

Showing that he was a choice bouquet where 
The virtues all had met. For well he sung 

The Muses' sports amid their wine-glad revels; 


He sang to Battalus, au eager drinker 

Of unmix' d wine, and Cotalus and Pamcalus. 

Say then to Theon with his calamaules, 
Farewell, Theon, tunefullest of men. 

As, therefore, they now call those who play on a pipe of 
reeds (/<uA.a//,o<.) calamaules, so also they call them now 
rapaules, according to the statement of Amerias the Mace- 
donian, in his dialects. 

79. But I wish you to know, my most excellent Ulpian, that 
a more musical and accomplished people than the Alexandrians 
is not mentioned. And I do not speak only of playing on the 
harp, with which even the poorest people among us, and 
those who do not make a profession of it, and who are utterly 
ignorant of every other kind of learning, are so familiarized 
that they can in a moment detect any error which has been 
made in striking the strings, — but especially are they skilful 
with the flute; and not onty in those which are called girls' 
flutes and boys' flutes, but also in men's flutes, which are 
called perfect and superperfect ; and also in those which are 
called harp-flutes and finger-flutes. For the flutes called 
elymi, which Sophocles mentions in his Niobe and in his 
Drummers, we do not understand to be anything but the 
common Phrygian flute. And these, too, the Alexandrians 
are very skilful in. They are acquainted also with the flute 
with two holes, and also with the intermediate flute, and with 
those which are called hypotreti, or bored underneath. And 
Callias also speaks of the flute called elymi, in his Pedetse. 
But Juba says that they are an invention of the Phrygians, 
and that they were also called scytalise, from their resem- 
blance in thickness to the scytale. And Cratinus the 
younger says that the Cyprians also use them, in his Thera- 
•menes. We know, too, of some which are called half-bored, 
of which Anacreon says — 

What lust has now seized thus upon your mind, 
To wish to dance to tender half-bored flutes ) 

And these flutes are smaller than the perfect flutes. At all 
events, iEsclvylus saj^s, speaking metaphorically, in his Ixion — 

But very soon the greater swallows up 
The lesser and the half-bored flute. 

And these half-bored flutes are the same as those which are 
called boys' flutes, which they use at bancmets, not being tit 

C, 80.] KINDS OF FLUTES. 283 

for the games and public shows ; on which account Anacreon 
called them tender. 

80. I am acquainted, too, with other kinds of flutes, the 
tragic flute, and the lysiodic 1 flute, and the harplike flute ; all 
which are mentioned by Ephorus, in his Inventions, and by 
Euphranor the Pythagorean, in his treatise on Flutes, and 
also by Alexon, who wrote another treatise on Flutes. But 
the flute made of reeds is called tityrinus among the Dorians 
in Italy, as Artemidorus the Aristophanian tells us, in the 
second book of his History of Doris. And the flute which 
is called magadis, which is also named palaBO-magadis, sends 
forth a sharp and a deep note at the same time, as Anax- 
andrides says in his Armed Fighter — 

I will speak like a magadis, both loudly and gently. 
And the flutes called lotus flutes are the same which are 
called photinges by the Alexandrians ; and they are made of 
the plant called the lotus; and this is a wood which grows in 
Libya. But Juba says that the flute which is made out of 
the leg bones of the kid is an invention of the Thebans ; and 
Tryphon says that those flutes also which are called elephantine 
flutes were first bored among the Phoenicians. I know, too, 
that the magadis is a stringed instrument, as is the harp, the 
lyre, and the barbitos. But Euphorion the epic poet says 
in his book on the Isthmian Games — "Those -men who are 
now called players on the nablas, and on the pandurus, and 
on the sambuca, do not use any new instrument, for the 
baromus and the barbitos (both of which are mentioned by 
Sappho and Anacreon), and the magadis, and the triangle, and 
the sambuca are all ancient instruments. At all events, a 
statue of one of the Muses was erected in Mitylene by Les- 
bothemis, holding a sambuca in her hand." But Aristoxeims 
calls the following foreign instruments — phceniccs, and 
pectides, and magadides, and sambuca), and triangles, and 
clepsiambi, and scindapsi, and the instrument called the 
enneachord or nine-stringed instrument. But Plato, in the 
third book of his Polity, states — "'We shall not, then,' said 
I, ' have much need of many strings or of much harmony in 
our songs- and melodies.' 'I think not,' said he. ' But we 

1 " AvffuoSos, 6 Ka\ 7], a man who played women's characters in male 
attire ; so called from Lysis, who wrote songs for such actors." — Liddell 
and Scott, in voc. 


shall have triangles, and pectides, and all sorts of instruments 
which have many strings and are very harmonious.''' 

81. But the scindapsus is an instrument of four strings, as 
Matron the parodist says in the following lines — 
Nor did they hang it upon pegs where hung 
The sweet scindapsus with its fourfold strings, 
Joy of the woman who the distaff hates. 
And Theopompus the Colophonian likewise mentions it, the 
Epic poet, I mean, in his poem entitled the Chariot — 
Shaking the large and lyre-toned scindapsus, 
Made of young tamarisk, in his skilful hand. 
Anaxilas, too, in his Lyre Maker, says — 

But I was making thrce-string'd barhiti, 
Pectides, citharte, lyres, and scindapsi. 
But Sopater the parodist, in his poem entitled " The Ini- 
tiated," says that the pectis is an instrument with two strings, 

The pectis, proud of its barbaric muse, 
With its two strings was placed within my hand. 
The instrument called pariambis is mentioned by Epichar- 
mus, in his Periallus, in this way — 

But Semele doth dance and he doth sing- 
Tunefully on his pariambis lyre, 
And she rejoices at the rapid song. 

Now it was Alexander of Cythera, according to the account 
given by Juba, who completed the psaltery with its full 
number of strings. And he, when he had grown old in the 
city of the Ephesians, suspended this instrument in the 
temple of Diana, as being the most skilful invention he had 
made with reference to his art. Juba mentions also 
the lyro phoenix and the Epigonius. which, though now it is 
transformed into the tipright psaltery, still preserves the 
name of the man who was the first to use it. But Epigo- 
nius was by birth an Ambraciot, but he was subsequently 
made a citizen of Sicyon. And he was a man of great skill 
in music, so that he played the lyre with his bare hand 
without a plectrum. For the Alexandrians have great ex- 
perience and skill in all the above-named instruments and 
kinds of flutes. And whichever of them you wisli me to 
try, I will exhibit my own skill before you, though there aro 
many others in my country more musical and skilful than 
I am. 


82. But Alexander, m}' fellow-citizen, and he has only lately 
died, having given a public exhibition of his skill on the in- 
strument called the triangle, made all the Romans so music- 
mad that even now most people recollect the way in which he 
used to play. And Sophocles speaks of this triangle in his 
Mysians, saying — 

The constant music of the Phrygian 
Tender triangle, and the concerted strains 
Of the shrill Lydian pectis sounded too. 

And in his Thamyras he also mentions it. But Aristophanes, 
in his Daitalcis, and Theopompus, in his Penelope, likewise 
speak of it. And Eupolis, in his Baptae, says — 

Who plays the drum with wondrous skill, 
And strikes the strings of the triangle. 

And the instrument called the pandurus is mentioned, as has 
been said before, by Euphorion, and by Protagorides, in the 
second book of his treatise on the Assemblies in honour of 
Daphne. But Pythagoras, who wrote a book on the Red Sea, 
says that the Troglodyte make the panduri out of the daphne 
which grows on the seashore. 

But horns and trumpets are the invention of the Etrurians. 
But Metrodorus the Chian, in his history of the Affairs of Troy, 
says that Marsyas invented the pipe and flute at Celania?, when 
all his predecessors had played on a single reed. But Eupho- 
rion the epic poet, in his treatise on the Modulation of Songs, 
says that Mercury invented the pipe which consists of one single 
reed ; but that some say that Seuthes and Ronaces the Medes 
did so ; and that Sileuus invented the pipe which is made of 
many reeds, and that Marsyas invented that one which is 
joined together with wax. 

83. This then, my word-hunting Ulpian, is what you 
may learn from us Alexandrians, who are very fond of the 
music of the- ■monaulos. For you do not know that Menecles 
the Barcsean compiler, and also that Andron, in his Chronicles, 
him of Alexandria I mean, assert that it is the Alexandrians 
who instructed all the Greeks and the barbarians, when the 
former encyclic mode of education began to fail, on account of 
the incessant commotions which took place in the times of the 
successors of Alexander. There was subsequently a regenera- 
tion of all sorts of learning in the time of Ptolemy the seventh 
king of Egypt, the one who was properly called by the Alex- 


andrians Cacergetes ; for he having murdered many of the 
Alexandrians, and banished no small number of those who had 
grown up to manhood with his brother, rilled all the islands 
and cities with men learned in grammar, and philosophy, and 
geometry, with musicians, and painters, and schoolmasters, 
and physicians, and men of all kinds of trades and professions ; 
who, being driven by poverty to teach what they knew, pro- 
duced a great number of celebrated pupils. 

84. But music was a favourite amusement of all the Greeks 
of old time ; on which account also skill in playing the flute 
was much aimed at. Accordingly, Chanueleon of Heraclia, in 
his book entitled Protrepticus, says that the Lacedaemonians 
and Thebans all learned to play on the flute, and the inhabit- 
ants of Heraclea in Pontus devoted themselves to the same 
study down to his own time. And that so did the most illus- 
trious of the Athenians, Callias the son of Hipponicus. and 
Critias the son of Callseschrus. But Duris, in his treatise on 
Euripides and Sophocles, says that Alcibiades learnt music, 
not of any ordinary master, but of Pronomus, who had the 
very highest reputation in that line. And Aristoxenus says 
that Epaminondas the Theban learnt to plajj- the flute of 
Olympiodorus and Orthagoras. And likewise, many of the 
Pythagoreans practised the art of flute-playing, as Euphranor, 
and Archytas, and Philolaus, and many others. But Eu- 
phranor has also left behind an essay on Flutes, and so too 
has Archytas. And Aristophanes shows us, in his Daitaleis, 
the great eagerness with which men applied themselves to this 
study, when he says — 

I who am wasted quite away 

Jn the study of flutes and harps, 
Am I now to be sent to dig 2 

And Phrynichus, in his Ephialtes, says— 

But were not you the man who taught him once 
To play upon the flute and well-strung harp ! 

And Epicharmus, in his Muses, says that Minerva played a 
martial strain to the Dioscuri. And Ion, in his Phoenician, or 
Gseneus, calls the flute a cock, speaking thus : — 

.The cock then sang the Greeks a Lydian hymn. 
And also, in his Garrison, he calls the pipe the Ida?an cock, 
using the following expression : — 

The pipe, th' Ideean cock, precedes your steps. 

C. *!.] BANQUETS. 287 

Aud, in the Second Phoenix, the same Ion writes — 
I made a noise, bringing the deep-toned flute 
With fluent rhythm. 

Where he means Phrygian rhythm ; and he calls the Phrygian 
flute deep-toned. For it is deep ; on which account they also 
add a horn to it, having a similarity to the bell mouth of 

So now this book may be ended, my friend Timocrates ; as 
it is quite long enough. 


1. But since, Timocrates, we have now had a great deal 
of conversation on the subject of banquets in all that has been 
hitherto said ; and since we have passed over those things 
in them which are most useful and which do not weigh clown 
the soul, but which cheer it, and nourish it by variety of food, 
as the divine Homer incidentally teaches us, I will also men- 
tion what has been said concerning these things by that most 
excellent writer Masyrius. For we, as the beautiful Agathon 
Do what is more than needful as if needful, 

And treat our real work as if it were superfluous. 

The poet accordingly says, when he is speaking of Menelaus — 
At the fair dome the rapid labour ends, 1 
Where sat Atrides 'midst his bridal friends, 
With double vows invoking Hymen's power 
To bless his son's and daughter's nuptial hour : — 

as it was a custom to celebrate banquets at marriages, both 
for the sake of the gods who preside over marriage, and as it 
were for a testimony to the marriage ; and also, the king of 
Lycia instructs us what sort of banquet ought to be given to 
foreigners, receiving Bellerophon with great magnificence — 

There Lycia's monarch paid him honours due, 2 
Nine days he feasted, and nine bulls he Blew. 

2. For wine appears to have a very attractive influence in 
promoting friendship, as it warms and also melts the soul. On 

1 Odyss. iv. 3. - Iliad, vi. 171. 


which account the ancients did not ask who a man was before 
drinking, but afterwards ; as honouring the laws of hospitality 
itself, and not this or that particular individual. But the 
lawgivers, taking care beforehand of the banquets of the pre- 
sent day, have appointed feasts for the tribe, and feasts for the 
borough; and also general banquets, and entertainments to 
the ward, and others also called orgeonica. And there are 
many meetings of philosophers in the city, some called the 
pupils of Diogenes, and others, pupils of Antipater, others 
again styled disciples of Pansetius. And Theophrastus be- 
queathed money for an entertainment of that sort. Not, by 
Jove, in order that the philosophers assembled might indulge 
in intemperance, but in order that during the banquet they 
might have a wise and learned conversation. And the Pry- 
tanes were accustomed every day to meet in well-regulated 
banquets, which tended to the advantage of the state. And 
it was to such a banquet as that Demosthenes says the news 
of the taking of Eiatea was brought. " For it was evening, and 
a man came bringing news to the Prytanes that Eiatea was 
taken." And the philosophers used to be careful to collect 
the young men, and to feast with them according to some well- 
considered and carefully laid down law. Accordingly, there 
were some laws for banquets laid down by Xenoci-ates, in the 
Academy, and again by Aristotle. 

But the Phiditia in Sparta, and the Andrea, or man's feasts, 
among the Cretans, were celebrated in their respective cities 
with all imaginable care. On which account some one said 
not unwisely — 

Dear friends should never long abstain from feasts, 
For e'en the memory of them is delightful. 

And Antipater the philosopher once assembled a banqueting 
party, and invited all the guests on the understanding that 
they were to discuss subtle questions. And they say that 
Arcesilaus, being once invited to a banquet, and sitting next 
to a man who ate voraciously, while he himself was unable to 
enjoy anything, when some one of those who w 7 ere present 
offered him something, said — 

May it be well with you ; be this for Telephus : 
for it so happened that the epicure by his side was named 
Telephus. But Zeno, when some epicure who was at the 
same party with him snatched away the upper half of the fish 

C. 3.] BANQUETS. 289 

the moment that it was placed on the table, turned the fish 
round himself, and took the remaining portion, saying — 

Then Ino came and finish'd what was left. 
And Socrates seeing a man once devouring dainties eagerly? 
said — you bystanders, which of you eats bread as if it were 
sweetmeats, and sweetmeats as if they were bread 1 

3. But now let us speak of the banquets celebrated by 
Homer. For the poet gives us the different times of them, 
and the persons present, and the causes of them. And 
Xenophon and Plato have done well to imitate him in this; 
who at the very beginning of their treatises set forth the 
cause which gave rise to the banquet, and mention the names 
of those who were present. But Epicurus never defines either 
the place or the time, nor docs he preface his accounts with 
any preliminary statement. But Aristotle says that it is an 
unseemly thing for a man to come unwashed and covered 
with dust to a banquet. Then Homer instructs us who 
ought to be invited; saying that one ought to invite the 
chiefs, and men of high reputation — ■ 

He bade the noblest of the Grecian peers, 1 
not acting on the principle asserted by Hesiod, for he bids 
men invite chiefly their neighbours — 

Then bid your neighbours to the well-spread feast, 

AVho live the nearest, and who know you best. 2 

For such a banquet would be one of rustic stupidity; and 
adapted to the most misanthropic of proverbs — 

Friends who far off do live are never friends. 
For how can it be anything but nonsense that friendship 
should depend on place and not on disposition 1 Therefore 
we find in Homer, that after the cup had gone round, 

Then the old man his counsels first disclosed; 3 
but among people who did not regulate their banquets in an 
orderly manner we read — 

Then first the flatterer rose with mocking speech. 
Besides, Homer introduces guests differing in ages and tasl . 
such as Nestor, Ulysses, and Ajax, who are all invited toge- 
ther. And speaking in general terms he represents all who 
lay claim to any sort of eminence as invited, and individually 
those who arrive at it by different roads. But Epicurus has 
represented all his guests as believers in the atonic theory, 
1 Iliad, ii. 404. 2 Op. et Di. 341. 3 Iliad, viii. 324. 

VOL. I. — ATII. U 

290 THE DEirxosormsTS. [b. v. 

and this, too, tliough he had models both in the variety 
of the banquets of the great poet, and also in the elegant 
accounts of Plato and Xenophon; of whom Plato has intro- 
duced Eryximachus the physician, and Aristophanes the 
poet, and other professors of different branches of science, 
discussing matters of weight: and Xenophon has mingled 
with them some private individuals. 

Homer therefore has done "much the best of all, and has 
given us by far the best banquets ; and that again is best 
seen by comparing him with others. For the banquet of the 
suitors in Homer is just such as might be expected from 
young men devoted to drinking and love; and that of the 
Phreacians is more orderly, but still luxurious. And he has 
made a wide distinction between these entertainments and 
those which may be called military banquets, and those which 
have reference to political affairs and are conducted in a well- 
regulated manner: and again he has distinguished between 
public and family banquets. But Epicurus has described a 
banquet consisting of philosophers alone. 

4. Homer, too, has pointed out whom one ought not to 
invite, but who ought to consider that they have a right 
to come uninvited, showing by the presence of one of the 
relations that those in similar circumstances had a right to 
be present — 

Unbidden there the brave Atrides came. 1 
For it is plain that one ought not to send a formal invitation 
to one's brother, or to one's parents, or to one's wife, or to 
any one else whom one can possibly regard in the same light 
as these relations, for that would be a cold and unfriendly pro- 
ceeding. And some one has written an additional line, adding 
the reason why Menelaus had no invitation sent him, and yet 
came — 

For -well he knew how busy was his brother : 
as if there had been any need of alleging a reason why his 
brother should come of his own accord to a banquet without 
any invitation, — a very sufficient reason having been already 
given. " For," said the interpolator of this line, " did he not 
know that his brother was giving a banquet 1 ? And how can 
it be otherwise than absurd to pretend that he did not know 
it, when his sacrifice of oxen was notorious and visible to 
every one? And how could he have come if he had not 
1 Iliad, ii. 408. 


known it 1 Or, by Jove, when he saw him," he continues, 
" occupied with business, was it not quite right of him to 
excuse his not having sent him an invitation, and to come of 
his own accord 1 " As if he were to say that he came unin- 
vited in order that the next day they might not look at 
one another, the one with feelings of mortification, and the 
other of annoyance. 

But it would be an absurd thing to suppose that Menelaus 
forgot his brothei', and this, too, when he was not only sacri- 
ficing on his account at the present moment, but when it 
was on his account that he had undertaken the whole war, 
and when he had invited those who were no relations of his, 
and who had no connexion even with his country. But 
Athenocles the Cyzicene, understanding the poems of Homer 
better than Aristarchus did, speaks in a much more sensible 
manner to us, and says that Homer omitted to mention 
Menelaus as having been invited because he was more nearly 
related to Agamemnon than the others. But Demetrius 
Phalereus having asserted that interpolated verse to be a 
bungling and unseasonable addition, quite unsuited to the 
poetry of Homer, — the verse, I mean, 

For well he knew how busy was his brother, 
says that he is accusing him of very ungentlemanly manners. 
" For I think," says he, " that every well-bred man has rela- 
tions and friends to whom he may go, when they are cele- 
brating any sacrifice, without waiting for them to send him 
an invitation." 

5. And Plato in his Banquet speaks in the same manner on 
this subject. " For," says he, " that we may destroy the pro- 
verb by altering it : Good men may go of their own accord 
to feasts given by good men. For Homer appears not only to 
have destroyed that proverb, but also to have ridiculed it ; 
for having represented Agamemnon as valiant in warlike 
matters, and Menelaus as an effeminate warrior, when Aga- 
memnon celebrates a sacrifice, he represents Menelaus as 
coming uninvited, — that is, the worse man coming to the feast 
of the better man." And Bacchylides, speaking of Hercules, 
and telling how he came to the house of Ceyx, says — 
Then on the brazen threshold firm he stood, 
(They were a feast preparing,) and thus spake 
Brave and just men do uninvited come 
To well-appointed leasts by brave and just men made 
u 1 


And as to proverbs, one says — 

Good men do of their own accord 
To good men's entertainments come : 

and another says — 

Brave men do of their own accord 
To cowards' entertainments come. 

It was without reason, therefore, that Plato thought that 
Menelaus was a coward ; for Homer speaks of him as Mars- 
loving, and as fighting single-handed with the greatest gallantry 
in defence of Patroclus, and eager to fight in single combat 
with Hector as the champion of the whole army, although 
he certainly was inferior to Hector in personal strength. 
And he is the only man in the whole expedition of whom he 
has said — 

And on he went, firm in his fearless zeal. 1 
But if an enemy, disparaging him, called him an effeminate 
warrior, and on this account Plato thinks that he really was 
an effeminate warrior, why should he not also class Agamem- 
non himself among the men void of prowess, since this line is 
spoken against him ? — 

O monster, mix'd of insolence and fear, 

Thou dog in forehead, but in heart a deer ! 

When wert thou known in ambush'd tights to dare, 

Or nobly face the horrid front of war] 

'Tis ours the chance of fighting fields to try, 

Thine to look on and bid the valiant die. 2 

For it does not follow because something is said in Homer, 
that Homer himself says it. For how could Menelaus have 
been effeminate who, single-handed, kept Hector away from 
Patroclus, and who slew Euphorbus, and stripjDed him of his 
arms though in the very middle of the Trojan host 1 And it 
was foolish of him not completely to consider the entire line 
which he was finding fault with, in which Menelaus is called 
" Raising the battle cry," fiorjv dya0o?, for that is an epithet 
which Homer is in the habit of giving only to the most valiant; 
for the ancients called war itself /3orj. 

6. But Homer, who is most accurate in everything, did not 
overlook even this trifling point ; that a man ought to show 
some care of his person, and to bathe himself before going to 
an entertainment. And so, in the case of Ulysses, before the 
banquet among the Pheeacians, he tells us — 

1 Iliad, ii, 588. * lb. i. 225. 

C. 7.] BATHS. 293 

A train attends 
Around the baths, the bath the king ascends, 
(Untasted joy since that disastrous hour 
He sail'd defeated from Calypso's bower,) 
He bathes, the damsels with officious toil 
Shed sweets, shed unguents in a shower of oil. 
Then o'er his limbs a gorgeous robe he spreads, 
And to the feast magnificently treads. 1 

And again he says of Telemachus and his companion — 
From room to room their eager view they bend, 
Thence to the bath, a beauteous pile, descend. 2 

For it was unseemly, says Aristotle, for a man to come to a 
banquet all over sweat and dust. For a well-bred man ought 
not to be dirty nor squalid, nor to be all over mud, as Hera- 
clitus says. And a man when he first enters another person's 
house for a feast, ought not to hasten at once to the banqueting- 
room, as if he had no care but to fill his stomach, but he ought 
first to indulge his fancy in looking about him, and to 
examine the house. And the poet has not omitted to take 
notice of this also. 

Part in a portico, profusely graced 

With, rich magnificence, the chariot placed ; 

Then to the dome the friendly pair invite, 

Who eye the dazzling roof with vast delight, 

Resplendent as the blaze of summer noon, 

Or the pale radiance of the midnight moon. 3 

And Aristophanes, in his Wasps, represents the rustic and 
litigious old man as invited to a more civilized form of life 
by his son — 

Cease; sit down here and learn at length to be 

A boon companion, and a cheerful guest. 4 

And then showing him how he ought to sit down he says — 
Then praise some of these beauteous works in brass, 
Look at the roof, admire the carved hall. 

7. And again Homer instructs us as to what we ought to 
do before a banquet, namely how we ought to allot the first- 
fruits of the dishes to the gods. At all events Ulysses and 
his friends, although in the cave of the Cyclops — 

Then first a fire we kindle, and prepare 

For his return with sacrifice and prayer. 5 

And Achilles, although the ambassadors were impatient, as 
they had arrived in the middle of the night, still — 

1 Odyss. viii. 449. = lb. iv. 48. 3 Il>. iv. 43. 

4 Ar. Vesp. 1208. 5 Odyss. ix. 201. 


Himself opposed t' Ulysses full in sight 
Each portion parts, and orders every rite ; 
The first fat offerings to th' Immortals due, 
Amid the greedy flames Patroclus threw. 

And also he introduces the guests as making libations — 

He said, and all approved ; the heralds bring 
The cleansing water from the living spring, 
The youths with wine the sacred goblets crown'd, 
And large libations drench'd the sand around. 
The rite perform'd, the chiefs their thirst allay, 
Then from the royal tent they take their way. 1 

And this ceremony Plato also observes in his Banquet. For he 
says — " Then after they had supped and made libations, they 
sang preans to the god with all customary honours." And 
Xenophon speaks iu very nearly the same terms. But in 
Epicurus there is no mention of any libation to the gods, or 
of any offering of first-fruits. But as Simonides says of an 
immodest woman — 

And oftentimes she eats unhallow'd victims. 
8. He says too that the Athenians were taught the proper 
proportions in which wine should be mixed by Amphictyon 
when he was king ; and that on this account he erected a 
temple to the Upright Bacchus. For he is then really upright 
and not likely to fall, when he is drunk in proper proportions 
and well mixed ; as Homer has it — 

Hear me, my friends ! who this good banquet grace, — 

'Tis sweet to play the fool in time and place. 

And wine can of their wits the wise beguile, 

Make the sage froMc and the serious smile ; 

The grave in merry measures frisk about, 

And many a long-repented word bring out. 2 

For Homer does not call wine ^Aeos in the sense of rj\idio<s, 
that is to say, foolish and the cause of folly. Nor does he 
bid a man be of a sullen countenance, neither singing nor 
laughing, nor ever turning himself to cheerful dancing in 
time to music. He is not so morose or ill-bred. But he 
knew the exact proportions in which all these things should 
be done, and the proper qualities and quantities of wine to be 
mixed. On which account he did not say that wine makes 
the sage sing, but sing very much, that is to say, out of tune 
and excessively, so as to trouble people. Nor, by Jove, did 
he say simply to smile, and to frisk about ; but using the 
1 Iliad, ix. 219. 2 Odyss. xiv. 464. 

C. 9.] BANQUETS. 205 

word merry, and applying that to both, he reproves the un- 
manly propensity to such trifling — 


The grave in merry measure frisk about, 
And many a long-repented word bring out. 

But in Plato none of these things are done in a moderate 
manner. But men drink in such quantities that they cannot 
even stand on their feet. For just look at the reveller Alci- 
biadcs, how unbecomingly he behaves. And all the rest drink 
a large goblet holding eight cotylao, using as an excuse that 
Alcibiades has led them on ; not like the men in Homer — 

But when they drank, and satisfied their soul. 
Now of these things some ought to be repudiated once for 
all ; but some ought to be enjoyed in moderation ; people 
looking at them as at a slight addition or appendage to a 
repast ; as Homer has said — 

Let these, my friend, 
With song and dance the pompous revel end. 

9. And altogether the poet has attributed devotion to such 
things to the Suitors, and to the Phseacians, but not to 
Nestor or to Menelaus. And Aristarchus did not perceive 
that in his marriage feast, after the entertainment had lasted 
some time, and the principal days of the revel were over, in 
which the bride had been taken to the house of the bride- 
groom, and the marriage of Megapenthcs was completed, Me- 
nelaus and Helen were left to themselves and feasted together. 
He, I say, not perceiving this, but being deceived by the first 
line — 

Where sate A 1 rides 'midst bis bridal friends, 

he then added these lines, which do not properly belong to 

this place — 

While this gay friendly troop the king surround, 

With festival and mirth the roofs resound ; 

A bard amid the joyous circle sings 

High airs, attemper'd to the vocal strings, 

'Whilst, warbling to the varied strain, advance 

Two sprightly youths to form the bounding dance: — 

transferring them with the error in the reading and all 
from the eighteenth book of the Iliad, where he relates the 
making of the arms of Achilles; for it ought to be read not 
etdpx<>vT*s, the dancers beginning, but e$dpxovros (tov o)Sov, 
that is to say,) when the poet began to sing. For the word 


e&tpxci) has peculiar reference to preluding on the lyre. On 
which account Hesiod also says in his Shield of Hercules — 

The holy goddesses, the Muses nine, 

Preluded {^ripxov) with a sacred melody. 1 
And Archilochus says — 

Himself preluding (i^dpxooy) with a sacred pgean 

Set to the Lesbian flute. 
And Stesichorus calls the Muse the Beginner of Song (ap^eo-i- 
(xoA.7ros). And Pindar calls Preludes the Leaders of the Dance. 
And Diodorus the Aristophanian enclosed the whole account 
of the wedding in brackets; thinking that the first days 
only were alluded to, and disregarding the termination and 
what came after the banquet. And then he says we ought 
to write the words Soto) Se Ku/Jia-T^-n/pe kot clvtovs with an 
aspirate, ko.8' avrovs, but that would be a solecism. For k<xt 
avrovs is equivalent to imto. o-<j>us avrovs, but to say iavrovs 
would be a solecism. 

10. But, as I said before, the introduction of this kind of 
music into this modest kind of entertainment is transferred 
to this place from the Cretic dance, of which he says in the 
eighteenth book of the Iliad, about the Making of the Arms — 

A figured dance succeeds ; such once was seen 

In lofty Cnossus, for the Cretan queen 

Form'd by Dredalean art ; a comely band 

Of youths and maidens bounding hand-in-hand ; 

The maids in soft cymars of linen dress'd, 

The youths all graceful in the glossy vest. 

Of those the locks with fiow'ry wreaths enroll'd, 

Of these the sides adorn'd with swords of gold, 

That glittering gay from silver belts depend. 2 

And then he adds to this — 

Now all at once they rise, at once descend, 

With well-taught feet; now shape in oblique ways 

Confus'dly regular the moving maze. 

Now forth at once too swift for sight they spring, 

And undistinguish'd blend the flying riug. 

Now among the Cretans, dancing and posture-making was 
a national amusement. On which account J^ueas says to the 
Cretan Merioncs — 

Swift as thou art (the raging hero cries), 

And skill'd in dancing to dispute the prize, 

My spear, the destined passage had it found, 

Had fix'd thy active vigour to the ground. 

1 lies. Scut. Here. 205. 2 Iliad, xviii. 590. » lb. xvi. 617. 


And from this they call the hyporcheniata Cretan 

They call it all a Cretan air ... . 

The instrument is called Molossiau .... 
" But they who were called Laconistse," says Timaeus, " used 
to sing standing to dance in square figures." And altogether 
there were many various kinds of music among the Greeks : 
as the Athenians preferred the Dionysiac and the Cyclian 
dances ; and the Syracusians the Iamhistic figure ; and dif- 
ferent nations practised different styles. 

But Aristarchus not only interpolated lines which had no 
business there into the banquet of Mcnelaus, and by so doing 
made Homer make representations inconsistent with the sys- 
tem of the Lacedaemonians, and with the moderation of their 
king, but he also took away the singer from the Cretan 
chorus, mutilating his song in the following manner : — 

The gazing multitudes admire around 

Two active tumblers in the centre bound ; 

Now high, now low their pliant limbs they bend, . 

And general songs the sprightly revel end. 1 
So that blunder of his in using the word c£dpxovres is 
almost irremediable, as the relation cannot after that possibly 
be brought back so as to refer to the singer. 

11. And it is not probable that there were any musical 
entertainments at Menelaus's banquet, as is manifest from the 
fact of the whole time of the banquet being occupied by the 
guests in conversation with one another ; and that there is 
no name mentioned as that of the minstrel ; nor is any lay 
mentioned which he sang ; nor is it said that Telemachus 
and his party listened to him ; but they rather contemplated 
the house in silence, as it were, and perfect quiet. And how 
can it be looked upon as anything but incredible, that the 
sons of those wisest of men, Ulysses and Nestor, should be 
introduced as such ignorant people as, like clowns, not to pay 
the least attention to carefully prepared music? At all events 
Ulysses himself attends to the Phaeacian minstrels : — 

Ulysses gazed, astonish'd to survey 

The glancing splendours as their sandals play : — - 
although he had plenty of things to distract his attention, 
and although he could say — 

Now care surrounds mo, and my force decays, 

Jnurcd a melancholy part to bear. 

In scenes of death by tempest and by war. 3 

i » Iliad, xvi. 603. 2 Odyss. viii. 264. * lb. 154. 


How then can we think Telemachus any better than a mere 
clown, when a minstrel and a dancer are present, if he had 
bent silently towards Pisistratus and gazed on nothing but 
the plate and furniture 1 But Homer, like a good painter, 
makes Telemachus in every respect like his father ; and so 
he has made each of them easily recognised, the one by 
Alcinous, and the other by Menelaus, by means of their 

12. But in the banquet of Epicurus there is an assembly 
of flatterers praising one another. And Plato's banquet is 
full of mockers, cavilling at one another ; for I say nothing of 
the digression about Alcibiades. But in Homer it is only 
banquets conducted with moderation which are applauded; 
and on one occasion, a man addressing Menelaus says — 

I dare not in your presence speak, 
Whose voice we reverence as a voice divine. 1 

But he was reproving something which was either not said or 
not done with perfect correctness — 

And now if aught there is that can be done, 
Take my advice ; I grief untimely shun 
That interrupts the feast. 2 

And again, he says — 

son of wise Ulysses, what a word 
Has 'scaped thy ivory fence ! . . . . 

For it is not right for a man to be a flatterer, nor a mocker. 

Again, Epicurus, in his banquet, inquires about indigestion, 
so as to draw an omen from the answer : and immediately 
after that he inquires about fevers ; for why need I speak of 
the general want of rhythm and elegance which pervades the 
whole essay 1 But Plato, (I say nothing about his having 
been harassed by a cough, and about his taking care of him- 
self with constant gargling of water, and also by inserting a 
straw, in order that he might excite his nose so as to sneeze ; 
for his object was to turn things into ridicule and to dis- 
parage them,) Plato, I say, turns into ridicule the equalized 
sentences and the antitheses of Agathon, and introduces 
Alcibiades, saying that he is in a state of excitement. But 
still those men who write in this manner, propose to expel 
Homer from their cities. But, says Demochares, " A spear 
is not made of a stalk of savory," nor is a good man made so 
by such discourses as these ; and not only does he disparage 
1 Odyss. iv. 160. 2 lb. 193. 

C. 13.] BANQUETS. 299 

Alcibiades, but he also runs clowu Charmides, and Euthyde- 
mus, and many others of the young men. And this is the 
conduct of a man ridiculing the whole city of the Athenians, 
the Museum of Greece, which Pindar styled The Bulwark of 
Greece ; and Thucydides, in his Epigram addressed to Euri- 
pides, The Greece of Greece ; and the priest at Delphi termed 
it, The Hearth and Prytaneum of the Greeks. And that he 
spoke falsely of the young men one may perceive from Plato 
himself, for he says that Alcibiades, (in the dialogue to which 
he has prefixed his name,) when he arrived at man's estate, 
then first began to converse with Socrates, when every one 
else who was devoted to the pleasures of the body fell off from 
him. But he says this at the very beginning of the dialogue. 
And how he contradicts himself in the Charmides any one who 
pleases may see in the dialogue itself. For he represents 
Socrates as subject to a most unseemly giddiness, and as abso- 
lutely intoxicated with a passion for xllcibiades, and as be- 
coming beside himself, and yielding like a kid to the impe- 
tuosity of a lion; and at the same time he says that he 
disregarded his beauty. 

13. But also the banquet of Xenophon, although it is 
much extolled, gives one as many handles to blame it as the 
other. For Callias assembles a banqueting party because 
his favourite Autolycus has been crowned at the Panathencea 
fur a victory gained in the Pancratium. And as soon as they 
are assembled the guests devote their attention to the boy ; 
and this too while his father is sitting by. " For as when 
light appeai-s in the night season it attracts the eyes of every 
one, so does the beauty of Autolycus attract the eyes of 
everybody to itself. And then there was no one present 
who did not feel something in his heart because of him ; but 
some were more silent than others, and some betrayed their 
feelings by their gestures." But Homer has never ventured 
to say anything of that sort, not even when he represents 
Helen as present; concerning whose beauty though one of 
those who sat opposite to her did speak, all he said, being 
overcome by the truth, was this — 

Sure 'tis no wonder such celestial charms 
For nine long years have set the world in arms. 
What winning- graces, what majestic mien — 
She moves a goddess, and she looks a queen !' 

l Iliad, iii. 196. 


And then he adds — 

Yet hence, heaven, convey that fatal face ; 

And from destruction save the Trojan race. 
But the young men who had come to Menelaus's court, 
the son of Nestor and Telemachus, ■when over their wine, and 
celebrating a wedding feast, and though Helen was sitting by, 
kept quite quiet in a decorous manner, being struck dumb 
by her renowned beauty. But why did Socrates, when to 
gratify some one or other he had tolerated some female flute- 
players, and some boy dancing and playing on the harp, and 
also some women tumbling and posture-making in an un- 
seemly manner, refuse perfumes? For no one would have 
been able to restrain his laughter at him, recollecting these 
lines — 

You speak of those pale-faced and shoeless men, 

Such as that wretched Socrates and Chserephon. 
And what followed after was very inconsistent with his aus- 
terity. For Critobulus, a very well-bred young man, mocks 
Socrates, who was aged and his tutor, saying he was much 
uglier than the Sileni ; but he discusses beauty with him, 
and selecting as judges the boy and the dancing woman, 
makes the prize to be the kisses of the judges. Now what 
young man meeting with this writing would not be corrupted 
rather than excited to virtue 1 

14. But in Homer, in the banquet of Menelaus, they pro- 
pose to one another questions as in ordinary conversation, 
and chatting with one another like fellow-citizens, they enter- 
tain one another and us too. Accordingly, Menelaus, when 
Telemachus and his friends come from the bath-room, and 
when the tables and the dishes arc laid, invites them to par- 
take of them, saying — 

Accept this welcome to the Spartan court ; 

The waste of nature let the feast repair, 

Then your high lineage and your names declare :' — 
and then he helps them to what he has before him, treating 
them in the most friendly maimer — 

Ceasing, benevolent he straight assigns 

The royal portion of the choicest chines 

To each accepted friend ; with grateful haste 

They share the honours of the rich repast. 

And they, eating in silence, as it becomes young men to do, 

converse with one another, leaning forwards gently, not about 

1 Odyss. iv. GO. 


the food, as Homer tells vis, nor 'about the maid-servants of 
him who had invited them, and by whom they had been 
washed, but about the riches of their entertainer — 

Soft whispering thus to Nestor's son, 

His head reclined, young Ithacus begun : 

View'st thou unmoved, ever honour'd most,' 

These prodigies of art and wondrous cost? 

Such, and not nobler, in the realms above 

Are the rich treasures in the dome of Jove. 1 
For that, according to Seleucus, is the best reading ; and 
Aristarchus is wrong when he writes — 

Such is the palace of Olympian Jove. 
For they are not admiring the beauty of building alone ; for 
how could there be amber, aud silver, and ivory in the walls ? 
But they spoke partly about the house, as when they used 
the expression "the sounding house," for that is the cha- 
racter of large and lofty rooms ; and they spoke also of the 
furniture — 

Above, beneath, around the palace shines 

The sumless treasure of exhausted mines ; 

The spoils of elephants the roofs inlay, 

And studded amber darts a golden ray. 
So that it is a natural addition to say — 

Such are the treasures in the dome of Jove, 

Wondrous they are, and awe my heart doth move. 
But the statement, 

Such is the palace of Olympian Jove, 
has no connexion with — 

Wondrous they are .... 
and it would be a pure solecism and a very unusual reading. 
15. Besides, the word avXrj is not adapted to a house; for 
a place which the wind blows through is what is called avky. 
And we say that] a place which receives the wind on both 
sides SiauAwn'£a. And so again, chjAos is an instrument 
through which the wind passes, (namely, a flute,) and every 
figure which is stretched out straight we call auAo?, as a sta- 
dium, or a flow of blood — 

Straightway a thick stream (avA&s) through the nostrils rush'd. 

The reading is — 

Z-qvSi ttov Toiaiira 56/j.ois iv KTrn.ia.Ta. icelrat, 
for which Aristarchus wished to read — 

Z7jj'o$ irov ToirjSe y 'QAvutt'iov ZvdoGtv a\i\i). 
I have given here, as elsewhere, Pope's version in the translation. 


And we call a helmet also, when it rises np in a ridge out of 
the centre, avXwTns. And at Athens there are some sacred 
places called avXQives, which are mentioned hy Philochorns in 
his ninth book. And they use the word in the masculine 
gender, 01 avXwves, as Thucydides does in his fourth book ; and 
as, in fact, all prose writers do. But the poets use it in the 
feminine gender. Carcines says in his Achilles — 

Baditav els aiXoova — Into a deep ravine which surrounded the army. 
And Sophocles, in his Scythians, writes — 

The crags and caverns, and the deep ravines 
Along the shore (eVa/crios avAwvas). 

And therefore we ought to understand that it is used as 
a feminine noun by Eratosthenes in his Mercury — 

A deep ravine runs through (I3a6bs aiiKoiv), 
instead of (3a0eia, just as we find 6r}\v<; eipu-q, where #f?Aus is 
feminine. Everything of that kind then is called ai'A?} or 
avhjiv : but at the present day they call palaces avXai, as 
Menander does — 

To haunt palaces (av\a\) and princes. 
And Diphilus says — 

To haunt palaces (avAal) is, it seems to me, 

The conduct of an exile, slave, or beggar. 
And they got this name from having large spaces in front of 
their buildings exposed to the open air, or else, because the 
guards of the palace were stationed, and took their rest in the 
open air. But Homer always classes the avXrj among the 
places exposed to the air, where the altar of Jupiter Herceus 
stood. And so Peleus is found — 

I and Ulysses touch'd at Peleus' port ; 
There, in the centre of his grassy court, 
A hull to Jove he slew in sacrifice, 
And pour'd libations on the flaming thighs. 

And so Priam lay : — 

In the court-yard amid the dirt he roll'd. 2 

And Ulysses says to Phemius — 

Thou with the heav'n-taught bard in peace resort, 
From blood and carnage, to yon open court. 3 

But that Telemachus was praising not only the house, but 
also the riches which it contained, is made plain by the reply 
of Menelaus — 

1 Iliad, xi. 733. 2 lb. xxiv. 640. 3 Odyss. xxii. 375. 


My wars, the copious theme of ev'ry tongue, 
To you your fathers have recorded long; 
How favouring Heav'n repaid my glorious toils 
With a sack'd palace and barbaric spoils. 1 

1G. But we must return back to the banquet, in which 
Homer very ingeniously devises a subject for conversation, 
by comparing the acquisition of riches w T ith that of a friend. 
For he does not put it forward as a grave proposition for dis- 
cussion, but Menelaus inserts it in his conversation very 
gracefully, after he has heard them praise himself and his 
good fortune ; not denying that he is rich, but from that 
very circumstance deprecating envy, for he says that he has 
acquired those riches so that, 

AVhen my woes are weigh'd, 
Envy will owu the purchase dearly paid. 2 

He does not indeed think it right to compare himself with 
the gods — 

The monarch took the word, and grave replied — 
Presumptuous are the vaunts, and vain the pride 
Of man who dares in pomp with Jove contest, 
Unchanged, immortal, and supremely blest. 
But then, after displaying his affectionate disposition as a 
brother, and saying that he is compelled to live and to be 
rich, he opposes to this the consideration of friendship — 
Oh, had the gods so large a boon denied, 
And life, the just equivalent, supplied 
To those brave warriors who, with glory fired, 
Far from their country in my cause expired. 

Who could there be then of the descendants of those men who 
had died in his cause, wdio would not think his grief for the 
death of his father as fair a compensation as could be given 
by grateful recollection'? But still, that he may not appear 
to look upon them all in the same light, though they had all 
equally shown their good-will to him, he adds — 

But oh ! Ulysses, — deeper than the rest, 
That sad idea wounds my anxious breast ; 
My heart bleeds fresh with agonising pain, 
The bowl and tasteful viands tempt in vain. 

And that he may not seem to disregard any one of his family 
he names them all separately — 

Doubtful of his doom, 
His good old sire with sorrow to the tomb 

1 Odyss. iv. 78. 2 lb. 95. 


Declines his trembling steps ; untimely care 
Withers the blooming vigour of his heir; 
And the chaste partner of his bed and throne 
Wastes all her widow'd hours in tender moan. 

And while he is weeping at the recollection of his father, 
Menelaus observes him ; and, in the interim, Helen had 
come in, and she also conjectured who Telemachus was 
from his likeness to Ulysses, (for women, because of their 
habit of observing one another's modesty, are wonderfully 
clever at detecting the likeness of children to their parents,) 
and after Pisistratus had interfered with some observation, 
(for it was not fitting for him to stand by like a mute on the 
stage.) and said something appropriate and elegant about the 
modesty of Telemachus ; again Menelaus made mention of 
his affection for Ulysses, that of all men in the world he was 
the one in whose companionship he wished to grow old. 

17. And then, as is natural, they all weep; and Helen, as 
being the daughter of Jupiter, and as having learnt of the 
philosophers in Egypt many expedients of all kinds, pours 
into some wine a medicinal panacea, as it was in reality ; and 
begins to relate some of the exploits of Ulysses, while working 
at her loom in the meantime ; not doing this so much for 
the purpose of amusement, as because she had been bred 
up in that way at home. And so Venus, coming to her after 
the single combat in the Iliad, takes a form not her own — 

To her beset with Trojan beauties, came 
In borrow'd form the laughter-loving dame. 
She scem'd an ancient maid, well skill'd to cull 
The snow T y fleece, and wind the twisted wool. 1 

And her industry is made manifest not in a merely cursory 
manner, iu the following description — 

In this suspense bright Helen graced the room ; 

Before her breathed a gale of rich perfume ; 

The seat of majesty Adrastc brings, 

With art illustrious for the pomp of kings; 

To spread the pall, beneath the regal chair, 

Of softest woof, is bright Alcippe's care; 

A silver canister, divinely wrought, 

In her soft hands the beauteous Philo brought ; 

To Sparta's queen of old the radiant vase 

Aleandra gave, a pledge of royal grace, 

1 Iliad, iii. 385. 2 Odyss. iv. 123. 


Sharer of Polybus's high command, 

She gave the distaff too to Helen's hand , 

And that rich vase with living sculpture wrought, 

Which, heap'd with wool, the beauteous Philo brought ; 

The silken fleece, impurpled for the loom, 

BivalPd the hyacinth in vernal bloom. 
And she seems to be aware of her own proficiency in the art : 
at all events, when ehe presents Telemachus with a robe, she 
says — 

Accept, dear youth, this monument of love, 

Long since, in better days, by Helen wove. 

Safe in thy mother's care the vesture lay, 

To deck thy bride, and grace thy nuptial day. 1 
And that fondness for employment proves her temperance 
and modesty. For she is never represented as luxurious or 
arrogant, because of her beauty. Accordingly, she is found at 
her loom weaving and embroidering — 

Her in the palace at the loom she found, 

The jroldcn web her own sad story erown'd ; 

The Trojan wars she weaved, (herself the prize,) 

And the dire triumph of her fatal eyes. 2 
18. And Homer teaches us that those who have been 
invited to a feast, ought to ask leave of their entertainers 
before they rise up to depart. And so Tclemachus does to 
Menelaus — 

But now let sleep the painful waste repair, 

Of sad reflection and corroding care. 3 

xVnd Minerva, when pretending to be Mentor, says to Nestor — 
Now immolate the tongues and mix the wine, 
Sacred to Neptune and the pow'rs divine : 
The lamp of day is quench'd beneath the deep, 
And soft approach the balmy hours of sleep ; 
Nor fits it to prolong the heav'hly feast, 
Timeless, indecent ; but retire to rest. 4 
And in the feasts of the gods it does not appear to have been 
considered proper to remain too long at the table. Accord- 
ingly, Minerva says, very scntcntiously, in Homer — 
For now has darkness quench'd the solar light, 
And it becomes not gods to feast by night. 
And now there is a law in existence that there are some 
sacrificial feasts from which men must depart before sunset. 
And among the Egyptians formerly every kind of banquet 
was condiicted with great moderation; as Apollonius has 
said, who wrote a treatise on the feasts of the Egyptians; for 
1 Odyss. xv. 125. 2 Iliad, iii. 125. 3 Odyss. iv. 291. ' lb. iii. 332. 
VOL. I. — ATII. X 


they ate in a sitting posture, using the very simplest and 
most wholesome food ; and only just as much wine as was 
calculated to put. them in cheerful spirits, which is what 
Pindar entreats of Jupiter — 

Oh mighty thund'ring Jove ! 

Great Saturn's son, lord of the realms above, 
That I may he to thee and the nine Muses dear, 
That joy my heart may cheer ; 

This is my prayer, my only prayer to thee. 
But the banquet of Plato is not an assembly of grave men, 
nor a conversazione of philosophers. For Socrates does not 
choose to depart from the banquet, although Eryximachus, 
and Pheedrus, and some others, have already left it; but he 
stays till a late hour with Agathon and Aristophanes, and 
drinks from the silver well; for fairly has some one given 
this name to large cups. And he drinks out of the bowl 
cleverly, like a man who is used to it. And Plato says, that 
after this those two others began to nod, and that first of all 
Aristophanes fell asleep, and when day began to break so did 
Agathon ; and that Socrates, after he had sent them both to 
sleep, rose up from table himself and went away to the 
Lyceum, w T hen he might, says Herodicus, have gone to 
Homer's Lsestrygones — 

AVhere he who scorns the chains of sleep to wear, 

And adds the herdsman's to the shepherd's care, 

His double toils may claim a double pay, 

And join the labours of the night and day. 1 
19. But every banqueting party among the ancients was 
referred to the gods; and accordingly men wore garlands 
appropriate and peculiar to the gods, and used hymns and 
odes. And there were no slaves to attend upon the guests, 
but free youths acted as the cupbearers. So the son of 
Menelaus, although he was the bridegroom, and at his own 
wedding, acted ; and in the poem of the beautiful Sappho, even 
Mercury acts as the cupbearer to the gods. And they were 
free men who prepared everything else for the guests. And 
after they had supped they w T ent away while it was still day- 
light. But at some of the Persian feasts there were also 
councils held, as there were in the tent of Agamemnon with 
respect to the farther conduct of the Trojan war. Now as to 
the entertainment given by Alcinous, to which the discourse 
of Ulysses refers where he says — 

Odyss. x. 84. 


How goodly seems it ever to employ 

Man's social days in union and in joy ; 

The plenteous board high heap'd with cates divine, 

And o'er the foaming bowl the laughing wine ; 

The heav'n-taught poet and enchanting strain, 

These are the products of a peaceful reign. 
He refers also especially to his reception 'of strangers, since 
the Phseacians themselves were devoted to luxury : and yet 
if any one compares that feast made Ijv Alcinous with the 
banquets of the philosophers, he will find that the better 
regulated of the two; although that also embraced much 
cheerfulness and spirit, only not in any unbecoming manner. 
For after the exhibition of gymnastics the bard sings — 

The loves of Mars, 
a certain lay mingled with some ridiculous incidents, and one 
which suggested to Ulysses some hints for the slaughter of 
the suitors; since Vulcan, even though he was lame, got the 
better of the most valiant Mars. 

20. And the feasters of that time sat at the table ; at all 
events, Homer very often says — 

Sitting in order on the chairs and couches. 
For the word Opovos, which he uses in this line, when taken 
by itself, is a seat such as is used by free men, with a foot- 
stool, the name of which being Oprjws, from thence they 
came to call the seat itself Opovos, from the verb Oprjo-aaOai, 
which they used for, to sit ; as Philetus says — 

To sit (Op-qaaadai) on the ground under a plane-tree. 
But the couch (KAicr/tos) was more adapted for reclining on ; 
and the Sicppos is something simpler than these things. 
Accordingly, in the book where Ulysses appears as a beggar 
the servants place for him, as Homer tells us, 

A humble chair (dieppos), and spread a scanty board. 
But their goblets, as their name (K/mT^es) indicates, were 
supplied full of wine mixed with water (KCKpa^tVot) ; and the 
youths ministered to them from the larger goblets, always, in 
the case of the most honourable of the guests, keeping their 
small cups full; but to the rest they distributed the wine 
in equal portions. Accordingly Agamemnon says to Ido- 
meneus — 

To thee the foremost honours are decreed, 

First in the tight, and every gracefi.ll deed ; 

1 Odyss. ix. 5. 2 Iliad, iv. 20± 


For this in banquets, when the generous bowls 
Restore our blood, and raise our warrior souls, 
Though all the rest with stated rules are bound, 
Unmix'd, unmeasured are thy goblets crown'd. 
And they used to pledge one another, not as we do, (for our 
custom may be expressed by the verb 7rpoeK7riVoj rather than 
by irpoirivw,) but they drank the entire bumper off- 
He fill'd his cup, and pledged great Pelens' son. 
And how often they took meat, we have already explained 
— namely, that they had three meals, because it is the same 
meal that was at one time called helirvov, and at another aptarov. 
For those men who say that they used to take four meals a 
day, are ridiculously ignorant, since the poet himself says — 

But do thou come SeieAn'jcras. 

And these men do not perceive that this word means, " after 
having remained here till evening." But, nevertheless, no 
one can show in the poet one instance of any one taking food 
even three times in the clay. But many men are led into 
mistakes, placing these verses in the poet all together — 

They wash ; the tables in fair order spread, 

They heap the glittering canisters with bread, 

Viands of various kinds allure the taste, 

Of choicest sort and savour ; rich repast. 1 
For if the housekeeper placed the meats on the table, it is 
plain that there was no need for the carver to bring in more, 
so that some of the above description is superfluous. But 
when the guests had departed the tables were removed, as is 
done at the feasts of the Suitors and of the Phseacians, in 
whose case he says — 

The servants bore away the armour of the feast. 
And it is plain that he means the dishes, for the word he uses 
is eWea ; and it is that part of the armour which covers a 
man, such as his breastplate, his greaves, and things like them 
which men call evrea, as being in front (avTia) of the parts of 
the body. And of the rooms in the palaces of the heroes, those 
which were larger Homer calls /xiyapa, and Soj/xara, and even 
K/Wia? (tents). But the moderns call them dvSpwvc; (rooms 
to receive men) and ^eiwes (strangers' apartments). 

21. What then, my friends, shall we call the entertainment 
which Antiochus, who was surnamed Epiphanes, (but who 
was more rightly called Epimanes 2 from his actions,) gave 1 
! Odyss. i. 131; vii. 175. 2 'Exi<]:uin)s, illustrious. 'Em^ayfe, mad. 


JNTow he was king of the Syrians, being one of the Seleucidse. 
And Polybius says of him, " He, escaping out of the palace 
without the knowledge of the attendants, was often found with 
one or two companions wandering about the city wherever he 
might chance to take it into his head to go. And he was, 
above all other places, frequently found at the shops of the 
engravers of silver and of the goldsmiths, conversing on the 
subject of their inventions with, and inquiring into the 
principles of their art from, the engravers and other artists. 
And besides this, he often used to go among the common 
people, conversing with whomsoever he might chance to 
meet; and he would drink with the lowest and poorest 
strangers. And whenever he heard of any young men having 
a banquet, wdthout having given any notice of his intention, 
he would come to join in their feast with a flute and music, 
behaving in a most lascivious manner ; so that many used to 
rise up and dej)art, being alarmed at his strange behaviour. 
Often, also, he would lay aside his royal robes, and put on a 
common cloak, and so go round the market, like a man who 
was a candidate for some office : and taking some people by 
the hand, and embracing others, he w T ould solicit them to vote 
for him, sometimes begging to be made Eedile, and sometimes 
tribune ; and when he was elected, sitting in his ivory curule 
chair, according to the fashion which prevails among the 
Romans, he would hear all the causes which were pleaded in 
the forum, and decide them with great attention and earnest- 
ness, by which conduct he greatly perplexed sensible men. 
For some thought him a man of very simple tastes, and 
others considered him mad. And his conduct with respect to 
presents was very much the same. For he would give some 
people dice of antelope's bones, and some he would present 
with dates, and to ethers he would give gold. And even if 
he met people in the street whom he had never seen, he 
would give them presents unexpectedly. And in his sacri- 
fices, which were offered up in the different cities, and in the 
honours offered to the gods, he surpassed all the kings who 
had ever existed. And any one may conjecture this from 
the temple raised to Olympian Jupiter at Athens, and from 
the statues around the altar at Delos. And he used to bathe 
in the public baths, often when they were completely full of 
the citizens, and then he would have earthen pans of the 


most expensive perfumes brought to him. And on one of 
these occasions, when some one said to him, " Happy are you 
kings, who use all these things and smell so sweet," he made 
the man no answer at the time; but coming the next day to 
the place where he was bathing, he caused him to have a pan 
of the largest size of that most precious ointment called 
otclktt] poured over his head, so that when that had been 
done, every one near got up and hastened to get a little of 
the ointment, and as they fell clown in their haste, by reason 
of the slipperiness of the floor, every one laughed, as did the 
king himself. 

22. "And this same king," continues Polybius, ''having 
heard of the games which had been celebrated in Macedonia 
by iEmilius Paullus the Roman general, wishing to surpass 
Paullus in his magnificence and liberality, sent ambassadors 
and theori to the different cities to proclaim that games 
were going to be exhibited by him at Daphne, so that the 
Greeks all hastened with great eagerness to come to him 
to see them. And the beginning of the exhibition was a 
splendid procession, arranged in this way : — Some men led the 
way armed in the Roman fashion, in breastplates of chain 
armour, all men in the flower of their youth, to the number 
of five thousand; immediately after them, five thousand 
Mysians followed; and then three thousand Cilicians, armed 
in the fashion of light-armed skirmishers, having golden 
crowns; and after them three thousand Thracians and five 
thousand Galatians ; these were followed by twenty thousand 
Macedonians, and by five thousand men armed with brazen 
shields, and as many more with silver shields; they were 
followed by two hundred and forty pair of gladiators to fight 
in single combat; behind these came a thousand Nissean 
cavalry, and three thousand men of the city guard, the 
greatest part ef whom had golden trappings and golden 
crowns, but some had silver trappings; to these succeeded 
the cavalry who are called the King's Companions; these 
amounted to one thousand men, all equipped with golden 
trappings; next to these was the battalion of the King's 
Friends, of the same number and the same equipment ; after 
these a thousand picked men; and they were followed by 
what was called the Agema, which was considered to be the 
most excellent squadron of all the cavalry, to the number of 


a thousand men; last of all came the Fenced Cavalry, having 
its name from the fact that both men and horses were com- 
pletely enveloped in armour; they were in number fifteen 
hundred men. And all the above-mentioned soldiers had 
purple cloaks, and many had them also embroidered with 
gold or painted with figures of living animals. Besides all 
this, there were a hundred chariots with six horses, and forty 
with four horses; then a chariot drawn by four elephants, 
and another by two ; and last of all, six-and-thirty elephants, 
all handsomely appointed, followed one by one. 

23. " The rest of the procession was such as it is difficult 
adequately to describe, and it must be enumerated in a sum- 
mary maimer. For youths walked in the procession to the 
number of eight hundred, all having golden crowns ; and fat 
oxen to the number of one thousand ; and deputations to sec 
to the performance of separate sacrifices, very little short of 
three hundred ; and there were eight hundred elephants' 
teeth carried by, and such a multitude of statues as it is 
beyond any one's power to enumerate. For images were 
carried in the procession of all who are ever said or thought 
by men to be gods, or deities, or demigods, or heroes ; some 
gilt all over, and some arrayed in golden-broidered robes. 
And to all of them suitable inscriptions according to the 
accounts commonly received of them were attached, carved 
in the most expensive materials. And they were followed by 
an image of Night and another of Day ; and of the Earth, anil 
of Heaven, and of Morning, and of Noon. And the vast quan- 
tity of gold plate and silver plate was such as perhaps a man 
may form a guess at from the following account. For a 
thousand slaves belonging to Dionysius the secretary and 
amanuensis of the king joined in the procession, each carrying 
articles of silver plate, of which there was not one weighing 
less than a thousand drachmae. And there were six hundred 
slaves belonging to the king himself, carrying articles of gold 
plate. And besides them there were women to the number 
of two hundred sprinkling every one with perfumes out of 
golden waterpots. And they were succeeded by eighty women 
magnificently apparelled, borne on palanquins with golden 
feet, and five hundred borne on palanquins with silver 
feet. And this was the most important portion of the 


24. "But after the games were over and the single combats 
and the hunting, during the whole thirty days which he exhi- 
bited these shows, on the first five days every one who came 
into the gymnasium was anointed with a saffron perfume shed 
upon him out of golden dishes. And there were fifteen of 
these golden dishes, full of equal quantities of cinnamon and 
spikenard. And in a similar manner in the five next days 
there was brought in essence of fenugreek, and of amaracus, 
and of lilies, all differing in their scent ; and some days there 
were laid a thousand triclinia for the banquet ; and some 
days fifteen hundred, all laid in the most expensive possible 
manner. And the arrangement of the whole business was 
superintended by the king himself. For having a very fine 
horse he went up and down the whole procession, com- 
manding some to advance, and others to halt. And stopping 
at the entrances of the rooms where the drinking was going 
on he brought some in, and to others he assigned places on 
the couches. And he himself conducted in the attendants 
who brought in the second course. And he went round the 
whole banquet, sometimes sitting down in one place, and pre- 
sently lying down in another place. And sometimes even 
while he was eating he would lay down what he was eating or 
his cup, and jump up, and go away to another part of the 
room. And he would go all round the company, at times, 
pledging some of the guests in a standing posture ; and at 
times entertaining himself with the jesters or with the music. 
And when the entertainment had lasted a long time and 
many of the guests had gone away, then the king would be 
brought in by buffoons, all covered up, and laid on the ground 
as if he had been one of their band. And when the music 
excited him, he would jump up and dance, and act with the 
mummers, so that every one felt ashamed for him and fled 
away. And all this was done partly with the treasure which 
he brought out of Egypt, having plundered Ptolemy Philo- 
metor the king there, in defiance of his treaty with him when 
he was but a little boy ; and some of the money too was con- 
tributed by his friends. And he had also sacrilegiously plun- 
dered most of the temples in his dominions." 

25. And while all the guests marvelled at the conduct of 
the king, seeing that he was not illustrious but absolutely 
mad, Masurius brought forward Callixenus the lihodian, who 


in the fourth book of his History of Alexandria has given an 
account of a spectacle and procession which was exhibited by 
that most admirable of all monarchy Ptolemy Philadelphia. 
And he says — " But before I begin, I will give a description 
of the tent which was prepared within the circuit of the 
citadel, apart from the place provided for the reception of the 
soldiers, and artisans, and foreigners. For it was wonderfully 
beautiful, and worth hearing about. Its size was such as to 
be able to hold a hundred and thirty couches placed in a 
circle, and it was furnished in the following manner : — There 
were wooden pillars at intervals, five on each side of the tent 
longwise, fifty cubits high, and something less than one cubit 
broad. And on these pillars at the top was a capital, of 
square figure, carefully fitted, supporting the whole weight of 
the roof of the banqueting room. And over this was spread 
in the middle a scarlet veil with a white fringe, like a canopy ; 
and on each side it had beams covered over with turreted 
veils, with white centres, on which canopies embroidered all 
over the centre were placed. And of the pillars four were 
made to resemble palm-trees, and they had in the centre a 
representation of thyrsi. And on the outside of these a por- 
tico ran, adorned with a peristyle on three sides, with a 
vaulted roof. And in this place it was intended that the 
company of the feasters should sit down. And the interior 
of it was surrounded with scarlet curtains. But in the middle 
of the space there were strange hides of beasts, strange both 
as to their variegated colour and their size, suspended. And 
the part which surrounded this portico in the open air was 
shaded by myrtle-trees and daphnes, and other suitable shrubs. 
And the whole floor was strewed with flowers of every descrip- 
tion. For Egypt, on account of the temperate character of 
the atmosphere which surrounds it, and on account of the 
fondness of the inhabitants for gardening, produces in great 
abundance, and all the year round, those things which in 
other countries are rarely found, and only at particular 
seasons. And roses, and white lilies, and numberless other 
flowers arc never wanting in that country. On which account, 
though this entertainment took place in the middle of winter, 
still there was a show of flowers which was quite incredible to 
the foreigners. For flowers of which one could not easily 
have found enough to make one chaplet in any other city 


were supplied in the greatest abundance here, to make chaplets 
for every one of the guests at this entertainment, and were 
strewed thickly over the whole floor of the tent ; so as really 
to give the appearance of a most divine meadow. 

26. " And by the posts round the entire tent there were 
placed animals carved in marble by the first artists, a hundred 
in number. And in the spaces between the posts there were 
pictures hung by the Sicyonian painters ; and alternately 
with these there were carefully selected images of every kind ; 
and garments embroidered with gold, and most exquisite 
cloaks, some of them having portraits of the kings of Egypt 
embroidered on them ; and some, stories taken from the 
mythology. Above them were placed gold and silver shields 
alternately ; and on the spaces above these shields, which 
were eight cubits high, caves were made, sis on each side 
of the tent longwise, and four at each end. There were like- 
wise in them representations of eating parties opposite to one 
another, of tragic, and comic, and satyric animals, having on 
real clothes. And before them were placed golden goblets. 
And in the middle of the caves were placed nymphsea, and on 
them there lay golden Delphian tripods, having pedestals of 
their own. And along the highest part of the roof were 
golden eagles all facing one another, each fifteen cubits large. 
There were also golden couches, with feet made like sphinxes, 
on the two sides of the tent, a hundred on each side. For the 
front of the tent was left open. And under these there were 
strewed purple carpets of the finest wool, with the carpet 
pattern on both sides. And there were handsomely em- 
broidered rugs very beautifully elaborated on them. Besides 
this, thin Persian cloths covered all the centre space where 
the guests walked, having most accurate representations of 
animals embroidered on them. And by them were placed 
tripods for the guests, made of gold, two hundred in number, 
so that there were two for every couch, and they rested on 
silver pedestals. And behind, out of sight, there were a hundred 
flat dishes of silver, and an equal number of lavers. On 
the opposite side of the sitting-room there was fixed another 
sideboard, opposite to that on which the cups and goblets 
were placed ; and on that were all the rest of the things 
which had been prepared for, or could come into use. And 
they were all made of gold, and studded with precious stones ; 


admirably carved and wrought. And it has appeared to me 
too long a task to undertake to enumerate every article of the 
furniture, and even all the different kinds separately. But 
the entire weight of all the plate and valuables there exhibited 
came to ten thousand talents. 

27. " But now that we have gone over everything that 
was to be seen in the tent, we will proceed to the shows and 
processions exhibited. For it passed through the stadium 
which there is in the city. And first of all^wenfthe pro- 
cession of Lucifer. For it began at the time when that 
star first appears. After that came the procession which 
bore the name of the parents of the kings. And next 
came the processions sacred to all the gods respectively, 
each having an arrangement appropriate to the history of 
each separate deity. Last of all came the procession of 
Hesperus, as the hour of that one starting coincided with 
that time. But if any one wishes to know the separate par- 
ticulars, he may take the description of the quinquennial 
games and consider them. But in the Dionysiac procession 
first of all there went the Sileni who keep off the multitude, 
some clad in purple cloaks, and some in scarlet ones. And 
these were followed by Satyrs, twenty in each division of the 
stadium, bearing gilded lamps made of ivy-wood. And after 
them came images of Victory, having golden wings, and they 
bore in their hands incense-burners six cubits in height, 
adorned with branches made of ivy-wood and gold, clad in 
tunics embroidered with figures of animals, and they them- 
selves also had a great deal of golden ornament about them. 
And after them there followed an altar of six cubits in height, 
a double altar, covered all over with ivy-leaves gilded, having 
a crown of vine-leaves on it all gold, enveloped in bandages 
with white centres. And that was followed by boys in purple 
tunics, bearing frankincense, and myrrh, and saffron, on golden 
dishes. And after them came forty Satyrs, crowned with ivy- 
garlands made of gold. And they were painted as to their 
bodies, some with purple, some with vermilion, and some 
with other colours. And these also wore each a golden crown 
made to imitate vine-leaves and ivy-leaves. And after them 
eame two Sileni in purple cloaks and white fringes to them. 
And one of them had a pctasus and a golden caduceus, and 
the other had a trumpet. And between them went a man of 


gigantic size, four cubits high, in a tragical dress and orna- 
ments, beai'ing the golden horn of Anialthea. And his name 
was Eniautos. 1 And he was followed by a woman of great 
beauty and of more than ordinary size, adorned with quanti- 
ties of gold and a superb dress : bearing in one of her hands 
a garland of peach blossoms, and in her other hand a branch 
of the palm-tree. And she was called Penteteris. 2 And she 
was succeeded by the Four Seasons dressed in character, and 
each of them bearing its appropriate fruits. Next to them 
came two incense-burners made of ivy-wood, covered with 
gold, and six cubits in height, and a large square golden altar 
in the middle of them. And then again Satyrs, having 
garlands of ivy-leaves made of gold, and clad in purple robes. 
And some of them bore golden wine-jars, and others bore 
goblets. After them marched Philiscus the poet, being a 
priest of Bacchus, and with him all the artisans who were 
concerned in the service of Bacchus. And next to them were 
carried the Delphian tripods, as prizes for the trainers of the 
athletes ; the one for the trainer of the boys nine cubits in 
height, and the other, twelve cubits in height, for the trainer 
of the men. 

28. " After them was a four-wheeled wagon fourteen cubits 
long, and eight cubits wide ; and it was drawn by a hun- 
dred and eighty men ; and in it was placed an image of 
Bacchus ten cubits high, pouring libations of wine out of a 
golden goblet, having on a purple tunic reaching down to the 
feet ; and he was clad in a purple garment embroidered with 
gold ; and in front of him there lay a golden Lacedaemonian 
goblet, holding fifteen measures of wine, and a golden tripod, 
in which was a golden incense-burner, aud two golden bowls, 
full of cassia and saffron ; and a shade covered it round 
adorned with ivy-leaves, and vine-leaves, and all sorts of other 
greeu leaves ; and to it w*ere fastened chaplets, and fillets, 
and thyrsi, and drains, and turbans, aud satyric and comic 
and tragic masks. And the wagon was followed by priests 
and priestesses, and newly initiated votaries, and by com- 
panies of every nation, and by people bearing the mystic fan. 
And after this came the Bacchanalian women, called Macetae, 
and Mimallones, and Bassaree, and Lydians, with dishevelled 
hair, and wearing garlands, some of snakes, and others of 
1 'EvLavTos, a year. - necreTipis, a period of five years. 


branches of yew and of vine-leaves and ivy-leaves, and some 
held daggers in their hands, and others held snakes. And 
after them another four-wheeled wagon was drawn, of the 
width of eight cubits, and it was drawn by sixty men ; and in 
it was a statue of Nysa, of eight cubits high, in a sitting pos- 
ture, clothed in a box-coloured tunic embroidered with gold, 
and it was also clad in a Laconian cloak ; and this statue 
rose up by mechanism, without any one applying his hand to 
it ; and it poured libations of milk out of a golden bottle, 
and then it sat down again ; and in its left hand it bore a 
thyrsus wrapped round with turbans, and it was crowned 
with a garland of ivy-leaves, made of gold, and with gorgeous 
bunches of grapes inlaid with precious stones ; and it had a 
parasol over it ; and on the corners of the wagon were fastened 
four golden lamps. 

" And next to that another four-wheeled wagon was drawn 
along, twenty cubits in length and sixteen in width, and it 
was drawn by three hundred men. And on it there was a 
wine-press twenty-four cubits in length and fifteen in breadth, 
full of grapes ; and sixty Satyrs were trampling on the grapes, 
singing a song in praise of the wine-press, to the music of a 
flute. And Silenus presided over them ; and the new wine 
ran out over the whole road. Next to that was drawn along 
a wagon, twenty-five cubits long and fourteen broad ; and 
that was drawn by six hundred men. And on this wagon 
was a sack holding three thousand measures of wine, con- 
sisting of leopards' skins, sewn together. And this too allow- 
ing its liquor to escape, gradually flowed over the whole 
road. And it w-as followed by Satyri and Sileni, to the num- 
ber of a hundred and twenty, all wearing garlands, and carry- 
ing some casks of wine, and some bowls, and some large 
Thericlean goblets, all made of gold. 

29. And next to that was carried a silver vessel containing 
six hundred measures of wine, being drawn on a four-wheeled 
wagon by six hundred men. And under its lips, and under 
its ears, and under its bottom, it had figures of animals en- 
graved ; and in the middle it was crowned with a golden 
crown, inlaid with precious stones. Next to that there 
were carried two silver goblets, twelve cubits in circumference 
and six cubits in height ; and these had figures standing out 
in relief above, and also on their round parts all round. And 


on their feet they had chased figures of animals two cubits 
and a half long and a cubit high, in great numbers : and ten 
large bathing-vessels, and sixteen ewers, of which the larger 
ones contained thirty measures, and the smaller ones five ; 
then six kettles, and twenty-four banoti, 1 on five side-boards; 
and two silver wine-presses, on which were twenty-four urns ; 
and a table of solid silver twelve cubits round ; and thirty 
other tables six cubits each in circumference : and in addition 
to this, four tripods, one of which was sixteen cubits in cir- 
cumference, and was made entirely of silver ; but the other 
three, which were less, were studded with precious stones in 
the middle. And after these there were carried some Delphic 
tripods, made of silver, eighty in number, smaller than those 
previously described, being also of a square, or four-cornered 
shape. And six-and-twenty water-cans, and sixteen Pan- 
athenaic jars, and a hundred and sixty wine-coolers, the largest 
of which contained six measures, and the smallest contained 
two ; and all these were made of silver. 

30. " And next to them, those men followed in the proces- 
sion who carried the articles of gold-plate, — four Lacedae- 
monian goblets, having crowns on them made to represent 
vine-leaves, each containing four measures ; and two of 
Corinthian workmanship placed on sideboards, and these 
had figures of animals in richly chased work of great beauty, 
in a sitting posture, and on their necks and on their bellies 
were other reliefs curiously wrought, and each of them con- 
tained eight measures. And there was a wine-press in which 
there were ten urns, and two jars, each holding five measures, 
and two flagons, each holding two measures, and twenty-two 
wine-coolers, the largest of which contained thirty measures, 
and the smallest one measure. There were also exhibited 
four large golden tripods, and a large sideboard for gold 
plate, that being also made of gold itself and studded with 
precious stones, ten cubits in height, having six rows of 
shelves in it, on which were figures of animals of the size of 
four palms, most exquisitely wrought, in very great numbers; 
and two goblets, and two crystal goblets mounted in gold ; and 
four more sideboards, two of them four cubits high ; and three 
others which were smaller, and ten water-cans, and an altar three 
cubits high, and twenty-five dishes for holding barley loaves/ 
1 This word is probably corrupt; some editors propose to read d/japwroi. 


" After this had been carried by, there walked sixteen hun- 
dred boys clad in white tunics, and crowned some with ivy, 
and some with pine, of whom two hundred and fifty carried 
golden choes, and four hundred carried silver ones ; and of 
the rest three hundred and twenty carried golden wine- 
coolers, and some carried silver ones. And after them other 
boys carried jars, for the piu-pose of drinking sweet wine out 
of, twenty of which were gold, and fifty silver, and three 
hundred were painted with every kind of colour and hue; 
and all the spectators who were present in the stadium took 
a moderate draught of the sweet wine, which was mixed in 
these ewers and firkins." 

31. After these things he enumerates tables four cubits 
high, on which were many things worth looking at, which 
were all carried round for the spectators to see, being beauti- 
fully wrought. " And among them was a representation of the 
bed-chamber of Semele, in which were seen statues clad in 
golden tunics, inlaid with precious stones of the greatest 
value. And it would not be right to pass over this four- 
wheeled wagon, of the length of twenty-two cubits and of 
the breadth of fourteen, drawn by five hundred men. And on 
it was a cave exceedingly deep, overgrown with ivy and yew, 
and out of it flew doves, and pigeons, and turtle-doves, all 
along the road as the wagon proceeded, having their feet tied 
with slight threads, so as to be easily caught by the spec- 
tators. And out of the cave there also rose two fountains, 
one of milk and one of wine, and around it all the nymphs 
had garlands of gold, and Mercury had a golden herald's 
wand, and very superb raiment. And on another four- 
wheeled wagon, on which the return of Bacchus from the 
Indians was represented, there was a figure of Bacchus twelve 
cubits high, riding upon an elephant, clad in a purple robe, 
and having on a crown of vine-leaves and ivy-leaves of gold, 
and bearing in his hands a spear like a thyrsus, made also of 
gold ; and he wore sandals embroidered with golden figures. 
And there sat before him, on the neck of the elephant, a Satyr 
five cubits in height, crowned with a chaplet of golden pine- 
leaves, and holding in his right hand a goat's horn made of 
gold, with which he appeared to be blowing signals. And 
the elephant had golden furniture ; and on his neck he had ;i 
crown of ivy-leaves made of gold ; and he was followed by 


five hundred maidens dressed in purple tunics, with, golden 
girdles ; and those who went first, to the number of a hun- 
dred and twenty, wore crowns of pine-leaves made of gold; 
and they were succeeded by a hundred and twenty Satyrs 
clad in complete armour, some of silver and some of brass. 
And after them there marched five troops of asses, on which 
rode Sileni and Satyri, all wearing crowns. And of the asses 
some had gold and some silver frontlets and furniture. 

32. " And after them came twenty-four chariots drawn by 
four elephants each, and sixty chariots each drawn by a pair 
of goats, and twelve chariots by antelopes, and seven by 
oryxes, and fifteen by buffaloes, eight by pairs of ostriches, and 
seven by gnus, and four by pairs of zebras, and four chariots 
also drawn each by four zebras. And on all these animals rode 
*boys wearing the garments of charioteers, and the broad hats 
called petasi ; and besides them were smaller boys still, 
armed with little peltse, and thyrsi-spears, and they also were 
dressed in golden-broidered garments ; and the boys who 
were acting as charioteers were crowned with pine-leaf chap- 
lets, and the smaller boys with ivy-leaves. And besides this 
there were three pair of camels, on either side three, and they 
were followed by cars drawn by mules ; and these had on them 
barbaric palanquins, on which sat women from India and 
other countries, habited as prisoners. And of the camels, 
some bore three hundred mince weight of frankincense, and 
three hundred of myrrh, and two hundred of saffron, and cas- 
sia, and cinnamon, and iris, and two hundred of other spices. 
And next to them came some ^Ethiopians bearing presents, 
some of whom carried six hundred elephant's tusks, and 
others cai'ried two thousand fagots of ebony, and others 
carried sixty gold and silver goblets, and a quantity of gold- 
dust. And after them came two huntsmen, having hunting- 
spears with golden points ; and twenty-four hundred dogs 
were led in the procession, some Indian dogs, and others 
Hyrcanian and Molossian hounds, and hounds of other 
breeds too. 

" After them came a hundred and fifty men carrying trees 
from which were suspended birds and beasts of every imagin- 
able country and description ; and then were carried a lot of 
cages, in which were parrots, and peacocks, and guinea-fowls, 
and pheasants, and other ./Ethiopian birds in great numbers." 


And when he had mentioned many other things, and enu- 
merated herds of animals, he continued, " A hundred and 
thirty ^Ethiopian sheep, three hundred Arabian sheep, twenty 
Euboean sheep, some white hornless cattle, six-and-twenty 
Indian cows, eight ^Ethiopian oxen, one immense white bear, 
fourteen leopards, sixteen panthers, four lynxes, three arceti, 
one cameleopard, and one rhinoceros from ^Ethiopia. 

33. " And after these beasts came an image of Bacchus 
flying to the altar of lihea when he was pursued by Juno, 
having on a golden crown, Priapus standing hy him crowned 
with a crown of ivy-leaves of gold, and the statue of Juno 
had also a golden crown on its head. And there were images 
of Alexander and of Ptolemy, crowned with chaplets of ivy- 
leaves made of gold. And the statue of Virtue, which stood 
by the side of that of Ptolemy, had a golden crown of olive- 
leaves. And Priapus was with them, having a crown of ivy- 
leaves made of gold. And the city of Corinth had a large 
image there, standing by the side of Ptolemy, and that also 
wore a golden diadem ; and by all these lay a large golden 
beaufet full of articles of gold plate, and a golden goblet con- 
taining five measures. And this wagon was followed by 
women having very sumptuous dresses and ornaments, and 
they bore the names of cities, some of cities of Ionia, and 
other Grecian towns, as many as, occupying the islands, and 
the coast of Asia, were made subject to the Persians ; and 
they all wore golden crowns. And on other chariots there 
was borne a golden thyrsus ninety cubits long, and a silver 
spear sixty cubits long; and on another a golden phallus, a 
hundred and twenty cubits long, chased all over, and wreathed 
with golden garlands, having on the end a golden star, the 
circumference of which was six cubits. 

" Now in all the numerous things which we have enume- 
rated as forming part of this procession, we have selected 
those only in which gold and silver were contained. But there 
were numerous other articles and parts of the exhibition well 
worth seeing, and vast numbers of beasts and of horses, 
and twenty-four enormous lions. There were also other four- 
wheeled wagons in great numbers, bearing not only statues 
of kings, but also full of images of the gods. And after them 
proceeded a band of six hundred men, among whom were 
three hundred harp-players playing on their instruments, 

vol. i. — ATII. Y 


having harps made entirely of gold, and golden crowns on their 
heads ; and after them came two thousand bulls all of the 
same colour, with gilded horns, and having frontlets of gold, 
and crowns in the middle of their foreheads, and necklaces and 
breastplates on their necks and chests, and these were all 
made of gold. 

34. " And after this came a procession in honour of Jupiter 
and of many other gods ; and after all these, came a proces- 
sion in honour of Alexander, who had a golden statue borne 
on a chariot drawn by real elephants, having Victory and 
Minerva on each side of him. And numbers of thrones were 
borne in the procession, made of ivory and gold, on one of 
which lay a crown of gold ; on another a pair of horns made 
of gold; on another was a golden chaplet ; and on another a 
single horn made of solid gold. And on the throne of Ptolemy 
Soter lay a crown which had been made of ten thousand 
pieces of gold money. And there were also carried in the pro- 
cession three hundred and fifty golden incense burners, and 
golden altars, all crowned with golden crowns, on one of 
which were firmly placed four golden lamps ten cubits high. 
There were also carried twelve stoves with golden tops, one of 
which was twelve cubits in circumference, and forty cubits in 
height ; and another was fifteen cubits high. There were 
also carried nine Delphic tripods made of gold, each four 
cubits high, and eight others six cubits high ; another thirty 
cubits high, on which were figures of animals carved in gold, 
four cubits high, and a crown of vine-leaves of gold going all 
round. There were also carried in the procession seven palm- 
trees overlaid with gold, eight cubits high, and a golden 
herald's staff forty-five cubits long, and a thunderbolt over- 
laid with gold forty cubits in size, and a gilt shrine, the cir- 
cumference of which was forty cubits ; and besides all this, 
a pair of horns eight cubits long. And an immense number 
of gilded figures of animals was also exhibited, the greater 
part of which were twelve cubits high ; and beasts of enor- 
mous size, and eagles twenty cubits high. And golden crowns 
were also exhibited to the number of three thousand and two 
hundred. And there was a separate mystic crown made of 
gold studded with valuable stones, eighty cubits high. This 
was the crown which was placed at the door of the temple of 
Berenice ; and there was also an aegis of gold. There were 


also exhibited a vast number of golden chaplets, which were 
borne by young maidens sumptuously attired, one of which 
was two cubits high, and sixteen cubits in circumference. 

" There was also exhibited a golden breastplate twelve 
cubits broad, and another breastplate of silver eighteen cubits 
broad, having on it two golden thunderbolts of the size of ten 
cubits each, and a garland of oak-leaves studded with pre- 
cious stones ; and twenty golden shields, and sixty-four suits 
of complete armour also of gold, and two golden greaves three 
cubits in height, and twelve golden dishes, and a most count- 
less number of flagons, and thirty-six vessels for wine, and 
ten large anointing vessels, and twelve ewers, and fifty large 
dishes for barley loaves, and tables of different sorts, and five 
repositories for gold plate, and a horn thirty cubits long made 
of solid gold. And all these articles of gold plate were exclu- 
sive of those carried in the procession of Bacchus. Then there 
were four hundred wagons of silver plate, and twenty wagons 
of gold plate, and eight hundred of perfumes and spices. 

35. " And after all these tilings came a procession of troops, 
both cavalry and infantry, all armed and appointed in a 
most superb manner : infantry to the number of fifty -seven 
thousand six hundred ; and cavalry to the number of twenty- 
three thousand two hundred. And all these marched in the 
procession, all clad in suitable apparel, and all having their 
appropriate armour ; and there were also great numbers of 
suits of armour besides lying for inspection, too numerous for 
any one to count, (but Callixenus has made a catalogue of 
them;) and they were also crowned in the assembly with 
twenty golden crowns. And first of all Ptolenry and Berenice 
were crowned with twenty-three, standing on golden chariots, 
in the sacred precincts of Dodona. And the expense of 
money which was incurred on this occasion, amounted to 
two thousand two hundred and thirty-nine talents, and fifty 
mime ; and this was all counted by the clerks of the treasury, 
owing to the eagerness 1 of those who had given the crowns, 
before the spectacle came to an end. But Ptolemy Philadel- 

1 There is a great dispute among the commentators as to the exact 
reading of this passage, or its meaning. Palmer says the crowns were 
given by different cities and tribes; and that what the king, and queen, 
and prince wore were not the crowns themselves, but a model of them 
in papyrus, with an inscription on each, stating ils weight, and what 
city had given it. 


1-24 THE DEIPN0S0PHIST3. [b. V. 

phus, their son, was crowned with, twenty golden crowns, two 
of them on golden chariots, and one six cubits high on a pillar, 
and five five cubits high, and six four cubits high." 

3G. Now rny friends and fellow-banqueters, what kingdom 
ever possessed such quantities of gold as this 1 For Egypt 
did not acquire all this by taking money from the Persians 
and from Babylon, or by working mines, or by having a river 
Pactolus, bearing down gold-dust in its waters. For its only 
river is that which can really be called the Golden Stream — 
the Nile, which together with, its boundless supplies of food 
does bring down gold without alloy, which is dug up out of 
the soil without danger, in quantities sufficient for all men, 
diffused over the whole soil like the gifts of Triptolcmus. 
On which account the Byzantine poet, who had the name of 
Parmeno given to him, says — 

god of Egypt, mighty Nile. 
But king Philadelphia surpassed most kings in riches ; and 
he pursued every kind of manufacturing and trading art so 
zealously, that he also surpassed every one in the number of 
his ships. Now the largest ships which he had were these : — 
two of thirty banks of oars, one of twenty, four of thirteen, 
two of twelve, fourteen of eleven, thirty of nine, thirty-seven 
of seven, five of six, seventeen of five. And from quadriremes 
down to light half-decked triremes, for purposes of w r ar, he 
had twice as many as all these put together. And the vessels 
which were sent to the different islands and to the other cities 
under his dominion, and to Libya, amounted to more than 
four thousand. And concerning the numbers of his books, 
and the way in which he furnished his libraries, and the way 
in which he collected treasures for his Museum, why need I 
speak 1 for every one remembers all these things. 

37. But since we have mentioned the subject of the build- 
ing of ships, let us speak (for it is worth hearing of) of the 
ships which were built also by Ptolemy Philopator, which are 
mentioned by the same Callixenus in the first book of his 
Account of Alexandria, where he speaks as follows : — " Philo- 
pator built a ship with forty ranks of rowers, being two hun- 
dred and eighty cubits long and thirty-eight cubits from one 
side to the other ; and in height up to the gunwale it was 
forty-eight cubits ; and from the highest part of the stern to 
the water-line was fifty-three cubits ; and it had four rudders, 


each thirty cubits long ; and oars for the thranitse, the largest 
thirty-eight cubits in length, which, from having lead in 
their handles, and because they were very heavy in the part 
inside the ship, being accurately balanced, were, in spite of 
their bulk, very handy to use. And the ship had two heads 
and two sterns, and seven beaks, one of which was longer 
than all the rest, and the others were of smaller size ; and 
some of them were fixed to the ears of the ship ; and it had 
twelve undergirths to support the keel, and each was six 
hundred cubits in length. And it was well proportioned to 
a most extraordinary degree ; and all the appointments of 
the vessel were admirable, for it had figures of animals on it 
not less than twelve cubits in size, both at the head and at 
the stern, and every part of it was inlaid and ornamented 
with figures in wax ; and the space between the oars down to 
the very keel had a running pattern of ivy-leaves and thyrsi ; 
and there was great store of every kind of equipment to supply 
all parts of the ship that might require any. 1 And when it put 
to sea it held more than four thousand rowers, and four hun- 
dred supernumeraries ; and on the deck were three thousand 
marines, or at least two thousand eight hundred and fifty. And 
besides all these there was another large body of men under 
the decks, and a vast quantity of provisions and supplies. 
And the vessel was launched originally from a sort of frame- 
work, which they say was erected and made out of the wood 
of fifty ships of five ranks of oars; and it was launched by 
the multitude with great acclamations and blowing of trum- 
pets. But after that a Phoenician devised a new method of 
launching it, having dug a trench under it, equal to the ship 
itself in length, which he dug close to the harbour. And in 
the trench he built props of solid stone five cubits deep, and 
across them he laid brains crosswise, running the whole width 
of the trench, at four cubits' distance from one another ; and 
then making a channel from the sea he filled all the space 
which he had excavated with water, out of which he easily 
brought the ship by the aid of whatever men happened to bo 
;it hand ; then closing the entrance winch had been originally 
made, he drained the water off again by means of engines ; 
and when this had been done the vessel rested secuivly en the 
before-mentioned cross-beams. 

1 There is great uncertainty as to the meaning of thi* ]n ■. •■■ : oni-- 
commentators consider that there is some corruption in the text. 


38. " PI i ilopator also built a vessel for the river which he 
called Thalamegus, or the Carrier of his Bed-chamber, in length 
half a stadium, and in width at the broadest part thirty 
cubits ; and the height together with the frame for the 
awning was little short of forty cubits. And its appearance 
was not exactly like ships of war, nor merchant vessels either, 
but it was something different from both, on account of the 
necessity imposed by the depth of the river. For below it 
was flat and broad ; but in its main hull it was high. And 
the parts at the extremity, and especially at the head, ex- 
tended a sufficient length, so as to exhibit a very pretty and 
elegant sweep. This ship also had two heads and two sterns. 
And it rose to a considerable height above the water, as was 
necessary, because the waves in the river often rise very high. 
And in the middle of its hull were constructed banqueting- 
rooms and sleeping-rooms, and everything else which may be 
convenient for living in. And round the ship were double 
corridors running about three sides, each of which was not less 
than five plethra in circumference. And the arrangement of 
the lower one was like a peristyle, and that in the upper part 
was covered in, and surrounded with walls and windows on all 
sides. And when you first came into the vessel by the stern 
your eye was met by a colonnade, open in front, and sur- 
rounded by pillars. And opposite to it in the bow of the vessel 
there was a sort of propylaeum constructed, made of ivory and 
most expensive woods. And after you had passed through that, 
then you came to something like a proscenium, covered in 
overhead. And again in the same way in the middle of the 
vessel was another colonnade, open behind, and an entrance of 
four folding-doors led to it. And both on the right hand and 
on the left there were windows, admitting a pleasant breeze. 

" To these was joined a room of very large size, and that 
was adorned with pillars all round, and it was capable of con- 
taining twenty couches. And the greater part of it was made 
of split cedar, and of Milesian cypress. And the doors which 
were round it, being twenty in number, were put together 
with beams of citron wood, having ivory ornaments. And 
all the nails and fastenings which were visible were made of 
red brass, which had taken a polish like that of gold from the 
fire. And of the pillars the bodies were of cypress-wood, but 
the capitals were of Corinthian workmanship, adorned with 
ivory and gold. The whole of the capitals of the pillars 


were of gold ; and there was a sort of girdle on them having 
figures of animals beautifully carved in ivory, more than a 
cubit high, of which the workmanship was not so conspicuous 
as the exquisite beauty of the materials. There was a beau- 
tiful roof to the banqueting-room, square, and made of cypress 
wood. And its ornaments were all carved, having a golden 
face. Next to this banqueting-chamber was a sleeping- 
chamber holding seven couches ; and to that there was joined 
a narrow passage, which separated the woman's chamber from 
this one by the width of the hold. And by the passage was 
a banqueting-room holding nine couches, very like the large 
one in the sumptuousness of its furniture ; and a bed-chamber 
holding five couches. As to the rooms then on the first deck 
this was the general appearance presented. 

39. " But when you had ascended by the stairs which were 
close to the before-mentioned sleeping chamber, there was 
another chamber capable of containing five couches, having a 
vaulted oblong roof. And near to it was a temple of Venus, 
in form like a rotunda, in which was a marble statue of the 
goddess. And opposite to this was another banqueting-room, 
very sumptuous, adorned all round with columns : for the 
columns were all made of Indian stone. And near to this 
banqueting-room were more sleeping-chambers, with furniture 
and appointments corresponding to what has been already 
mentioned. And as you went on towards the head of the 
vessel was another apartment dedicated to Bacchus, capable 
of holding thirteen couches, surrounded with pillars, having 
its cornices all gilt as far down as the epistyle which ran round 
the room, but the roof corresponded to the character of the 
god. And in it there was on the right hand a large cave con- 
structed, the colour of which was stone, for in fact it was made 
of real stone and gold ; and in it images were placed of all the 
relations of the king, made of the stone called lychnitcs. And 
there was another banqueting-room, very pleasant, above the 
roof of the greatest apartment, having an arrangement like that 
of a tent, so that some of it had no actual roof ; but there 
were arched and vaulted beams running along the top at inter- 
vals, along which purple curtains were stretched whenever the 
vessel was in motion. And after this there was an open 
chamber occupying the same room above that was occupie< I I >y 
the portico before mentioned as being below. And a winding 


ladder joined on to it, leading to the secret walk, and a ban- 
queting-room capable of containing nine conches, constructed 
and furnished in the Egyptian style. For round pillars were 
run up in it, with alternate tambours of white and black, all 
placed in parallel lines. And their heads were of round shape ; 
and the whole of the figures round them were engraved like 
roses a little expanded. And round that part which is called 
the basket there were not tendrils and rough leaves, as is the 
case in Grecian pillars, but calyxes of the river-lotus, and the 
fruit of newly budding dates. And sometimes many other 
kinds of flowers were also represented. And under the roof 
of the capital which lies upon the tambour, where it joins on 
to the head, there were ornaments like the flower leaves of the 
Egyptian bean intertwined together. This then is the way 
in which the Egyptians construct and ornament their pillars, 
and this is the way in which they variegate their walls with 
black and white bricks : and sometimes also they employ 
the stone which is called alabaster. And there were many 
other ornaments all over the main hull of the vessel, and over 
the cenfre, and many other chambers and divisions in every 
part of it. 

" And the mast of this vessel was seventy cubits in height, 
and it had a linen sail, adorned with a purple fringe. And 
the whole of the wealth which had been so carefully preserved 
by king Philadelphus was dissipated by the last Ptolemy, 
who also excited the war against Gabinius, who was not a man, 
but a mere flute-player and conjuror." 

40. But concerning the ship built by Hiero, the tyrant of 
Syracuse, which also Archimedes the geometrician super- 
intended, I do not think it right to be silent, since a certain 
man named Moschion has given a description of it, which 
I read over with great care very lately. 

Moschion, then, writes as follows: — ''Diodes, a citizen of 
Abdera, speaks with great admiration of the engine called 
Helepolis, which was brought by Demetrius against the city of 
the Ehodians, and applied to their walls. And Timseus extols 
highly the funeral pile made for Dionysius the tyrant of 
Sicily. And Hieronymus lavishes his admiration on the 
building and adorning of the chariot in which the body of 
Alexander was borne to the tomb. And Polycletus speaks in 
liisrli terms of the candlestick which was made for the king; of 

c. 41.] hiero's SHIP 32 

Persia. But Hiero, the king of the Syracusans, who was in 
every respect a friend to the Eomans, was very attentive to 
the furnishing of temples and gymnasia ; and was also very 
earnest in ship-building, having built a great number of 
vessels to carry corn ; the construction of one of which I will 
describe. For the wood, he caused such a number of trees to 
be cut down on Mount ./Etna as would have been sufficient 
for sixty triremes, and when this was done he prepared nails, 
and planks for the sides and for the inside, and wood for every 
other purpose that could be required, some from Italy and 
some from Sicily. And for ropes he provided cordage from 
Spain, and hemp, and pitch from the river Rhone ; and he 
collected great quantities of useful things from all quarters. 
And he collected also shipwrights and other artisans. And 
having appointed Archias the Corinthian the superintendent 
of them all, and the principal architect, he bade them labour 
at the construction with zeal and earnestness, he himself also 
devoting his days to watching its progress. And in this way 
he finished half the ship in six months ; and every part of 
the vessel as soon as it was finished was immediately covered 
ever with plates of lead. And there were three hundred 
workmen employed in working up the timber, besides the 
subordinate journeymen whom they had to assist them. And 
it was arranged to draw this portion that was done so far 
down to the sea, that it might receive the last finishing 
strokes there. And when there was a great inquiry as to the 
best method of launching it into the sea, Archimedes the 
mechanician launched it by himself with the aid of a few 
persons. Eor having prepared a helix he drew this vessel, 
enormous as it was, down into the sea. And Archimedes was 
the first person who ever invented this helix. But after the 
remainder of the ship had also been completed in six months 
more, and it had been surrounded all round with brazen nails. 
the greater part of which weighed ten minso, and the rest were 
half as big again — (and they were driven in through holes 
made beforehand by gimlets, so as to hold the planks firm ; 
and they were fastened to the wood with leaden plugs ; pieces 
of cloth being put under, impregnated with pitch) — after. 
1 say, Hiero had completed the external figure of the vessel, 
he laboured at the interior. 

41. "And the vessel was constructed with twenty banks of 


oars, and three entrances, having the lowest entrance leading to 
the hold, to which the descent was by two ladders of many 
steps each : and the next was contrived for those who wished 
to go down to the eating-rooms : and the third was for the 
. armed men. And on each side of the middle entrance were 
apartments for the men, each with four couches in them, thirty 
in number. And the supper-room for the sailors was capable 
of holding fifteen couches, and it had within it three chambers, 
each containing three couches ; and the kitchen was towards 
the stern of the ship. And all these rooms had floors com- 
posed of mosaic work, of all kinds of stones tesselated. And 
on this mosaic the whole story of the Iliad was depicted in a 
marvellous manner. And in all the furniture and the 
ceilings and the doors everything was executed and finished 
in the same admirable manner. And along the uppermost 
passage was a gymnasium and walks, having their appoint- 
ments in all respects corresponding to the size of the vessel. 
And in them were gardens of all sorts of most wonderful 
beauty, enriched with all sorts of plants, and shaded by roofs 
of lead or tiles. And besides this there were tents roofed 
with boughs of white ivy and of the vine, the roots of which 
dei-ived their moisture from casks full of earth, and were 
watered in the same manner as the gardens. And the tents 
themselves helped to shadow the walks. And next to these 
things was a temple devoted to Venus, containing three 
couches, with a floor of agate and other most beautiful stones, 
of every sort which the island afforded. And its walls and its 
roof were made of cypress-wood, and its doors of ivory and 
citron-wood. And it was furnished in the most exquisite 
manner with pictures and statues, and with goblets and vases 
of every form and shape imaginable. 

42. " And next to that was a drawing-room capable of con- 
taining five couches, with its walls and doors made of box- 
wood, having a book -case in it, and along the roof a clock, 
imitated from the dial at Achradina. And there was also a 
bath-room, capable of containing three couches, having three 
brazen vessels for holding hot water, and a bath containing 
five measures of watei", beautifully variegated with Taurome- 
nian marble. And many rooms were also prepared fur the 
marines, and for those who looked to the pumps. And besides 
all this there were ten stalls for horses on each side of the 

c. 43.] eieko's SKIP. 331 

•walls ; and by them the fodder for the horses was kept, and 
the arms and furniture of the horsemen and of the boys. 
There was also a cistern near the head of the ship, carefully 
shut, and containing two thousand measures of water, made 
of beams closely compacted with pitch and canvass. And 
next to the cistern there was a large water-tight well for fish, 
made so with beams of wood and lead. And it was kept full 
of sea-water, and great numbers of fish were kept in it. And 
on each side of the walls there were also projecting beams, 
placed at well-proportioned intervals ; and to these were 
attached stores of wood, and ovens, and baking places, and 
mills, and many other useful offices. And all round the out- 
side of the ship ran atlases six cubits high, which supported 
the weight which was placed above them, and the triglyph, 
all being placed at convenient distances from one another. 
And the whole ship was adorned with suitable pictures. 

43. " And in the vessel were eight towers of a size propor- 
tioned to the burden of the ship, two at the stern, and as 
many at the head, and the rest in the middle of the ship. 
And to each of these were fastened two large beams, or yards, 
from which port-holes were fixed, tluough which stones were 
let down upon any enemy who might come against the 
ship. And on each of the towers stood four young men 
fully armed, and two archers. And the whole of the interior 
of the towers was full of stones and darts. And a wall, having 
buttresses and decks, ran all through the ship, supported on 
trestles; and on these decks was placed a catapult, which 
hurled a stone weighing three talents, and an arrow twelve 
cubits long. And this engine was devised and made by 
Archimedes; and it could throw every arrow a furlong. 
And besides all this, there were mats composed of stout ropes 1 
suspended by brazen chains ; and as there were three masts, 
from each of them were suspended two large yards bearing 
stones, from which hooks and leaden weights were let down 
upon any enemy which might attack the vessel. And there was 
also a palisade all round the ship, made of iron, as a defence 
against those who might attempt to board it; and iron ravens, 
as they were called, all round the ship, which, being shot forth 
by engines, seized on the vessels of the enemy, and brought 

1 I have adopted here Casaubon's conjectural emendation, and 1 .' i 
interpretation of it. The text of the MSS. seems undoubtedly corrupt. 


them round so as to expose them to blows. And on each of the 
sides of the ship stood sixty young men clad in complete 
armour; and an equal number stood on the masts, and on the 
yards which carried the stones ; and they w T ere also on the 
masts, up at the mast-head, which was made of brass. On the 
first there were three men, and on the second two, and on the 
third one. And they had stones brought up to them in 
wicker baskets by means of pulleys, and arrows were supplied 
to them by boys, within the defended parts of the mast-heads. 
And the vessel had four wooden anchors and eight iron ones. 
And of the masts, the second and third were easily found; 
but the first was procured with difficulty among the moun- 
tains of the Bruttii, and was discovered by a swineherd. 
And Phileas, a mechanic of Tauromenium, brought it down to 
the seaside. And the hold, although of a most enormous 
depth, was pumped out by one man, by means of a pulley, 
by an engine which was the contrivance of Archimedes. 
And the name of the ship was 'The Syracusan;' but when 
Hicro sent it to sea, he altered its name and called it ' The 

"And it had some small launches attached to it, the first of 
which was one of the light galleys called cercurus, able to 
hold a weight of three thousand talents ; and it was wholly 
moved by oars. And after that came many galleys and skiffs 
of about fifteen hundred talents burthen. And the crew also 
was proportionably numerous; for besides the men who have 
been already mentioned, there were six hundred more, whose 
post w r asat the head of the ship, always watching for the orders 
of the captain. And there w t ;is a tribunal instituted to judge 
of all offences which might be committed on board the ship, 
consisting of the captain and the pilot, and the officer of the 
watch ; and they decided in every case according to the laws 
of the Syracusans. 

44. " And they put on board the ship sixty thousand mea- 
sures of corn, and ten thousand jars of Sicilian salt-tish, and 
twenty thousand talents weight of w T ool, and of other cargo 
twenty thousand talents weight also. And besides all this, 
there were the provisions necessary for the crew. And Hiero, 
when he had understood that there was no harbour in Sicily 
large enough to admit this ship, and, moreover, that some of 
the harbours were dangerous for any vessel, determined to 

C. 45.] HIERO'S SHIP. 333 

send it as a present to Alexandria to Ptolemy the king of 
Egypt. For there was a great dearth of corn in Egypt. And 
he did so ; and the ship came to Alexandria, where it was put 
in port. And Hiero honoured Archimelus, also, the epigram- 
matic poet, who wrote an epigram on the ship, with a thou- 
sand bushels of wheat, which he also sent at his own expense 
to the Piraeus; and the epigram runs thus — 

Who placed this monstrous mass upon the earth; 

What master led it with untiring cables, 
How was the deck nail'd to the mighty beams, 

And with what axe did men the vessel form ? 
Surely it equals iEtna in its height, 

Or any isle which rises from the sea 
"Where the iEgean wave entwined foams 

Amid the Cyclades ; on either side 
Its breadth is equal, and its walls alike. 

Sure 'twas the giants' work, who hoped to reach 
By such vast ladder to the heights of heaven. 

Its topmast reaches to the stars ; and hides 
Its mighty bulwarks 'mid the endless clouds. 

It holds its anchors with untiring cables, 
Like those with -which proud Xerxes bound the strait 

Which between Sestos and Abydos foams. 
A deftly carved inscription on the side 

Shows what strong hand has launch'd it on the deep ; 
It says that Hiero, Hierocles' son, 

The king of Sicily, pride of Dorian race, 
Sends it a wealthy messenger of gifts 

To the iEgean islands; and the God 
Who rules the sea, great Neptune, convoys it 

Safe o'er the blue and foaming waves to Greece. 

And I intentionally pass over the sacred trireme built by 
Antigonus, which defeated the commanders of Ptolemy off 
Leucolla, a city under the dominion of Cos ; and after that, 
Antigonus consecrated it to Apollo; but it was not one-third, 
or perhaps not even one-fourth part of the size of the S3 ru- 
cusan or Alexandrian vessel." 

45. All this, then, we have said about the catalogue of the 
ships, not beginning with the Boeotians, 1 but witli the shows 
and processions exhibited at public assemblies. And since 
I know that my excellent friend Ulpian will attack us a^un, 
and ask what that thing is which Callixenus calls eyyvOrjuir], 
we tell him that there is a speech which is attributed to 

1 This is an allusion to the first line of Homer's Catalogue — 
BoicoTwy n^fcAews Ktt! Atjitoj vpxov. , 



Lyaias the orator, written about the Zyyvdrjicr), which begins 
with these words — " If, judges, Lysimaues had said any- 
thing reasonable or moderate." And going on a little, he 
proceeds to say — " I should not have been eager to plead in 
an action about this chest {lyyvOrjK-q), which is not worth 
thirty drachmae." And presently he tells us that the chest 
was a brazen one — " But when I wished last year to repair it 
I gave it to a brazier; for it is well put together, and has the 
faces of Satyrs and large heads of oxen carved upon it. 
There is also another coffer of the same size ; for the same 
workman made many such articles of the same size, and 
alike in many particulars." In these words Lysias, having 
said that the chest was made of brass, shows plainly enough, 
as Callixenus also said, that they were things that might be 
used as stands for kettles. For so Polemo Periegetes said, in 
the third of those books of his which are addressed to Adams 
and Antigonus, where he explains the subject of the picture 
which is at Phlius, in the portico of the polemarchs, painted 
by Sillax the Ehegian, who is mentioned by Epicharmus and 
Simonides. And his words are — " 'EyyvdyKrj, and a large 
goblet on it." And Hegesander the Delphian, in his book 
entitled a Commentary on Statues and Images, says that the 
pedestal dedicated by Glaucus the Cbian at Delphi is like an 
iron Zyyv8iJK7i, the gift of Alyattes. And that is mentioned 
by Herodotus, who calls it v-oKprjnqpihov (a stand for a 
goblet). And Hegesander uses the same expression. And 
we ourselves have seen that lying at Delphi, a thing really 
worth looking at, on account of the figures of animals which 
are carved upon it, and of other insects, and living things, 

and plants can be put upon it, and goblets, and 

other furniture. 

But the thing which is called by the Alexandrians dyyoOyKr/ 
is a triangular vessel, hollow in the middle, capable of receiv- 
ing an earthen wine-jar inside of it. And poor men have 
this made of wood, but rich men have it of brass or of silver. 

46. Having said this much about the kyyvQy'jK-q, let us now 
go on to speak of those kings who are and have been fond of 
good cheer. For the king, who is the namesake of the above- 
mentioned Antiochus, and the son of Demetrius, according 
to the account of Posidonius, used to entertain a great crowd 
of people every day, and in addition to what they ate on the 


spot, he would give every one of the guests large heaps, con- 
sisting of entire joints of meat of beasts, and birds, and 
fishes, undivided and ready dressed, enough to fill a wagon. 
And besides all this, he gave them heaps of honey-cakes, and 
of garlands, of inyrrh, and frankincense, with large fillets 
and bandages of golden embroidery as long as a man. And 
another king, Antiochus, when celebrating the games at 
Daphne, himself also made very sumptuous entertainments, 
as Posidonius himself relates; and he was the first person 
who ever made a distribution among the guests of whole 
joints of meat; and also of geese, and hares, and antelopes 
alive. And golden chaplets were also given to the guests, 
and a great quantity of silver plate, and of slaves, and horses, 
and camels. And each man was bound to get on the camel 
and drink a draught of wine, and then to accept of the camel 
and of the boy who stood by it. " And," says he, '•' all the 
natives and inhabitants of Syria, on account of the fertility 
of the land, are accustomed to make frequent feasts after 
their necessary labours, in order that they may rejoice 
together, using their gymnasia as baths, and anointing 
themselves with expensive oil and perfumes; and at their 
grammatea (for that is the name which they give to their 
public entertainments) living as if in their own houses, and 
gratifying their stomachs the greater part of the clay with 
wine and meat, and also carrying away a quantity of the 
same to their own homes, they thus spend the day, listening 
also to the music of the loud lyre made of the tortoise shell, 
so that whole cities resound with noises of this kind." 

47. And I, my friends, praise very much the entertainment 
Which was given by Alexander the king of Syria. And this 
Alexander was a supposititious son of Antiochus Epiphanes, 
substituted on account of the hatred which all men bore to 
Demetrius, concerning whom our companion Athcnaaus has 
spoken in his treatise on the Kings who have reigned in 
Syria. Now that entertainment was conducted as nearly as 
may be in this fashion. 

Diogenes the Epicurean, having a very tolerable acqnaint- 
ance with the doctrines of the sect which he professed, was 
by birth a native of Seleucia, in the district of Babylon. 
And he was kindly received by the king, although the 
monarch rather inclined to the doctrines of the Stoic i 


Accordingly, Alexander treated him with great distinction, 
although a man of anything but a reputable course of life, 
and so given to calumny and envy, that if he could raise a 
laugh by it, he could not abstain from even the king himself. 
And when he jd referred to the king a request that had no 
great connexion with philosophy — namely, that he might be 
allowed to wear a purple robe and a golden crown, having a face 
of Virtue in the centre of it, as he claimed to be addressed as 
the priest of Virtue, he agreed to it all, and besides that, made 
him a present of the crown. And these ornaments Diogenes, 
being in love with a woman who was one of the Bacchanalian 
singers, gave to her. But Alexander, hearing of this, col- 
lected a banqueting party of philosophers and eminent men, 
and among them he invited Diogenes. And when he arrived 
he begged him to take his seat with his crown and his purple 
robe on. And when he replied that that would be unseemly, 
the king nodded to his servants to introduce the musicians, 
among whom this singing woman appeared, crowned with the 
crown of Virtue, and clothed also in the "purple robe. So 
when every one burst into laughter at this, the philosopher 
kept quiet, and never stopped praising the singing womau. 

But Antiochus, who succeeded Alexander in the kingdom, 
could not tolerate the abusive language of this Diogenes, and 
accordingly ordered him to be put to death. But Alexander 
was at all times, and in all circumstances, of a gentle dis- 
position, and affable to every one in conversation, and not at 
all like Athenion the Peripatetic philosopher, who had a 
philosophical school at Athens, and at Messene, and also at 
Larissa in Thcssaly, and who subsequently became tyrant of 
Athens ; concerning whom Posidonins of Apamea gives a very 
particular account, which I, even though it is rather long, 
will quote, in order that we may come to a thorough under- 
standing and appreciation of those men who profess to be 
philosophers, and that we may not be taken in by their 
ragged cloaks and unshaven chins. For, as Agatho says — 

If I do tell the truth I shall not please you ; 

And if I please you, I shall speak no truth. 

But " let truth," as the saying is, " be one's friend." At all 
events, I will quote the account given of the man. 

48. " In the school of Erymneus the Peripatetic there was 
a certain man of the name of Athenion, who applied himself 

C. 49.] ATHENIO. 337 

very perseveringly to philosophical discassious. He, having 
bought an Egyptian female slave, made her his mistress. And 
when she became a mother, either by him or by some one else, 
the child was bred up by Athenion, and received the same name 
as his master. And having been taught literature, he became 
accustomed to lead his master about when he became an old 
man. in company with his mother; and when he died he 
succeeded him as his heir, and became a citizen of Athens, 
being enrolled under the name of Athenion. And having 
married a veiy beautiful girl, after that he betook himself to 
the profession of a sophist, hunting out for boys to come to 
his school. And having pursued his profession of sophist at 
Messene and at Larissa in Thessaly, and having amassed a 
considerable fortune, he returned to Athens. And having been 
appointed an ambassador by the Athenian people, when the 
chief power in all that district was lodged in the hands of 
Mithridates, he insinuated himself into the good graces of the 
king, and became one of his friends, being held by him in the 
greatest honour ; in consequence of which he wrote letters to 
the Athenians to raise their spirits, as one who had the 
greatest influence with the king of Cappadocia, leading them 
to hope that they should be discharged of all their existing 
debts, and live in peace and concord with him ; and also that 
they should recover their democratic constitution, and receive 
great presents both publicly and privately. And the Athe- 
nians boasted of all these promises which were made to them, 
feeling sure that the supremacy of the Romans would be put 
an end to. 

49. " Now when all Asia had revolted to the King, Athenio 
set out to return to Athens ; and being tossed about by a 
storm he was driven to Carystus. And when the Cecro-pidse 
heard this, they sent some ships of war to conduct him back,, 
and a litter with silver feet. And now he is entering the city ; 
and almost the whole of the citizens has poured out to meet 
him ; and many other spectators came together, marvelling at 
this preposterous freak of fortune, that this intrusive citizen, 
Athenion, foisted into Athens in such a manner, should be con- 
ducted into the city on a litter with silver feet, and lying on 
purple clothes, a man who had never before seen even a purple 
patch on his ragged cloak ; when no one, not even of the 
Romans, had ever exhibited such pomp and insulting show 

VOL. I. — ath. z 


in Attica before. So there ran to this spectacle men, women, 
children, all expecting some glorious honours from Mithri- 
dates. While Athenio, that ancient beggar, who gave lectures 
for trifling sums of money, was now making a procession 
through the country and through the city, relying on the king's 
favour, and treating every one with great insolence. There 
met him also the artisans of the spectacles of Bacchus, calling 
him a messenger of the young Bacchus, and inviting him to 
the common altar, and to the prayers and libations which 
were to be offered at it ; and he, who had formerly come out 
of a hired house, into, the * * * * * * was conducted into a 
mansion adorned with couches, and pictures, and statues, and 
a display of silver plate. And from it he issued forth, dragging 
on the ground a bright cloak, and with a golden ring on his 
finger, having on it a carved portrait of Mithridates. And 
numbers of attendants went before him and followed him in 
procession. And in the plot of ground belonging to the 
artisans, sacrifices were performed in honour of the return of 
Athenio, and libations made with formal proclamation by a 
herald. And the next day many people came to his house 
and awaited his appearance ; and the whole Ceramicus was 
full of citizens and foreigners, and there was a voluntary 
thronging of the whole population of the city to the assembly. 
And at last he came forth, being attended by all who wished 
to stand well with the people, as if they had been his body- 
guards, every one hastening even to touch his garment. 

50. " He then having ascended the tribunal which had 
been erected for the Roman generals in front of the portico of 
Attains, standing on it, and looking round on all the people 
in a circle, and then looking up, said, ' men of Athens, the 
state of affairs and the interests of my country compel me to 
relate to you what I know. But the greatness of the affairs 
that must be mentioned, owing to the unexpected character 
which circumstances have assumed, hinders me from doing 
so.' And when all the bystanders called out to him with 
one accord to be of good cheer, and to tell them, 'T tell you, 
then,' said he, ' of things which have never been hoped for, 
nor even imagined by any one in a dream. The king Mithri- 
dates is master of Bithynia, and of Upper Cappadocia ; mid 
he is master of the whole of Asia, without any break, ; - far 
as Pamphylia and Cilicia : and the kings of the Armenians 

C. 51.] ATHENIO. 339 

and Persians are only his guards ; and he is lord of all the 
nations which dwell around the Palus Ma>otis, and the whole 
of Pontus, so that his dominions are upwards of thirty thou- 
sand furlongs in circumference. And the Roman commander 
in Pamphylia, Quintus Oppius, has been surrendered to him, 
and is following him as a prisoner, but Manius Aquillius, a 
man of consular rank, who has celebrated a triumph for his 
victory over the Sicilians, is fastened by a long chain to Bas- 
tarna, a man of gigantic stature, and is dragged by him on 
foot at the tail of his horse. And of the other Roman citi- 
zens in Asia some have fallen down at the images of the gods, 
and the rest have put on square cloaks and acknowledge 
again the claims of their original country. And every city 
honouring him with more than human honours, calls the 
king a god ; and oracles everywhere promise him the domi- 
nion over the whole world, on which account he is now send- 
ing large armies against Thrace and Macedonia, and every 
part of Europe is coming over bodily to his side. For ambas- 
sadors are coming to him, not only from the Italian tribes, 
but also from the Carthaginians, begging him to enter into 
alliance with them for the destruction of the Romans.' 

51. " Having stopped a little after saying this, and having 
given time for the multitude to converse together about the 
news thus unexpectedly announced to them, he wiped his 
face, and | went on, ' What then do I advise 1 — Not to bear 
this state of anarchy any longer, which the Roman senate 
makes continue, while it is deciding what constitution you 
are to enjoy for the future. And do not let us be indifferent 
to our temples being closed, to our gymnasia being left in the 
dirt, to our theatre being always empty, and our courts of 
justice mute, and the Pnyx, consecrated by the oracles of the 
gods, being taken from the people. Let us not, O Athenians, 
be indifferent to the sacred voice of Bacchus being reduced to 
silence, to the holy temple of Castor and Pollux being closed, 
and to the schools of the philosophers being silenced as they 
arc.' And when this slave had said all this and a good deal 
more, the midtitude conversing with one another and running 
together to the theatre elected Athenio general over the 
entire army. And then, the Peripatetic coming into the 
orchestra, walking like Pythocles, thanked the Athenians, and 
said, ' Now you yourselves are your own generals, and 1 am 



the commander-in-chief : and if you exert all your strength 
to co-operate with me I shall be able to do as much as all of 
you put together.' And he, having said this, appointed others 
to be his colleagues in the command, proposing whatever 
names he thought desirable. 

52. " And a few days afterwards, the philosopher having 
thus appointed himself tyrant, and having proved how much 
weight is to be attached to the doctrine of the Pythagoreans 
about plots against others, and what was the practical effect 
of the philosophy which the admirable Pythagoras laid down, 
as Theopompus has related in the eighth book of his Philippics, 
and Hermrppus, the Callimachean, has corroborated the ac- 
count, he immediately removed all the citizens who were 
right-thinking and of a good disposition (contrary to the 
sentiments of, and rules laid down by, Aristotle and Theo- 
phrastus ; showing how true is the proverb which says, Do 
not put a sword into the hand of a child) ; and he placed 
sentinels at the gates, so that many of the Athenians, fearing 
what he might be going to do, let themselves down over the 
walls by night, and so fled away. And Athenio sending 
some horsemen to pursue them slew some of them, and 
brought back some in chains, having a number of body- 
guards about his person of the kind called phractici. And 
often he convened assemblies, pretending great attachment 
to the side of the Romans ; and bringing accusations against 
many as having kept up communications with the exiles, and 
aiming at a revolution, he put them to death. And he placed 
thirty guards at each gate, and would not allow any one to go 
either in or out. And he seized on the property of many of 
the people, and collected such a quantity of money as to fill 
several wells ; and he also sent all over the country people 
to lie in wait, as it were, for every one who was travelling, 
and they brought them to him ; and he put them to death 
without any trial, torturing and racking them into the bar- 
gain. And he also instituted prosecutions for treason against 
several people, saying that they were co-operating with the 
exiles to effect their return. And some of the parties prose- 
cuted fled out of fear before the trials came on, and some 
were condemned before the tribunals, he himself giving his 
own vote and collecting those of the others. And he brought 
about in the city a scarcity of the things necessary for life, 

C. 53.] ATHENIO. 341 

stinting the citizens of their proper quantity of barley and 
wheat. He also sent out heavy-armed soldiers over the 
country, to hunt out any of those who had fled and who could 
be found within the borders of the land, or any of the Athe- 
nians who were escaping beyond the borders. And whoever was 
detected he beat to death ; and some of them he exhausted 
beforehand with tortures ; and he caused proclamation to be 
made, that all must be in their houses by sunset, and that no 
one should presume to walk abroad with a lantern-bearer. 

53. "And he not only plundered the property of the citi- 
zens, but that of foreigners also, laying his hands even on the 
property of the god which was laid up at Delos ; sending 
Apellicon into the island, who was a Scian by birth, but who 
had become a citizen of Athens, and who lived a most whim- 
sical and ever-changing course of life. For at one time he 
was a philosopher, and collected all the treatises of the Peri- 
patetics, and the whole library of Aristotle, and many 
others ; for he was a very rich man ; and he had also stolen 
a great many autograph decrees of the ancients out of the 
temple of the Mighty Mother, and whatever else there was 
ancient and taken care of in other cities ; and being detected 
in these practices at Athens he would have been in great 
danger if he had not made his escape ; and a short time after- 
wards he returned again, having paid his court to many 
people, and he then joined himself to Athenion, as being a 
man of the same sect as he was. And Athenion, having em- 
braced the doctrines of the Peripatetics, measured out a 
choenix of barley, as four days' allowance for the ignorant 
Athenians, giving them what was barely food enough for 
fowl, and not the proper nutriment for men. And Apellicon, 
coming in great force to Delos, and living there more like a 
man exhibiting a spectacle than a general with soldiers, and 
placing guards in a very cai^eless manner on the side of Delos, 
and leaving all the back of the island unguarded, and not 
even putting down a palisade in front of his camp, went to 
rest. And Orobius, the Roman general, hearing of this, who 
was at that time in command at Delos, watching for a moon- 
less night, led out his troops, and falling on Apellicon and Lis 
soldiers, who were all asleep and drunk, he cut the Athenians 
and all those who were in the army with them to pieces, like 
so many sheep, to the number of six hundred, and he took 


four hundred alive. And that fine general, Apellicon, fled 
away without being perceived, and came to Delos ; and Orobius 
seeing that many of those who fled with him had escaped to 
the farmhouses round about, burnt them in the houses, houses 
and all ; and he destroyed by fire also all the engines for 
besieging cities, together with the Helepolis which Apellicon 
had made when he came to Delos. And Orobius having 
erected in that place a trophy and an altar, wrote this inscrip- 
tion on it — 

This tomb contains the foreigners here slain, 
AY" ho fought near Delos, and who fell at sea, 
When the Athenians spoil'd the holy isle, 
Aiding in war the Cappadocian king." 

•54. There was also at Tarsus an Epicurean philosopher who 
had become the tyrant of that city, Lysias by name ; who 
having been created by his countrymen Stephanephoros, that 
is to say, the priest of Hercules, did not lay down his com- 
mand, but seized on the tyranny. 1 He put on a purple tunic 
with a white centre, and over that he wore a very superb and 
costly cloak, and he put on white Lacedsemonian sandals, and 
assumed also a crown of golden daphne leaves. And he dis- 
tributed the property of the rich among the poor, and put 
many to death who did not surrender their property willingly. 

55. These are the commanders who became such from 
having been philosophers ; concerning whom Demochares 
said, — " Just as no one could make a spear out of a bulrush, 
so no one could make a faultless general out of Socrates." 
For Plato says that Socrates served in three military expedi- 
tions, one to Potidcea, and another to Amphipolis, and another 
against the Boeotians, in which last it was that the battle of 
Delium took place. And though no one has mentioned this 
circumstance, he himself sa} r s that he gained the prize of the 
most eminent valour, since all the other Athenians fled, and 
many were slain. But all this is an erroneous statement. 
For the expedition against Amphipolis took place in the 
archonship of Alcasus, when Cleon was the general ; and it 

1 The Greek here is e£ Ifmriov rvpawos %v, the meaning of which 
is very much disputed. Casaubon thinks it means that there was a 
great resemblance between the priestly and royal robes. Schweighauser 
thinks it means, after having worn the robe of a philosopher he became 
a tyrant. 


was composed entirely of picked men, as Thucydides relates. 
Socrates then, a man who had nothing but his ragged cloak 
and his stick, must have been one of these picked men. But 
what historian or poet has mentioned this fact 1 Or where 
has Thucydides made the slightest mention of Socrates, this 
soldier of Plato's 1 And what is there in common between 
a shield and a philosopher's staff? And when was it that 
Socrates bore a part in the expedition against Potidcea, as 
Plato has said in his Charmides, where he states that he then 
yielded the prize of preeminent valour to Alcibiades 1 though 
Thucydides has not mentioned it, nor has Isocrates in his 
Oration on the Pair-horse Chariot. And what battle ever 
took place when Socrates gained the prize of preeminent 
valour 1 And what eminent and notorious exploit did he 
perform ; for indeed there was actually no battle at all at 
that time, as Thucydides tells us. 

But Plato not being content with all these strange stories, 
introduces the valour which was displayed, or rather which 
was invented by him at Delium. For if Socrates had even 
taken Delium, as Herodicus the Cratetian has reported in his 
Treatise to Philosocrates, he woi;ld have fled disgracefully as 
all the rest did, when Pagondas sent two squadrons of cavalry 
Tinperceived round the hill. For then some of the Athenians 
fled to J)elium, and some fled to the sea, and some to Oropus, 
and some to Mount Parnes. And the Boeotians, especially 
with their cavalry, pursued them and slew them ; and the 
Locrian cavalry joined in the pursuit and slaughter. When 
then this disorder and alarm had seized upon the Athenians, 
did Socrates alone, looking proud and casting his eyes around, 
stand firm, turning aside the onset of the Boeotian and Locrian 
cavalry 1 And yet does Thucydides make no mention of this 
valour of his, nor even any poet either. And how was it that 
he yielded to Alcibiades the prize of preeminent valour, who 
had absolutely never joined in this expedition at all 1 But in 
the Crito, Plato, that favourite of Memory, says that Socrates 
had never once gone out of Attica, except when he once went 
to the Isthmian games. And, the Socratic philo- 
sopher, tells the same tale as Plato about the Aristeia ; hut 
the story is not true. For this Dog flatters Socrates in many 
particulars, on which account we must not believe either of 
them, keeping Thucydides for our guide. For Antisthencs 


even exaggerates this false story, saying, — '•' ' But we hear that 
you also received the prize of preeminent valour in the battle 
which took place against the Boeotians.' ' Be quiet, my 
friend, the prize belongs to Alcibiades, not to me.' ' Yes, 
but you gave it to him as we are told.' " But Plato's Socrates 
says that he was present at Potidsea, and that he yielded the 
prize of preeminent valour to Alcibiades on that occasion. 
But by the universal consent of all historians the expedition 
against Potidaea, in which Phormio commanded, was previous 
to the one against Delium. 

56. In every respect then the philosophers tell lies ; and 
they are not aware that they commit numbers of anachro- 
nisms in the accounts which they give. And even the admi- 
rable Xenophon is not free from this error. For he in his 
Banquet introduces Callias, the son of Hipponicus, as the 
lover of Autolycus, the son of Lycon, and making an enter- 
tainment in his honour when he gained the victory in the 
Pancratium. And he represents himself as being present 
with the rest of the guests, when he perhaps was either not 
born, or at all events not out of childhood. And this is the 
time when Aristion was archon. For it was in his archonship 
that Eupolis exhibited the comedy Autolycus, in which, in 
the character of Demostratus, he ridicules the victory of 
Autolycus. And again Xenophon makes Socrates say, at this 
banquet — " And Pausanias, indeed, the lover of Agathon the 
poet, when speaking in excuse of those who allow themselves 
to indulge in intemperance, said that a most valiant army 
might be comjiosed of boys and their lovers : for that of all 
the men in the world they would be the most ashamed to 
desert one another. Saying a very strange thing, — if men who 
are accustomed utterly to disregard all blame, and to behave 
with utter shamelessness to one another, would be the men 
above all others ashamed to do anything disgraceful." But 
that Pausanias never said anything of the sort we may see 
from the Banquet of Plato. For I know of no book at all 
which is written by Pausanias. Nor is he introduced by any 
one else as speaking of lovers and boys, but only by Plato. 
But whether Xenophon has absolutely invented this story, or 
whether he fell in with any edition of Plato's Banquet which 
reports what happened in a different manner, is of no imjiort- 
ance ; still we must take notice of the blunder as far as the 

c. 58.] plato's account of socrates. 345 

time is concerned. Aristion, in whose time this banquet is 
represented as having taken place, was archon four years 
before Euphemus, in whose archonship Plato places the ban- 
quet given in honour of the victory of Agathon, at which 
banquet Pausanias said these things about lovers. So that it 
is a marvellous and incredible thing that Socrates when sup- 
ping with Callias should find fault with things as having been 
said erroneously, which had not yet been said" at all, and 
which were not said till four years afterwards at the banquet 
of Agathon. 

57. But altogether Plato's Banquet is mere nonsense. For 
when Agathon got the victory Plato was fourteen years old. 
For the former was crowned at the Lenaja in the archonship 
of Euphenms. But Plato was born in the year of the archon- 
ship of Apollodorus, who succeeded Euthydemus. And when 
he was eighty-two years old he died in the archonship of 
Theophilus, who succeeded Callimachus ; for he is the eighty- 
second archon after Apollodorus. But from the archonship 
of Apollodorus and the birth of Plato, Euphemus is the four- 
teenth archon ; and it is in his archonship that the banquet 
was given in honour of the victory of Agathon. And 
Plato himself shows that this entertainment had taken 
place a long time before, saying in the Banquet .... " ' Do 
you think then that this entertainment has taken place but 
lately, so that I could have been present at it?' 'Indeed I 
do,' said he. ' How could that be,' said I, ' Glaucon 1 Do 
you not know that Agathon has not been in the city for 
man}- years V " And then a little while after he says — " ' But 
tell me, when did this entertainment take place'?' And I 
replied, ' When we were still children, when Agathon* gained 
the prize in tragedy.' " But that Plato makes many blunders 
in his chronology is plain from many circumstances. For as 
the poet said — " The man has a tongue which pays no regard 
to seasons;" so he writes without sufficient discernment. 
For he never spoke at random, but always with great con- 

58. As for instance, writing in the Gorgias, he says — 
" ' Archelaus, then, according to your definition, is a miserable 
man.' ' Yes, my friend, if, at least, he is an unjust one.' " 
And Uun, nfter expressly stating that Archelaus was pos- 
sessed of the kingdom of the Macedonians, he goes on to say, 


"that Pericles also was lately dead." But if Pericles had 
only lately died, Archelaus was not yet in the enjoyment 
of his dominions at all ; and if Archelaus was king at the 
time, then Pericles had been dead a long time. Now Perdiccas 
was king before Archelaus, according to the statement of 
Nicomedes of Acanthus; and he reigned forty-one years. 
But Theopompus says he reigned thirty-five years; Anaxi- 
menes, forty; Hieronymus, twenty-eight. But Marsyas and 
Philochorus say that he reigned only twenty-three years. 
Now, as these all vary so much in their accounts, we will 
take the smallest number, and say twenty-three. But 
Pericles died in the third year of the Peloponnesian war, in 
the archonship of Epameinon, in which year also Alexander 
died, and Perdiccas succeeded him in the kingdom. And he 
reigned till the archonship of Callias, in whose year Perdic- 
cas died, and Archelaus succeeded to the kingdom. How, 
then, can Pericles have died lately, as Plato phrases it 1 And 
in the same Gorgias Plato represents Socrates as saying — 
" And last year, when I drew the lot to be one of the council, 
when my tribe was the presiding tribe, and I had to put the 
question to the vote, I caused the people to laugh, as I did 
not know how to put the question to the vote." Now 
Socrates did. not fall into this error out of ignorance, but out 
of his firm principles of virtue; for he did not choose to 
violate the laws of the democracy. And Xenophon shows 
this plainly in the first book of his Hellenics, where he gives 
the following account: — "But when some of the prytanes 
said that they would not put the question contrary to the 
laws, Callixenus again mounts the tribunal and inveighs 
against them; and they cried out that he should impeach 
those who refused. And the prytanes being alarmed, all 
agreed to put the question except Socrates the son of Sophro- 
niscus; and he said that he would not, but that he would do- 
everything according to the laws." 

This was the question which was put to the vote against 
the generals, Erasinides and his colleagues, because they did 
not pick up the men who were lost in the naval battle at 
Arginusfe. And this battle took place in the archonship of 
Callias, twenty-four years after the death of Pericles. 

59. But the dialogue in the Protagoras, which took place 
after the death of Hipponicus. when Callias had entered upon 

c. 60.] plato's account of socrates. 347 

his patrimonial inheritance, says that Protagoras had arrived 
in Athens for the second time not many days previously. 
But Hipponicus, in the a/rchonship of Euthydemus, was a 
colleague of Nicias in the generalship against the Tanag- 
reans and against those Boeotians who acted as their allies ; and 
he defeated them in a battle. And he died before Eupolis ex- 
hibited the Flatterers, which took place in the archonship of 
Alcseus, but probably not any long time before. For the 
play proves that the succession of Callias to his patrimonial 
inheritance was still quite recent. Now in this play Eupolis 
introdirces Protagoras as living at Athens. And Ameipsias, 
in his Connus, which was exhibited two years before, does not 
enumerate him among the band of sophists. So it is plain 
that this happened in the interval between those two periods. 
But Plato represents Hippias the Elian also, in the Prota- 
goras, as present with some of his own fellow-citizens, men 
who it is not likely could have remained long in Athens 
with safety, before the truce for a year was made in the 
archonship of Isarchus, in the month Elaphebolion. But 
he represents this dialogue as having taken place, not about 
the time when the truce had recently been made, but a long- 
time after that ; at all events he says — " For if they were 
savage men, such as Pherecrates the poet exhibited last year 
at the Lenaaan festival." But the play of The Savage Men 
was exhibited in the archonship of Aristion, who was suc- 
ceeded as archon by Astyphilus, (being the fifth after Isarchus,) 
in whose archonship the truce was made ; for Isarchus came 
first, then Aniemias, then Aristion, then Astyphilus : so that 
it is contrary to history that Plato in his dialogue brings to 
Athens Hippias and his companions, who were enemies at the 
time, when this truce had not yet any existence. 

60. And among other things Plato says that Chperephon 
asked the Pythian priestess whether any one was wiser than 
Socrates? and that she replied, No one. But Xenophon dies 
not agree with all this; but says — "For when Chserephon 
once asked at Delphi about me, Apollo replied, in the presence 
of many witnesses, that no man was either more just or more 
temperate than I was." And how can it be either reasonable 
or probable that Socrates, who confessed that he knew 
nothing, should allege that he had been called the wisest 
of all men by God who knows everything? For if knowing 


nothing be wisdom, then to know everything must be folly. 
And what was the need of Chaorephon bothering the god. and 
asking him about Socrates? for he himself might have been 
believed in his own case, saying that he was not wise. For 
he must be a stupid man who would put such a question to 
the god, as if he were to ask him such a question as this, 
Whether any wool is softer than the Attic wool ; or, Whether 
there are any more powerful nations than the Bactrians and 
the Medes ; or, Whether any one has a more complete pug- 
nose than Socrates. For people who ask such questions as 
these have a very neat slap in the face given them by the 
god, as when a man asked him (whether it is a fable of 
iEsop's or of some one else), 

mighty son of Leto and of Jove, 

Tell me by what means I may rich become : 

he, ridiculing him, answered — 

If you acquire all the land that lies 
Between the tow'rs of Sicyon and Corinth. 

Gl. But indeed, no one even of the comic poets has said 
such things as Plato has said about Socrates, neither that he 
was the son of a very fierce-looking nurse, nor that Xantippe 
was an ill-tempered woman, who even poured slops over his 
head ; nor that Alcibiades slept with him under the same 
cloak ; and yet this must have been divulged with boisterous 
laughter by Aristophanes, as he was present at the banquet 
according to Plato's account ; for Aristophanes would never 
have suppressed such a circumstance as that, which would 
have given such a colour to the charge that he corrupted the 

Aspasia, indeed, who was the clever preceptress of Socrates 
in rhetoric, in these verses which are attributed to her, which 
Herodicus the Cratetian has quoted, speaks thus — 

As. Socrates, most clearly do I see 

How greatly you're inflamed by tender love 

For the young son of Clinias and Diuomache ; 

But if you wish to prosper list to me, 

And do not scoff at my advice, but follow it, 

And it shall be the better for your suit. 
Soc. I when I heard your speech was so o'erjoy'd 

That straightway sweat did overflow each limb ; 

And tears unbidden pour'd forth from my eyes. 
As. Restrain yourself, and fill your mind with strains 

C. 62.] SOCRATES. 349 

Such as the Muse who conquers men will teach you, 

And you will charm him by your dulcet songs. 

They the foundation lay of mutual love. 

And thus will you o'ercome him, fettering 

His mind with gifts with which his cars are charm'd 

The admirable Socrates then goes a hunting, having the Mile- 
sian woman for his tutor in love. But he himself is not 
hunted, as Plato says, having nets spread for him by Alcibiades. 
And indeed, he laments without ceasing, being, as I suppose, 
unsuccessful in his love. For Aspasia, seeing in what a con- 
dition he was, says — 

Why weep you, my dear Socrates? does love 
For that impracticable boy which dwells 
Within thy breast, and shoots from out his eyes, 
So far thy heart subdue 1 Did I in vain 
Engage to make him docile to thy suit] 

And that he really did love Alcibiades Plato shows plainly 
in the Protagoras, although he was now little less than thirty 
years of age ; for he speaks in this manner, " ' Whence are 
you come from, Socrates '? It seems to me you are come 
from your pursuit of Alcibiades's beauty. And, indeed, the 
man, when I saw him the other day, appeared to me to lie a 
handsome man ; a man, indeed, Socrates, as he may well 
be called, just as much so as we are ; and he has a firmly 
grown beard.' ' Well, what of that 1 arc not you an admirer 
of Homer, who said that the most beautiful season of life was 
that of a young man who began to have a beard 1 and that is 
just the age of which Alcibiades is now.' " 

G2. But most philosophers are of such a disposition that 
they are more inclined to evil speaking than the Comic 
writers. Since both yEschines, the pupil of Socrates, in his 
Telauges, attacks Critobulus the son of Crito as an ignorant 
man, and one who lives in a sordid manner ; and he attacks 
Telauges himself for wearing a cloak borrowed of a clothes' 
cleaner by the day for half an obol ; and for being girt about 
with a skin, and for having his sandals fastened with rotten 
pieces of string. And as for Lysias the orator, he laughs 
immoderately at him ; and in his Aspasia, he calls Hipponicus, 
the son of Callias, a blockhead ; and taking all the women of 
Ionia in a lump he calls them lascivious and covetous. But 
his Callias dwells upon the quarrel of Callias with his own 
father, and the absurd jokes of the sophist Prodicus and 


Anaxagoras. For he says that Prodicus had Theramenes for a 
pupil to finish his education ; and that the other had Philox- 
enus, the son of Eryxis, and Ariphrades, the brother of Ari- 
gnotus, the hai^p-player, wishing from the notorious impurity 
of life of the men who have been named and their general 
want of respectability and intemperance to leave the sort of 
education they received from their tutors to be inferred. But 
in his Axiochus he runs Alcibiades down with great bitter- 
ness, as a drunkard, and a man always running after other 
men's wives. 

G3. But Antisthenes, in the second of his treatises called 
Cyrus, abusing Alcibiades, says that he is a breaker of the 
laws, both with respect to women and with respect to every 
other part of his conduct in life ; for he says that he had 
intrigued with a mother, and daughter, and sister, after the 
fashion of the Persians. And his Political Dialogue runs down 
the whole of the Athenian demagogues : and his Archelaus 
attacks Gorgias, the rhetorician ; and his Aspasia attacks 
Xanthippus and Paralus, the sons of Pericles. For, as for one 
of them, he says that he is a companion of Archestratus, who 
is no better than a frequenter of houses of the worst possible 
fame ; and the other he calls an acquaintance and intimate 
friend of Euphemus, who abused every one he met with vulgar 
and ill-mannered abuse. And nicknaming Plato Satho, in a 
witless and vulgar manner, he published a dialogue against 
him, to which he gave the same name as its title. 

For these men believe that there is no such thing as an 
honest counsellor, or a conscientious general, or a respectable 
sophist, or a poet worth listening to, or a reasonable people : 
but Socrates, who spent his time in loose houses with the 
flute-playing women of Aspasia, and who was always chatting 
with Piston the armourer, and who gave lessons to Theodote 
the courtesan, how she ought to make the most of her lovers, 
as Xenophon tells us in the second book of his Memorabilia, 
is the only wise man according to them ; for they represent 
him as giving Theodote such rules as neither Nico the Samian, 
nor Callistrate the Lesbian, nor Philamis the Leucadian, nor 
even Pythonicus the Athenian, were ever acquainted with as 
charms to conciliate affection. And yet those people paid 
much attention to such things. And time would fail me if 
I were to be inclined to quote the attacks which philosophers 

C. G4.] THE GORGONS. 351 

have made on people ; for, as the same Plato says, a regular 
crowd of Gorgons and Pegasi, and other monsters, keeps 
flowing in upon me in immense numbers, and of preposterous 
appearance, so that I will keep silence. 

G4. When Masurius had said this, and when all had ad- 
mired his wisdom, after silence was restored Ulpian said, — 
You seem to me, guests, to be overwhelmed with im- 
petuous speeches which come upon you unexpectedly, and to 
be thoroughly soaked in unmixed wine ; — 

For a man drinking wine, as a horse does water, 
Speaks like a Scythian, not knowing even koppa, 
But voiceless, lies immersed in a cask, 
And sleeps as if he 'd drunk medicinal poppy ; 

as says Parmeno the Byzantian. Have you been all turned 
into stone by s the before-mentioned Gorgons 1 Concerning 
whom, that there really have been some animals who were 
the causes of men being turned into stone, Alexander the 
Myndian speaks at length, in the second book of his His- 
tory of Beasts, saying—" The Nomades in Libya (where it 
is born) call the animal named the Gorgon, 'The Looking- 
down: ' and it is as most people say, conjecturing from its 
skin, something like a wild sheep ; but as some say, it is like 
a calf. And they say that it has such a breath that it destroys 
every one who meets it; and that it has a mane let down 
from its forehead over its eyes, and when it has shaken it 
aside, which it does with difficulty by reason of its weight, 
and then looks out through it, it slays the man who is 
beheld by it, not by its breath, but by some natural violence 
which proceeds from its eyes. And it was discovered in this 
way : Some of the soldiers of Marius, in his expedition against 
Jugurtha, having beheld the Gorgon, thought because it held 
its head down, and moved slowly, that it was a wild sheep, 
and in consequence they rushed upon it, intending to kill it 
with the swords which they had about them ; but it, being 
disturbed, shaking aside the mane which hung down over its 
eyes, immediately caused the death of those who were rush- 
ing upon it. And when others again and again did the same 
thing, and lost their lives by so doing, and when all who pro- 
ceeded against it were invariably killed, some of the soldiers 
inquired the nature of the animal from the natives; and by 
the command of Marius some Nomad horsemen laid an 


ambush against it from a distance, and shot it with darts, and 
returned to the camp, bringing the dead monster to the 
general." And that this account is the true one, the skin 
and the expedition of Marius both prove. But the statement 
made by the historian is not credible, namely, that there are 
in Libya some oxen which are called Opisthonomi, 1 because 
they do not advance while feeding, but feed constantly re- 
turning backwards, for their horns are a hindrance to their 
feeding in the natural manner, inasmuch as they are not bent 
upwards, as is the case with all other animals, but they bend 
downwards and overshadow the eyes; for this is incredible, 
since no other historian testifies to such a circumstance. 

65. When Ulpian had said this, Laurentius bearing witness 
to the truth of his statement, and adding something to his 
speech, said, that Marius sent the skins of these animals to 
Rome, and that no one could conjecture to what arimal they 
belonged, on account of the singular appearance which they 
presented; and that these skins were hung up in the temple 
of Hercules, in which the generals who celebrate a triumph 
give a banquet to the citizens, as many poets and historians 
of our nation have related. You then, gi-ammarians, as 
the Babylonian Herodicus says, inquiring into none of these 
matters — 

Fly ye to Greece along the sea's wide back, 

Pupils of Aristarchus, all more timid 

Than the pale antelope, worms hid in holes, 

Monosyllabic animals, who care 

For crcplv and <r§Quv, and for plv, and v\v, 

This shall be your lot, grumblers — but let Greece 

And sacred Babylon receive Herodicus. 

For, as Anaxandrides the comic writer says — - t 

'Tis sweet when one has plann'd a new device, 
To tell it to the world. For those who are 
Wise for themselves alone have, first of all, 
No judge to criticise their new invention. 
And envy is their portion too : for all . 
That seems to be commended by its novelty, 
Should be imparted freely to the people. 

And when this conversation had terminated, most of the 
guests took their departure secretly, and so broke up the 

1 "Onurde, behind ; vifxo}, to feed. 

2.] TRAGEDY. 353 


1. Since you ask me every time that you meet me, my 
friend Timocrates, what was said by the Deipnosophists, 
thinking that we are making some discoveries, we will remind 
you of what is said by Antiphanes, in his Poesy, in this 
manner — 

In every way, my friends, is Tragedy 

A happy poem. For the argument 

Is, in the first place, known to the spectators, 

Before one single actor says a word. 

So that the poet need do little more 

Than just remind his hearers what they know. 

For should I speak of (Edipus, at once 

They recollect his story — how his father 

Was Laius, and Jocasta too his mother ; 

What were his sons', and what his daughters' names, 

And what he did and suffer'd. So again 

If a man names Alcmrcon, the very children 

Can tell you how he in his madness slew 

His mother ; and Adrastus furious, 

Will come in haste, and then depart again ; 

And then at last, when they can say no more, 

And when the subject is almost exhausted, 

They lift an engine easily as a finger, 

And that is quite enough to please the theatre. 

But our case is harder. We are forced 

T' invent the whole of what we write ; new names, 

Things done before, done now, new plots, new openings, 

And new catastrophes. And if we fail in aught, 

Some Chremes or some Phido hisses us. 

While Peleus is constrain'd by no such laws, 

Nor Tcucer. 

And Diphilus says, in his Men conducting Helen — 

thou who rulest, patroness and queen, 
Over this holy spot of sacred Brauron, 
Bow-bearing daughter of Latona and Jove, 
As the tragedians call you ; who alone 
Have power to do and say whate'er they please. 

2. But Timoclcs the comic writer, asserting that tragedy is 

VOL. I. — ATH. A A 


useful in many respects to human life, says in his Women 
celebrating the Festival of Bacchus — 

My friend, just hear what I'm about to say. 

Man is an animal by nature miserable ; 

And life has many grievous things in it. 

Therefore he has invented these reliefs 

To ease his cares; for oft the mind forgets 

Its own discomforts while it soothes itself 

In contemplation of another's woes, 

And e'en derives some pleasure and instruction. 

For first, I'd have you notice the tragedians ; 

What good they do to every one. The poor man 

Sees Telephus was poorer still than he,i 

And bears his own distress more easily. 

The madman thinks upon Alcmceon's case. 

Has a man weak sore eyes? The sons of Phineus 

Are blind as bats. Has a man lost his child? 

Let him remember childless Niobe. 

He 's hurt his leg ; and so had Philoctetes. 

Is he unfortunate in his old age ? 

(Eneus was more so. So that every one, 

Seeing that others have been more unfortunate, 

Learns his own griefs to bear with more content. 

3. And we accordingly, Timocrates, will restore to you 
the relics of the feast of the Deipnosophists, and will not 
give them, as Cothocides the orator said, meaning to ridicule 
Demosthenes, who, when Philip gave Halonnesus to the Athe- 
nians, advised them " not to take it if he gave it, but only if 
he restored it." And this sentence Antiphanes jested upon in 
his Neottis, where he ridicules it in this manner — 

My master has received (airtXafSev) as he took (Zxafiev) 

His patrimonial inheritance. 

How would these words have pleased Demosthenes ! 

And Alexis says, in his Soldier — 

A . Receive this thing. 

B. What is it? 

A. Why the child 
Which I had from yon, which I now bring back. 

B. Why ? will you no more keep him ) 

A . He 's not mine. 
B. Nor mine. 

A. But you it was who gave him me. 
B. I gave him not. 

A. How so? 

B. I but restored him. 
A. You gave me what I never need have taken. 

C. 4.] FISHMONGERS. 355 

And in his Brothers he says — 

A. For did I give them anything 1 Tell me that. 

B. No, you restored it, holding a deposit. 
And Anaxilas, in his Evandria, says — • 

.... Give it not, 
Only restore it. 

B. Here I now have brought it. 
And Tirnocles says in his Heroes — 

A. You bid me now to speak of everything 
Rather than what is to the purpose ; well, 
I'll gratify you so far. 

B. You shall find 
As the first fruits that you have pacified 
The great Demosthenes. 

A. But who is he] 

B. That Briareus who swallows spears and shields; 
A man who hates all quibbles; never uses 
Antithesis nor trope ; but from his eyes 
Glares terrible Mars. 

According, therefore, to the above-mentioned poets, so we, 
restoring but not giving to you what followed after the previous 
conversation, will now tell you all that was said afterwards. 

4. Then came into lis these servants, bringing a great 
quantity of sea fish and lake fish on silver platters, so that we 
marvelled at the wealth displayed, and at the costliness of 
the entertainment, which was such that he seemed almost to 
have engaged the Nereids themselves as the purveyors. And 
one of the parasites and flatterers said that Neptune was 
sending fish to our Neptunian port, not by the agency of 
those who at Rome sell rare fish for their weight in money; 
but that some were imported from Antium, and some from 
Terracina, and some from the Pontian islands opposite, and 
some from Pyrgi; and that is a city of Etruria. For the 
fishmongers in Rome are very little different from those 
who used to be turned into ridicule by the comic poets at 
Athens, of whom Antiphanes says, in his Young Men — . 

I did indeed for a long time believe 

The Gorgons an invention of the poets, 

But when I came into the fish-market 

I quickly found them a reality. 

For looking at the fishwomen I felt 

Turn'd instantly to stone, and was compcU'd 

To turn away my head while talking to them. 

For when I see how high a price they ask, 

And for what little fish, I'm motionless. 
A a2 


5. And Amphis says in his Impostor — 

'Tis easier to get access to the general, 

And one is met by language far more courteous, 

And by more civil answer from his grace, 

Than from those cursed fishfags in the market. 

For when one asks them anything, or offers 

To buy aught of them, mute they stand liku Telephus, 

And just as stubborn ; ('tis an apt comparison, 

For in a word they all are homicides ;) 

And neither listen nor appear to heed, 

But shake a dirty polypus in your face ; 

Or else turn sulky, and scarce say a word, 

But as if half a syllable were enough, 

Say " se'n s'lings this," " this turb't eight'n-pence." 

This is the treatment which a man must bear 

Who seeks to buy a dinner in the fish-market. 

And Alexis says in his Apeglaucoruenos — 

When I behold a general looking stern, 

I think him wrong, but do not greatly wonder, 

That one in high command should think himself 

Above the common herd. But when I see 

The fishmongers, of all tribes far the worst, 

Bending their sulky eyes down to the ground, 

And lifting up their eyebrows to their foreheads, 

I am disgusted. And if you should ask, 

" Tell me, I pray you, what 's this pair of mullets V 

" Tenpence." " Oh, that 'a too much ; you'll eightpence take "i " 

" Yes, if you'll be content with half the pair." 

" Come, eightpence; that is plenty." " I will not 

Take half a farthing less : don't waste my time." 

Is it not bitter to endure such insolence] 

6. And Diphilus says in his Busybody — 

I used to think the race of fishmongers 

Was only insolent in Attica; 

But now I see that like wild beasts they are 

Savage by nature, everywhere the same. 

But here is one who goes beyond his fellows, 

Nourishing flowing hair, which he doth call 

Devoted to his god — though that is not the reason, 

But he doth use it as a veil to hide 

The brand which marks his forehead. Should you ask him, 

What is this pike's price? he will tell you " tenpence;" 

Not say what pence he means ; then if you give him 

The money, he will claim iEgina's coinage ; 

While if you ask for change, he'll give you Attic. 

And thus he makes a profit on both sides. 

And Xonarchus says in his Purple — ■ 



Poets ra-c nonsense ; for they never say 

A single thing that 's new. But all they do 

Is to clothe old ideas in language new, 

Turning the same things o'er and o'er again, 

And upside down. But as to fishmongers, 

They're an inventive race, and yield to none 

In shameless conduct. For as modern laws 

Forbid them now to water their stale fish, 

Some fellow, hated by the gods, beholding 

His fish quite dry, picks with his mates a quarrel, 

And blows are interchanged. Then when one thinks 

He's had enough, he falls, and seems to faint, 

And lies like any corpse among his baskets. 

Some one ca41s out for water ; and his partner 

Catches a pail, and throws it o'er his friend 

So as to sprinkle all his fish, and make 

The world believe them newly caught and fresh. 

7. And that they often do sell fish which is dead and 
stinking is proved by -what Antiphanes says in his Adulterers, 
as follows — 

There 's not on earth a more unlucky beast 
Than a poor fish, for whom 'tis not enough 
To die when caught, that they may find at once 
A grave in human stomachs; but what's worse, 
They fall into the hands of odious fishmongers, 
And rot and lie upon their stalls for days ; 
And if they meet with some blind purchaser, 
He scarce can carry them when dead away ; 
But throws them out of doors, and thinks that he 
Has through his nose had taste enough of them. 

And in his Friend of the Thebans he says — 

Is it not, quite a shame, that if a man 

Has fresh-caught fish to sell, he will not speak 

To any customer without a frown 

Upon his face, and language insolent 1 

And if his fish are stale, he jokes and laughs — 

While his behaviour should the contrary be : 

The first might laugh, the latter should be shamed. 

And that they sell their fish very dear we are told by Alexis 
in his Pyloean Women — 

Yes, by Minerva, I do rnarvel at 
The tribe of fishmongers, that they are not 
All wealthy men, such royal gains they make. 
For sitting in the market they do think it 
A trifling thing to tithe our properties ; 
But would take all at one fell swoop away. 

8. And the same poet says in his play entitled the Caldron — ■ 


There never was a better lawgiver 
Than rich Aristonicus. For he now 
Does make this law, that any fishmonger 
Who puts a price upon his fish, and then 
Sells it for less, shall be at once dragg'd off 
And put in prison ; that by their example 
The rest may learn to ask a moderate price, 
And be content with that, and carry home 
Their rotten fish each evening ; and then 
Old men, old women, boys, and all their customers, 
"\\ ill buy whatever suits them at fair price. 
And a little further on he says — 

There never has, since Solon's time, been seen 
A better lawgiver than Aristonicus. 
For he has given many different laws, 
And now he introduces this new statute, 
A golden statute, that no fishmonger 
Should sell his fish while sitting, but that all 
Shall stand all day i' the market. And he says 
Next year he will enact that they shall sell 
Being hung up ; for so they will let off 
Their customers more easily, when they 
Are raised by a machine like gods in a play. 

9. And Antiphanes, in his Hater of Wickedness, displays 
their rudeness and dishonesty, comparing them to the greatest 
criminals who exist among men, speaking as follows — 

Are not the Scythians of men the wisest 1 

Who when their children are first born do give them 

The milk of mares and cows to drink at once, 

And do not trust them to dishonest nurses, 

Or tutors, who of evils are the worst, 

Except the midwives only. For that class 

Is worst of all, and next to them do come 

The begging priests of mighty Cybele; 

And it is hard to find a baser lot — 

Unless indeed you speak of fishmongers, 

But they are worse than even money-changers, 

And are in fact the worst of all mankind. 

10. And it was not without some wit that Diphilus, in 
his Merchant, speaks in this maimer of fish being sold at an 
exorbitant price — 

I never heard of dearer fish at any time. 

Oh, Neptune, if you only got a tenth 

Of all that money, you would be by far 

The richest of the gods ! And yet if he, 

The fishmonger I mean, had been but civil, 

I would have given him his price, though grumbling ; 

And, just as Priam ransom'd Hector, I 

Would have put down his weight to buy the conger. 

C. 12.] FISHMONGERS. 359 

And Alexis says in his Grecian Woman — 

Living and dead, the monsters of the deep 
Are hostile to us always. If our ship 
Be overturn'd, they then at once devour' 
Whatever of the crew they catch while swimming: 
And if they're caught themselves by fishermen, 
When dead they half undo their purchasers ; 
For with our whole estate they must be bought, 
And the sad purchaser comes off a beggar. 

And Archippus, in his play called the Fish, mentions one 
fishmonger by name, Herrnseus the Egyptian, saying — 

The cursedest of all fish-dealers is 
Hermpeus the Egyptian ; who skins 
And disembowels all the vilest fish, 
And sells them for the choicest, as I hear. 

And Alexis, in his Rich Heiress, mentions a certain fish- 
monger by name, Micio. 

11. And perhaps it is natural for fishermen to be proud of 
their skill, even to a greater degree than the most skilful 
generals. Accordingly, Anaxandrides, in his Ulysses, intro- 
duces one of them, speaking in this way of the fisherman's 
art — 

The beauteous handiwork of portrait painters 

When in a picture seen is much admired ; 

But the fair fruit of our best skill is seen 

In a rich dish just taken from the frying-pan. 

For by what other art, my friend, do we 

See young men's appetites so much inflamed'? 

What causes such outstretching of the hands'? 

What is so apt to choke one, if a man 

Can hai'dly swallow it ? Does not the fish-market 

Alone give zest to banquets 1 Who can spread 

A dinner without fried fish, or anchovies, 

Or high-priced mullet 1 With what words or charms 

Can a well-favour'd youth be caught, if once 

The fisherman's assistance be denied] 

His art subdues him, bringing to the fish-kettle 

The heads of well-boil'd fish ; this leads him on 

To doors which guard th' approach to a good dinner, 

And bids him haste, though nought himself contributing. 

12. And Alexis says this with reference to those who are 
too anxious as to buying their fish, in his Rich Heiress — 

Whoever being poor buys costly fish, 
And though in want of much, in this is lavish, 
He strips by night whoever he may meet. 
So when a man is stripp'd thus, let him go 


At early morn and watch the fish-market. 
And the first man he sees both poor and young 
Buying his eels of Micio, let him seize him, 
And drag him off to prison by the throat. 

And Diphilus, in his Merchant, says that there is some such 
law as this in existence among the Corinthiana — ■ 

A. This is an admirable law at Corinth, 

That when we see a man from time to time 

Purveying largely for his table, we 

Should ask him whence he comes, and what's his business : 

And if he be a man of property, 

Whose revenues can his expenses meet, 

Then we may let him as he will enjoy himself. 

But if he do his income much exceed, 

Then they bid him desist from such a course, 

And fix a fine on all who disobey. 

And if a man having no means at all 

Still lives in splendid fashion, him they give 

Unto the gaoler. 

B. Hercules ! what a law. 

A. For such a man can't live without some crime. 
Dost thou not see 1 He must rove out by night 
And rob, break into houses, or else share 

With some who do so. Or he must haunt the forum, 
A vile informer, or be always ready 
As a hired witness. And this tribe we hate, 
And gladly would expel from this our city. 

B. And you'd do well, by Jove ; but what is that to mel 
A . Because we see you every day, my friend, 

Making not moderate but extravagant purchases. 

You hinder all the rest from buying fish, 

And drive the city to the greengrocer, 

And so we fight for parsley like the combatants 

At Neptune's games on th' Isthmus. . Does a hare 

Come to the market 1 it is yours ; a thrush 

Or partridge 1 all do go the selfsame way. 

So that we cannot buy or fish or fowl ; 

And you have raised the price of foreign wine. 

And Sophilus, in his Androcles, wishes that the same custom 
prevailed at Athens also, thinking that it would be a good 
thing if two or three men were appointed by the city to the 
regulation of the provision markets. And Lynceus the 
Samian wrote a treatise on purveying against some one who 
was very difficult to please when making his purchases; 
teaching him what a man ought to say to those homicidal 
fishmongers, so as to buy what he wants at a fair rate and 
without being exposed to any annoyance. 


13. Ulpian again picking out the thorns from what was 
said, asked — Are we able to show that the ancients used silver 
vessels at their banquets '? and is the word iriva£ a Greek 
noun ] For with reference to the line in Homer — 

The swineherd served up dishes (irivaKas) of rich meat, 1 
Aristophanes the Byzantine said that it was a modernism to 
speak of meats being placed on platters (7rtVaK-es), not being 
aware that in other places the poet has said — 

Dishes (x(yaKas) of various meats the butler brought. 2 
I ask also, if any men among the ancients had ever acquired 
a multitude of slaves, as the men of modern times do : and 
if the word T-qyavov (frying-pan) is ever found, and not the 
form rdyrjvov only. So that we may not fix our whole atten- 
tion on eating and drinking, like those who from their devo- 
tion to their bellies are called parasites and flatterers. 

14. And ^Emilianus replied to him, — The word irlva£, when 
used of a vessel, you may find used by Metagenes the comic 
writer, in his Valiant Persians : and Pherecrates, my friend, 
has used the form rr/yavov in his Trifles, where he says — 

He said he ate anchovies from the frying-pan (Triydvov), 
And the same poet has also said in the Persse — 

To sit before the frying-pans (Tr\yava) burning rushes. 
And Philonides says, in his Buskins — 

Receive him now with rays and frying-pans (rtfyava). 
And again he says — 

Smelling of frying-pans (ryyava). 
And Eubulus says, in his Orthane — 

The bellows rouses Vulcan's guardian dogs, 

With the warm vapour of the frying-pan (rriyavov). 
And in another place he says — 

But every lovely woman walks along 

Fed with the choicest morsels from the frying-pan (ryyavov). 
And in his Titans he says — 

And the dish 

Doth laugh and bubble up with barbarous talk, 

And the fish leap Zv [xLaoiai. T-oydvois. 

And Phrynichus also uses a verb derived from the word in his 
Tragedian — 

'Tis sweet to eat fried meat, at any feast 

For which one has been at no cost oneself. 

' Odyss. xvi. 49. * lb. i. 141. 


And Pherecrates, in his Ant Men says — "Are you eating 
fried meat (2v 8' aTroTrjyavL&is) ? " 

But Hegesander the Delphian says that the Syracusans 
call a dish rqyavov, and the proper ■n/yaj'o*' they call ^yporr}- 
yavov; on which account he says that Theodorides says in 
some poem — 

He in a rrjyavov did boil it well, 
In a large swimming dish. 

"Where he uses T^'ya^oi' for Ao7ras. But the Ionians write the 
word ^ycuw without the letter t, as Anacreon says — 
Putting his hand within the frying-pan (tfyavov). 
15. But with respect to the use of silver plate, my good 
friend Ulpian, you make me stop to consider a little; but I 
recollect what is said by Alexis in bis Exile — 

For where an earthen pot is to be let 
For the cook's use. 

For down to the times of the supremacy of the Macedonians 
the attendants used to perform their duties with vessels made 
of earthenware, as my countiyman Juba declares. But 
when the Romans altered the way of living, giving it a more 
expensive direction, then Cleopatra, arranging her style of 
living in imitation of them, she, I mean, who ultimately 
destroyed the Egyptian monarchy, not being able to alter the 
name, she called gold and silver plate Ktpap.ov ; and then she 
gave the guests what she called the Kepap.a to carry away 
with them; and this was very costly. And on the Rosic 
earthenware, which was the most beautiful, Cleopatra spent 
five minse every day. But Ptolemy the king, in the eighth 
book of his commentaries, writing of Masinissa the king of 
the Libyans, speaks as follows — "His entertainments were 
arranged in the Roman fashion, everything being served up in 
silver Kepa/xov. And the second course he arranged in the 
Italian mode. His dishes were all made of gold; made 
after the fashion of those which are plaited of bulrushes or 
ropes. And he employed Greek musicians. 

16, But Aristophanes the comic writer, whom Heliodorus 
the Athenian says, in his treatise concerning the Acropolis, 
(and it occupies fifteen books,) was a Naucratite by birth, in 
his play called Plutus, after the god who gave his name to 
the play and appeared on the stage, says that dishes of silver 


were in existence, just as all other things might be had made 
of the same metal. And his words are — 

But every vinegar cruet, dish and ewer 

Is made of brass; while all the dirty dishes 

In which they serve up fish are made of silver. 

The oven too is made of ivory. 

And Plato says, in his Ambassadors — 

Epicrates and his good friend Phormisius, 
Keceived many and magnificent gifts 
From the great king ; a golden cruet-stand, 
And silver plates and dishes. 

And Sophron, in his Female Actresses, says — 
The whole house shone 
With store of gold, and of much silver plate. 

17. And Philippides, in his Disappearance of Silver, speaks 
of the use of it as ostentatious and uncommon, and aimed 
at only by some foreigners who had made fortunes but 
lately — 

A. I felt a pity for all human things, 
Seeing men nobly born to ruin hasting, 
And branded slaves displaying silver dishes 
Whene'er they ate a pennyworth of salt-fish, 
Or a small handful of capers, in a plate 
Whose weight is fifty drachms of purest silver. 
And formerly 'twould have been hard to see 
One single flagon vow'd unto the gods. 

B. That is rare now. For if one man should vow 
A gift like that, some other man would steal it. 

And Alexis, in his Little House, introducing a young man in 
love displaying his wealth to his mistress, represents him as 
making her some such speech as this — 

A . I told the slaves, (tor 1 brought two from home,) 

To place the carefully wiped silver vessels 

Fairly in sight. There was a silver goblet, 

And cups which weigh'd two drachms; a beaker too 

Whose weight was four ; a wine-cooler, ten obols, 

Slighter than e'en Philippides' own self. 

And yet these things are not so ill-contrive 1 

To make a show .... 
And I am myself acqtiainted with one of our own fellow- 
citizens who is as proud as he is poor, and who, when all his 
silver plate put together scarcely weighed a drachma, used to 
keep calling for his servant, a single individual, and the only 
one he had, but still he called him by hundreds of different 
names. " Here, you Strombichides, do not put on the table 


any of my winter plate, but my summer plate." And the 
character in Nicostratus, in the play entitled the Kings, is 
just such another. There is a braggart soldier, of whom he 
speaks — 

There is some vinegar and a wine-cooler, 

Thinner than thinnest gauze. 

For there were at that time people who were able to beat out- 
silver till it was as thin as a piece of skin. 

18. And Antiphanes, in his Lemnian Women, says — 

A three-] egg'd table now is laid, and on it 

A luscious cheesecake, ye houour'd gods, 

And this year's honey in a silver dish. 

And Sopater the parodist, in his Orestes, writes — 

A silver dish, bearing a stinking shad. 

And in the drama entitled Phace he says — 

But at his supper he does sport a cruet 
Of shining silver, richly chased with figures, 
And bas-reliefs of dragons : such as Thibron 
Used to display, most delicate of men, 
Stripp'd of his wealth by arts of Tantalus. 

And Theopompus the Chian, in his Letters of Advice to 
Alexander, when he enters into a discussion about Theocritus 
his fellow-citizen, says — " But he drinks out of silver cups 
and out of golden cups, and uses other vessels of the same 
kind upon his table. A man who formerly t not only did not 
drink out of silver vessels, but who had not brazen ones 
either, but was content with the commonest earthenware, and 
even that very often cracked and chipped. And Diphilus 
says, in his Painter — 

A splendid breakfast then appear'd, consisting 

Of all that was desirable or new ; 

First every kind of oyster ; then a phalanx 

Of various side-dishes, and a heap 

Of broiled meats fresh from the gridiron, 

And potted meats in silver mortars pounded. 

And Philemon says in his Physician — 

And a large basket full of silver plate. 
And Menander, in his Heautontimorumenos, says— 

A bath, maid-servants, lots of silver plate. 
And in his Hymnis he writes — 

But I am come in quest of silver plate. 
And Lysias, in his Oration on the Golden Tripod, if indeed 

C. 20.] SILVER PLATE. 365 

the speech be a genuine one of his, says — " It was still pos- 
sible to give silver or gold plate." But those who pique 
themselves on the purity of their Greek, say that the proper 
expression is not apyvpwp.aTa and ^uo-oj/mra, but apyvpovs 
Kocr/xos and xpuo-ous Kocfios. 

19. When ^Emilianus had said this, Pontianus said — For 
formerly gold was really exceedingly scarce among the 
Greeks; and there was not indeed much silver; at least, hot 
much which was extracted from the mines ; on which account 
Duris the Samian says that Philip, the father of the great 
king Alexander, as he was possessed of one flagon of gold, 
always put it under his pillow when he went to bed. And 
Herodorus of Heraclea says, that the Golden Lamb of Atreus, 
which was the pregnant cause of many eclipses of the sun, and 
changes of kings, and which was, moreover, the subject of 
a great many tragedies, was a golden flagon, having in the 
centre a figure of a golden lamb. And Anaximenes of Lamp- 
sacus, in the first of those works of his, called Histories, says 
that the necklace of Eriphyle was so notorious because gold 
at that time was so rare among the Greeks ; for that a golden 
goblet was at that time a most unusual thing to see; but 
that after the taking of Delphi by the Phocians, then all 
such things began to be more abundant. But formerly even 
those men who were accounted exceedingly rich used to drink 
out of brazen goblets, and the repositories where they put 
them away they called ^aAKo^r/zcai. 

And Herodotus says that the Egyptian priests drink out of 
brazen goblets; and he affirms that silver flagons could not 
be found to be given to all the kings, even when they sacri- 
ficed in public; and, accordingly, that Psammetichus, who 
was later than the other kings, performed his libations with a 
brazen flagon, while the rest made their offerings with silver 
ones. But after the temple at Delphi had been plundered by 
the tyrants of Phocis, then gold became common among the 
Greeks, and silver became actually abundant ; and afterwards, 
when the great Alexander had brought into Greece all the 
treasures from out of Asia, then there really did shine forth 
what Pindar calls " wealth predominating far and wide." 

20. And the silver and gold offerings which were at Delphi 
were offered originally by Gyges the king of the Lydians. 
For before the reign of this monarch Apollo had no silver, 


and still less had he gold, as Phauias the Eresian tells us, and 
Theopompus, too, in the fortieth book of his History of the 
Transactions of the Reign of Philip. For these writers 
relate that the Pythian temple was adorned by Gyges, and by 
Croesus who succeeded him; and. after them by Gelo and 
Hiero, the tyrants of Syracuse : the first of whom offered up a 
tripod and a statue of Victory, both made of gold, about the 
time that Xerxes was making his expedition against Greece ; 
and Hiero made similar offerings. And Theopompus uses 
the following language — " For anciently the temple was 
adorned with brazen offerings : I do not mean statues, but 
caldrons and tripods made of brass. The Lacedaemonians, 
therefore, wishing to gild the face of the Apollo that w T as at 
Amyclse, and not finding any gold in Greece, having sent to the 
oracle of the god, asked the god from whom they could buy 
gold ; and he answered them that they should go to Croesus 
the Lydian, and buy it of him. And they went and bought 
the gold of Croesus. But Hiero the Syracusan, wishing to 
offer to the god a tripod and a statue of Victory of unalloyed 
gold, and being in want of the gold for a long time, afterwards 
sent men to Greece to seek for it ; who, coming after a time 
to Corinth, and tracing it out, found some in the possession 
of Architeles the Corinthian, who had been a long time buy- 
ing it up by little and little, and so had no inconsiderable 
quantity of it ; and he sold it to the emissaries of Hiero in 
what quantity they required. And after that, having filled 
his hand with it he made them a present of all that he could 
hold in his hand, in return for which Hiero sent a vessel full 
of corn, and many other gifts to him from Sicily." 

2L And Phauias relates the same circumstances in his 
history of the Tyrants in Sicily, saying that the ancient offer- 
ings had been brass, both tripods, and caldrons, and daggers ; 
and that on one of them there was the following inscription — 
Look on me well ; for I was once a part 
Of the wide tower which defended Troy 
When Greeks and Trojans fought for fair-hair'd Helen ; 
And Helicon, brave Antenor's son, 
Brought me from thence, and placed me here, to be 
An ornament to Phoebus' holy shrine. 
And in the tripod, which was one of the prizes offered at 
the funeral games in honour of Patroclus, there was the 
inscription — • 

C. 23.] . GOLDEN TRINKETS. 367 

I am a brazen tripod, and I lie 
Here as an ornament of Delphi's shrine. 
The swift Achilles gave me as a prize 
What time he placed Patroclus on the pile, 
And Tydeus' mighty son, brave Diomede, 
Ofl'er'd me here, won by his speedy coursers 
In the swift race by Helle's spacious wave. 

22. And Ephorus, or Hemophilus, his son, in the thir- 
tieth book of his Histories, speaking of the temple of Delphi, 
says, " But Onomarchus and Phayllus and Phaleecus not only 
carried off all the treasures of the god, but at last their wives 
carried off also the ornaments of Eriphyle, which Alcmseon 
consecrated at Delphi by the command of the god*, and also 
the necklace of Helen, which had been given by Menelaus. 
For the god had given each of them oracles : he had said to 
Alcmseon, when he asked him how he could be cured of his 
madness — 

You ask a precious gift, relief from madness ; 
Give me a precious gift yourself; the chain 
With which your mother buried, steeds and all, 
Your sire, her husband, brave Amphiaraus. 

And he replied to Menelaus, who consulted him as to how he 

might avenge himself on Paris — 

Bring me the golden ornament of the neck 

Of your false wife; which Venus once did give 

A welcome gift to Helen; and then Paris 

Shall glut your direst vengeance by his fall. 

And it so fell out that a violent quarrel arose among the 
women about these ornaments— which should take which. 
And when they had drawn lots for the choice, the one of 
them, who was very ugly and stern, got Eriphyle's necklace, 
but the one who was conspicuous for beauty and wanton got 
the ornaments of Helen ; and she, being in love with a young 
man of Epirus, went away with him, but the other con- 
trived to put her husband to death. 

23. But the divine Plato, and Lycurgus the Laccdsemonian, 
not only forbad all costly ornaments to be introduced into 
their model states, but they would not permit even silver or 
gold to be brought into them, thinking that of the products 
of mines, iron and copper were sufficient, and banishing the 
other metals as injurious to those states which were in good 
order. But Zeno the Stoic, thinking everything tmimpbrtant 
except the legitimate and honest use of the precious metals, 


forbad either praying for or deprecating them ; hut still 
he recommended chiefly the xise of those which were more 
commonly accessible and less superfluous ; in order that men, 
having the dispositions of their minds formed so as neither 
to fear nor to admire anything which is not honourable on 
the one hand or discreditable on the other, should use only 
what is natural as much as possible, and yet should not fear 
what is of an opposite character, but abstain from such in 
obedience to reason and not to fear. For nature has not 
banished any of the above-mentioned things out of the world, 
but has made subterranean veins of these metals, the working 
of which is very laborious and difficult, in order that they 
who desire such things may arrive at the acquisition after 
toil and suffering ; and that not only those men themselves 
who work in the mines, but those also who collect what has 
been extracted from the mines, may acquire this much wished 
for opulence at the expense of countless labours. 

Therefore a little of these metals lies on the surface just to 
serve as a sample of the rest which is beneath, since in the 
remotest corners of the earth also there are rivers bearing- 
down gold-dust in their waters ; and women and men desti- 
tute of bodily strength scratching among the sand, detach 
these particles from the sand, and then they wash them and 
bring them to the smelting-pot, as my countryman Posidonius 
says is done among the Helvetians, and among others of the 
Celtic tribes. And the mountains which used formerly to be 
called the Rhipooan mountains, and which were subsequently 
named the Olbian (as if happy), and which are now called the 
Alps, (they are mountains in Gaul,) when once the woods 
upon them had caught fire spontaneously, ran with liquid 
silver. The greater quantity of this metal, however, is found 
by'mining operations carried on at a great depth, and attended 
by great hardship, according to the statement of Demetrius 
Phalereus, in consequence of the desire of avarice to draw 
Pluto himself out of the recesses of the earth ; and, accord- 
ingly, he says facetiously that — " Men having often abandoned 
what was visible for the sake of what was uncertain, have not 
got what they expected, and have lost what they had, being 
unfortunate by an enigmatical sort of calamity." 

24. But the Lacedaemonians being hindered by their national 
institutions from introducing silver or gold into Sparta, as the 


same Posiclonius relates, or from possessing any in private, 
did possess it nevertheless, but then they deposited it among 
their neighbours the Arcadians. But subsequently the 
Arcadians became enemies to them instead of friends, as 
they had been ; picking a quarrel with them with the express 
view of seizing on this deposit without being called to 
account for it, by reason of the enmity now subsisting. 
Therefore it is said that the gold and silver which had 
formerly been at Lacechemon was consecrated at Delphi to 
Apollo j and that when Lysander brought gold publicly into 
the city he was the cause of many evils to the state by so 
doing. And it is said that Gylippus, who delivered the 
Syracusans, was put to death by starvation, having been con- 
demned by the Ephori, because he had embezzled some of the 
money sent to Sparta by Lysander. But that which had been 
devoted to the god and been granted to the people as a public 
ornament and public property, it was not decent for any 
mortal to treat with contempt. 

25. But that tribe of Gauls which is called the Cordistao, 
does not introduce gold into their country either, still they 
are not the less ready to plunder the territories of their 
neighbours, and to commit injustice; and that nation is a 
remnant of the Gauls who formed the army of Brennus when 
he made his expedition against the temple of Delphi. And a 
certain Bathanatius, acting as their leader, settled them as 
a colony in the districts around the Ister, from whom they 
call the road by which they returned the Bathanatian road, 
and even to this day they call his posterity the Bathanati. 
And these men proscribe gold, and do not introduce it into 
their territories, as a thing on account of which they have 
suffered many calamities ; but they do use silver, and for the 
sake of that they commit the most enoraious atrocities. 
Although the proper course would be, not to banish the 
whole class of the thing of which they were formerly plun- 
dered, but the impiety which could perpetrate such a sacri- 
lege. And even if they did not introduce silver into their 
country, still they would commit excesses in the pursuit of 
copper and iron ; and even if they had not these things, still 
they would continue to rage in war against other nations for 
the sake of meat and drink, and other necessaries. 

26. When Pontianus had delivered his opinion in these 



terms, and while most of the guests were endeavouring to 
solve the questions proposed by Ulpian, Plutarch, being one 
of those who was attending to the other subjects of discussion, 
said, — The name parasite was in former days a respectable 
and a holy name. At all events, Polemo (whether he was a 
Samian or a Sicyonian, or whether he prefers the name of an 
Athenian, which Heraclides the Mopseatian gives him, who 
also speaks of him as being claimed by other cities; and he 
was also called Stelocopas, as Herodicus the Cratetian has 
told us,) writing about parasites, speaks as follows — " The 
name of parasite is now a disreputable one ; but among the 
ancients we find the word parasite iised as something sacred, 
and nearly equivalent to the title Messmate. Accordingly, 
at Cynosarges, in the temple of Hercules, there is a pillar on 
which is engraven a decree of Alcibiades ; the clerk who drew 
it up being Stephanus the son of Thucydides ; and in it 
mention is made of this name in the following terms — ' Let 
the priest perform the monthly sacrifices with the parasites ; 
and let the parasites select one bastard, and one of the sons 
of the same, according to the usual national customs; and 
whoever is unwilling to take the place of a parasite, let the 
priest report him to the tribunal.' And in the tables of the 
laws concerning the Deliasta) it is written — ' And let two 
heralds, of the family of the heralds, of that branch of it 
which is occupied about the sacred mysteries, be chosen ; and 
let them be parasites in the temple of Delos for a year.' And 
in Pallenis this inscription is engraved on the offerings there 
found — ' The Archons and parasites made these offerings, 
who, in the archonship of Pythodorus, were crowned with a 
golden crown; 1 and the parasites were, in the archonship of 
Lycostratus, Gargettius; in the archonship of Pericletus, 
Pericles Pitheus; in that of Demochares, Charinus.' And in 
the laws of the king, we find the following words — ' That the 
parasites of the Acharnensians shall sacrifice to Apollo.' But 
Olearchus the Solcusian, and he was one of the disciples of 
Aristotle, in the first book of his Lives, writes thus— 'But 
now they call a parasite a man who is ready for anything ; 
but in former times he was a man picked out as a com- 
panion.'" Accordingly, in the ancient laws, most cities 
mention parasites among the most honourable of their 
1 The text is supposed to he corrupt here. 

C. 27.] PARASITES. 371 

officers; and, indeed, they do so to this day. And Clidemus 
says in his Attic Women — 

And then they chose some parasites for Hercules. 

And Themiso, in hisPallenis, says — "That the king, who from 
time to time fills that office, and the parasites, whom they 
appoint from the main body of the people, and the old men, 
and the women who still have their first husbands, shall take 
care of such and such things." 

27. And from this you perceive, my good friend Ulpian, 
that you may raise another question, who the women are who 
still have their first husbands 1 But (for we are still speaking 
about the parasites) there is also an inscription on a pillar in 
the Anaceum to the following effect — " Of the best bulls 
which are selected, one-third is to be appropriated to the 
games; and of the remaining two-thirds, one is to go to the 
priest, and the other to the parasites." But Crates, in the 
second book of his treatise on the Attic Dialect, says — " And 
the word parasite is now used in a disreputable sense ; but 
formerly those people were called parasites who were selected 
to collect the sacred corn, and there was a regular Hall of the 
parasites ; on which account the following expressions occur 
in the law of the king — " That the king shall take care of 
the Archons that they are properly appointed, and that they 
shall select the parasites from the different boroughs, accord- 
ing to the statutes enacted with reference to that subject. 
And that the parasites shall, without any evasion or fraud, 
select from their own share a sixth pai't of a bushel of 
barley, on which all who are citizens of Athens shall feast 
in the temple, according to the national laws and customs. 
And that the parasites of the Acharnensians shall give a 
sixth part of a bushel from their collection of barley to the 
guild of priests of Apollo. And that there was a regular 
Hall for the parasites is shown by the following expressions in 
the same law — "For the repairs of the temple, and of the 
magistrates 1 hall, and of the hall of parasites, and of the 
sacred house, they shall pay whatever sums of money the 
contractors appointed by the priests think necessary." From 
this it is evident that the place in which the parasites laid up 
the first-fruits of the consecrated corn was called the 1'arasi- 
tium, or the Hall of the parasites. 

b b 2 


And Philochorus gives the same account in his book en- 
titled the Tetapolis, where he mentions the parasites who 
were elected for the temple of Hercules; and Diodorus of 
Sinope, a comic poet, in his Heir, (from which I will cite 
some testimonies presently,) says the same. And Aristotle, 
in his treatise on the Constitution of the Methoneans, says — 
" Parasites were two in number for each of the archons, and 
one for the polemarchs. And they received a fixed allowance 
from others, and they also took dishes of fish from the 

28. But the meaning which is now given to the name 
parasite is one which Carystiiis of Pergamus, in his treatise 
on the Didascalise, says was first invented by Alexis, for- 
getting that Epicharmus, in his Hope or Plutus, has intro- 
duced one in a drinking party, where he says — 

But here another stands at this man's feet, 

Seeking for foorl which shall not cost him anything, 
And he will drink up an entire cask, 
As if it were a cupfull. 

And he introduces the parasite himself, making the following 

speech to some one who questioned him — 
I sup with any one who likes, if he 
Has only got the good sense to invite me ; 
And with each man who makes a marriage feast, 
Whether I'm asked or not, there I am witty ; 
There I make others laugh, and there I praise 
The host, who gives the feast. And if by chance 
Any one dares to say a word against him, 
I arm myself for contest, and o'erwhelm him. 
Then eating much and drinking plentifully, 
I leave the house. No link-boy doth attend me ; 
But I do pick my way with stumbling steps, 
Both dark and desolate ; and if sometimes 
I do the watchmen meet, I swear to them 
By all the gods that I have done no wrong ; 
But still they set on me. At last, well beaten, 
I reach my home, and go to sleep on the ground, 
And for a while forget my blows and bruises, •- 
While the strong wine retains its sway and lulls me. 

29. And the parasite of Epicharmus makes a second speech 
of the same kind. And a parasite of Diphilus speaks thus — 

When a rich man who gives a dinner asks me, 
I look not at the ceiling or the cornices, 
Nor do I criticise Corinthian chasings, 
But keep my eyes fixed on the kitchen smoke, 

C. 30.] PARASITES. 373 

And if it goes up strong and straight to heaven, 
I joy and triumph, and I clap my wings ; 
But it be but thin and moving sidewise, 
Then I perceive my feast too will be thin. 

But Homer is the first person, as some say, who introduced 
the character of a parasite, saying of Podes that he was 
a beloved guest of Hector — 

There stood a Trojan, not unknown to fame, 
Eetion's son, and Podes was his name, — 
With riches honour'd, and with courage blest, 
By Hector loved, his comrade and his guest. 1 

For the word dXa-n-Lvrj comes to the same thing as S&ttvov, on 
which account he makes him wounded by Menelaus in the 
belly, as Demetrius the Scepsian says ; as also he represents 
Pandarus as wounded in the tongue, because of his having 
perjured himself; and it is a Spartan who wounds him, one 
of a nation very much devoted to temperance. 

30. But the ancient poets called parasites flatterers; from 
whom also Eupolis gave this title to his play, where he repre- 
sents a chorus of flatterers speaking thus — 

But we will tell you now 

The mode of life adopted 
By the whole flattering band, 

And listen ye, and learn 
How well-bred we all are. 

For first of all a boy, 
Another person's slave, 

Attends us ; and we are 
Content with very little. 

I have two well-made garments, 
And always have one on ; 

I hie me to the forum, 
And when I see a man, 

A foolish man but rich, 
I make my way to him, 

And if he saya a word 
I praise his wit and laugh, 

Delighted at his jests. 
And then we go to supper, 

My friends and I, pursuing 
Each different game so long 

As we can save our money. 
And then the parasite 

Must show his wit and manners, 
Or out of doors be turned. 

And one there was, Acestor, 

1 Iliad, xvii. 575. 


A branded slave, if I 

Am bound to tell the truth, 
And he was treated so. 

For not one single joke 
Did he ope his lips to utter, 

And so the slaves expell'd 
And pilloried the knave, 

And gave him up to (Eneus. 

31. And Araros, in his Hyrnenreus, uses the word parasite, 
■where he says — 

Why you must be a parasite, my friend ; 
And 'tis Ischomachus who does support you. 
And the word is constantly used among the later writers. 
And the verb irapao-iriw, to be a parasite, occurs in Plato the 
comic writer, in his Laches. For he says — 

See how these youths do play the parasite. 
And Alexis says that there are two kinds of parasites, in his 
Pilot, where we find this passage — 

A. There are two kinds of parasites. Nausinicos : 
The one the common one, much jested on 
By comic writers, we, the blackfaced men 
N. What is the other kind ] 

A. Satraps of parasites ; 
Illustrious leaders of the band ; a troop 
Whom you may call the venerable parasites ; 
Men who act well throughout their lives ; 
Knit their brows gravely, win estates and legacies. 
Know'st thou the kind of men, and these their manners ? 
N. Indeed I do. 

A . Each of these men have one 
Fix'd method of proceeding, flattery; 
And as in life, fortune makes some men great, 
And bids the rest content themselves with little ; 
So some of us do thrive, and some do fail. 
Do I not make the matter plain to you? 
A r . Why if I praise you, you will ask for more. 
32. And Timocles, in his Dracontius, hits off" the parasite 
very neatly, and describes his character thus — 
Shall I then let a man abuse the parasites? 
No, surely, for there is no race of men 
More useful in such matters. And if company 
Be one of the things which makes life pass agreeably, 
Surely a parasite does this most constantly. 
Are you in love? he, at the shortest notice, 
Feels the same passion. Have you any business 
His business is at once the same as yours ; 
And he's at hand to help you as you wish ; 
Thinking that only fair to him that feeds him. 
'Tis marvellous how he doth praise his friends — 

C. 34.] PARASITES. 375 

He loves a feast where he is ask'd for nothing. 

What man, what hero, or what god exists, 

Who does not scorn such habits and such principles 1 

But that I mayn't detain you all the day, 

I think that I can give you one clear proof 

In what respect men hold a parasite ; 

For they receive the same rewards as those 

Who at Olympia bear the palm of victory — 

They both are fed for nothing for their virtues; 

And wheresoe'er there is no contribution, 

That place we ought to call the Prytaneum. 

33. And Antiphanes, in his Twins, says — 

For look, the parasite, if you judge aright, 

Shares both the life and fortune of his friends. 

There is no parasite who'd wish his friends 

To be unfortunate; but on the contrary 

His constant prayer will be, that all may prosper. 

Has any one a fortune ] he don't envy him ; 

He 'd rather always be at hand to share it. 

He is a genuine friend, and eke a safe one, 

Not quarrelsome, ill-humour'd, peevish, sulky, 

But skill'd to keep his temper. Do you mock him? 

He laughs himself ; he 's amorous or mirthful, 

Just as his friend is i' th' humour. He 's a general, 

Or valiant soldier, only let his pay 

Be a good dinner, and he '11 ask no more. 

34. And Aristophon, in his Physician, says — 

I wish now to inform him 

What is my disposition. 
If any one gives a dinner, 

I'm always to be found, 
So that the young men scoffing 

Because I come in first 
Do call me gravy soup. 

Then if there be occasion 
To check a drunken guest, 

Or turn him out by force, . 
You'd think I were Antaeus ; 

Or must a door be forced ? 
I butt like any ram ; 

Or would you scale a ladder 'i 
I'm Capaneus, and eager 

To climb like him to heaven. 
Are blows to be endured ; 

A very anvil I ; 
Or Telamon or Ajax, 

If wounds are to be given ; 
While as a beauty-hunter 

E'en smoke itself can't beat me. 1 

1 It is said to have been a proverb among the Greek women, "Smoke 
follows the fairest." 


And in Lis Pythagorean he says — 

For being hungry, and yet eating nothing, 

He is a Tithymallus or Philippines ; 

For water-drinking he's a regular frog ; 

For eating thyme and cabbages, a snail ; 

For hating washing he 's a pig ; for living 

Out in the open air, a perfect blackbird ; 

For standing cold and chattering all the day, 

A second grasshopper ; in hating oil 

He's dust; for walking barefoot in the morning, 

A crane ; for passing sleepless nights, a bat. 

35. And Antiphanes says in his Ancestors — 

You know my ways ; 
That there 's no pride in me, but I am just 
Like this among my friends : a mass of iron 
To bear their blows, a thunderbolt to give them ; 
Lightning to blind a man, the wind to move one ; 
A very halter, if one needs be choked ; 
An earthquake to heave doors from off their hinges ; 
A flea to leap quick in ; a fly to come 
And feast without a formal invitation ; 
Not to depart too soon, a perfect well. 
I'm ready when I'm wanted, whether it be 
To choke a man or kill him, or to prove 
A case against him. All that others say, 
Those things I am prepared at once to do. 
And young men, mocking me on this account, 
Do call me whirlwind — but for me, I care not 
For such light jests. For to my friends I prove 
A friend in deeds, and not in words alone. 

But Diphilus in his Parasite, when a -wedding-feast is about 
to take place, represents the parasite as speaking thus — 

Do you not know that in the form of curse 
These words are found, If any one do fail 
To point the right road to a traveller, 
To quench a fire ; or if any one spoil 
The water of a spring or well, or hinders 
A guest upon his way when going to supper 1 

And Eubulus says in his (Edipus — 

The man who first devised the plan of feasting 
At other folk's expense, must sure have been 
A gentleman of very popular manners ; 
But he who ask'd a friend or any stranger 
To dinner, and then made him bear his share, 
May he be banish 'd, and his goods all seized. 

3G. And Diodorus of Sinope, in his Orphan Heiress, has 
these expressions, when speaking of a parasite, and they are 
not devoid of elegance — 


I wish to show and prove beyond a doubt 

How reputable, and how usual too, 

This practice is ; a most divine contrivance. 

Other arts needed not the gods to teach thorn ; 

Wise men invented them ; but Jove himself 

Did teach his friends to live as parasites, 

And he confessedly is king o' the gods. 

For he does often to men's houses come, 

And cares not whether they be rich or poor; 

And wheresoe'er he sees a well-laid couch, 

And well-spread table near, supplied with all 

That's good or delicate, he sits him down, 

And asks himself to dinner, eats and drinks, 

And then goes home again, and pays no share. 

And I now do the same. For when I see 

Couches prepared, and handsome tables loaded, 

And the door open to receive the guests, 

I enter in at once, and make no noise, 

But trim myself, behaving quietly, 

To give no great annoyance to my neighbour, 

And then, when I have well enjoy'd the whole 

That 's set before me, and when I have drunk 

Of delicate wines enough, I home return, 

Like friendly Jupiter. And that such a line 

"Was always thought respectable and honest, 

I now will give you a sufficient proof. 

This city honours Hercules exceedingly, 

And sacrifices to him in all the boroughs, 

And at these sacred rites it ne'er admits 

The common men, or parasites, or beggars ; 

But out of all the citizens it picks 

Twelve men of all the noblest families, 

All men of property and character ; 

And then some rich men, imitating Hercules, 

Select some parasites, not choosing those 

"Who are the wittiest men, but who know best 

How to conciliate men's hearts with flattery; 

So that if any one should eat a radish, 

Or stinking shad, they'd take their oaths at once 

That he had eaten lilies, roses, violets ; 

And that if any odious smell should rise, 

They'd ask where you did get such lovely scents. 

So that because these men behave so basely, 

That which was used to be accounted honourable, 

Is now accounted base. 

37. And Axionicus, in his Chalcidian, says — 

When first I wish'd to play the parasite 
With that Philoxcnus, while youth did still 
Baise down upon my checks, 1 learnt to bear 
Hard blows from fists, and cups and dishes too, 



And bones, so great that oftentimes? I was 
All over wounds ; but still it paid me well, 
For still the pleasure did exceed the pain. 
And even in some sort I did esteem 
The whole affair desirable for me. 
Is a man quarrelsome, and eager too 
To fight with me 1 I turn myself to him ; 
And all the blame which he does heap upon me, 
I own to be deserved ; and am not hurt. 
Does any wicked man call himself good ? 
I praise that man, and earn his gratitude. 
To day if I should eat some boiled fish 
I do not mind eating the rest to-morrow. 
Such is my nature and my principle. 

But Autidotus, in his play which is entitled Protochorus, in- 
troduces a man resembling those who in the Museum of 
Claudius still practise their sophistries ; whom it is not even 
creditable to remember; and he represents him speaking 
thus — 

Stand each one in your place, and listen to me, 

Before I write my name, and take my cloak. 

If any question should arise to day 

About those men who live as parasites, 

I have at all times much esteem'd their art, 

And from my childhood have inclined to learn it. 

38. And among the parasites these men are commemorated 
by name: Tithymallus, who is mentioned by Alexis in his 
Milesian Woman, and in his Ulysses the Weaver. And in 
his Olynthians he says — 

This is your poor man, my darling woman; 
This is the only class, as men do say, 
Who can put death to flight. Accordingly 
This Tithymallus does immortal live. 

And Dromon in his Psaltria says — 

A. I was above all things ashamed when I 
Found that I was again to have a supper 
For which I was to give no contribution. 

B. A shameful thing, indeed. Stiil you may see 
Our Tithymallus on his way, more red 
Than saffron or vermilion ; and he blushes, 
As you may guess, because he nothing pays. 

And Timocles, in his Centaur or Dexarnenus, says — 

Calling him Tithymallus, parasite. 
And in his Caunians he says — 

A. Will any other thing appear? Be quick, 

For Tithymallus has return'd to life, 

« 3.9.] 


Who was quite dead, now that he well has boil'd 
Eightpenny worth of lupin seed. 

B. For he 
Could not persist in starving himself, but only 
In drinking'wine at other men's expense. 

And in his Epistles he says — 

Alas me, how I am in love ! ye gods ! 
Not Tithymallus did so long to eat, 
Nor Cormus ever to steal another's cloak, 
Nor Nilus to eat cakes, nor Corydus 
To exercise his teeth at other's cost. 

And Antiphanes says in his Etrurian — 

A . For he will not assist his friends for nothing. 

B. You say that Tithymallus will be rich, 
For as I understand you, he will get 
Sufficient pay, and a collection suitable 
From those within whose doors he freely sups. 

39. Corydus also was one of the most notorious parasites. 
And he is mentioned by Timocles, in his The Man who 
Rejoices at Misfortunes of others, thus — 

To sec a well-stock' d market is a treat 

To a rich man, but torture to a poor one. 

Accordingly once Corydus, when he 

Had got no invitation for the day, 

Went to buy something to take home with him. 

And who can cease to laugh at what befel him % — 

The man had only fourpence in his purse ; 

Gazing on tunnies, eels, crabs, rays, anchovies, 

He bit his lips till the blood came in vain ; 

Then going round, " How much is this 1 " said he — 

Then frighten'd at the price, he bought red herrings. 

And Alexis, in Demetrius or Philetcerus, says — 

I fear to look at Corydus in the face, 
Seeming so glad to dine with any one ; 
But I will not deny it ; he 's the same, 
And never yet refused an invitation. 

And in his Nurse he says — 

This Corydus who has so often practised 

II is jokes and witticisms, wishes now 
To be Blepoeus, and he's not far wrong, 
For mighty are the riches of Blepseus. 

And Cratinus the younger in his Titans says — 

Beware of Corydus the wary brassfounder ; 
Unless you make your mind up long before 
To leave him nothing. And I warn you now 


Never to eat your fish with such a man 
As Corydus ; for he 's a powerful hand, 
Brazen, unwearied, strong as fire itself. 

But that Corydus used to cut jokes, and was fond of being 
laughed at for them, the same Alexis tells to in his Poets — 

I have a great desire to raise a laugh, 

And to say witty things, and gain a fame 

Second alone to that of Corydus. 
And Lynceus the Samian repeats several of his sayings, and 
asserts that his proper name was Eucrates. And he writes 
thus concerning him — " Eucrates, who was called Corydus, 
when he was once feasting with some one whose house was in 
a very shabby condition, said, ' A man who sups here ought to 
hold up the house with his left hand like the Caryatides.' " 

40. But Philoxenus, who was surnamed Pternocopis, when 
it happened to be mentioned that thrushes were very dear, 
and that too while Corydus was present, who was said formerly 
to have prostituted himself — " I," said he, " can recollect when 
a lark (KopvSos) only cost an obol." (And Philoxenus too was 
a parasite, as Axionicus has stated in his Chalcidian. But 
the statement is thoroughly proved.) Menander too men- 
tions him in his Cecryphalus, calling him Pternocopis only. 
And Machon the comic writer mentions him. — But Machon 
Avas either a Corinthian or Sicyonian by birth, living, however, 
in my own city of Alexandria; and he was thatutor of Aristo- 
phanes the grammarian, as far as comedy went. And he died 
in Alexandria, and an inscription to the following effect is 
placed upon hit, tomb — 

Bring, light dust, the conqueror's ivy wreath 
To Machon, who shall live beyond the tomb, 

Machon the comic poet ; for you hold 
No dirty drone, but you embrace at last 

A worthy relic of antique renown 

These words from the old bard himself might flow, 

City of Cccrops ; even by the Nile 

Is found at times a plant to all the Musea dear. 

And surely this is equivalent to a statement that he was an 
Alexandrian by birth. However that may be, Machon men- 
tions Corydus in these terms — 

A messmate once'd Eucrates (Corydus) 

On what terms he and Ptolemy did stand. 

I'm sure, said he, I cannot tali myself: 

For oft he drenches me like any doctor; 

But never gives me solid food to eat. 

C. 41.] PARASITES. 381 

And Lynceus, in the second book of his treatise on Menander, 
says the men who got a reputation for saying witty things were 
Euclides the son of Smicrinus, and Philoxenus called Pter- 
nocopis. And of them Euclides did at times say apophthegms 
not unworthy of being written down and recollected ; but in 
all other matters he was cold and disagreeable. But Phil- 
oxenus did not particularly excel in short curt sayings, but 
still whatever he said, whether in the way of gossip, or of a 
bitter attack on any of his companions, or of relation of 
occurrences, was full of pleasant and witty conversation. 
And yet it happened that Euclides was not very popular, but 
that Philoxenus was loved and respected by every one. 

41. But Alexis, in his Trophonius, mentions a certain 
Moschion, a parasite, calling him " a messmate of every one," 
and saying — 

Then comes Moschion, 
Who bears the name of messmate in the world. 

And in his Pancratiast, Alexis, giving a regular catalogue of 
the dinner hunters, says — 

A. First then there was Callimedon the crab ; 
Then Cobion, and Corydus, and Cyrebion, 
Scombrus and Semidalis. 

B. Hercules ! 
This is a list of dishes, not of guests. 1 

But Epicrates was nicknamed Cyrebion, and he was the son- 
in-law of ^Eschines the orator, as Demosthenes tells us in the 
oration about the False Embassy. And Anaxandrides, in his 
Ulysses, mentions such epithets as these, which the Athenians 
used to affix to people out of joke ; saying — 

For ye are always mocking one another ; 
I know it well. And if a man be handsome 
You call him Holy Marriage .... 
If a man be a perfect dwarf, a mannikin, 
You call him Drop. Is any one a dandy ] 
He is called dolus ; you know an instance. 
Does a man walk about all fat and heavy, 
Like Deinoclcs] you call him Gravy Soup. 
Does any one love dirt? his name is Dust. 
Does any one bedaub his friends with flattery ? 

1 The preceding names are the names of eatables, in the genitive case, 
though here used as nominatives • for persons ; Kcipiov means a sort of 
tench ; KopvSos (as has been said before), a lark ; KVfrii/3ta arc husks, bran ; 
o-Ko/iBpos is the generic name for the tunny fish ; af/xidahts is fine wheat 
flour, semilago. 


They call him Dingey. Does one want a supper I 

He is the fasting Cestrinus ; and if 

One casts one's eye upon a handsome youth, 

They dub one Coenus, or The Manager. 

Does one in joke convey a lamb away '? 

They call one Atreus : or a ram 1 then Phrixus : 

Or if yon take a fleece, they name you Jason. 

42. And he mentions Chcerephon the parasite in the passage 
which precedes this. But Menander mentions him likewise 
in the Cecryphalus : and in his Anger he says — 

The man does not differ the least from Chferephon, 

Whoever he may be. He once was ask'd to supper 

At four o'clock, and so he early rose, 

And measuring the shadow on the dial 

By the moon's light, he started off and came 

To eat his supper at the break of day. 

And in his Drunkenness he says — 

That witty fellow Chrerephon delay'd me, 
Saying that he should make a marriage feast 
The twenty-second of the month, that then 
He might dine with his friends the twenty-fourth, 
For that the goddess's affairs were prospering. 

And he mentions him also in his Man-woman, or the Cretan. 
But Timocles in his Letters mentions him especially as having 
attached himself as a parasite to Demotion, who was an intem- 
perate man — 

But Demotion was one who spared for nothing, 

Thinking his money never could run dry, 

But dinners gave to all who liked to come. 

And Chajrephon, that wretchedest of men, 

Treated his house as though it were his own. 

And yet is not this a most shameful thing, 

To take a branded slave for a parasite 1 

For he's a perfect clown, and not in want. 

And Antiphanes says in his Scythian — 
Let its go now to sup, just as we are, 
Bearing our torches and our garlands with us ; 
'Twas thus that Chrerephon, when supperless, 
Used to manoeuvre for an invitation. 

And Timotheus says in his Puppy — 

Let us start off to go to supper now, 
'Tis one of twenty covers as he told me ; 
Though Cha^rephon perhaps may add himself. 

43. And Apollodorus the Carystian, in his Priestess, says — 

They say that Chferephon all uninvited 
Came to the wedding feast of Ophelas, 

C. 44.] PARASITES. 383 

Thrusting himself in in unheard-of fashion. 
For carrying a basket and a garland 
When it was dark, he said that he had come 
By order of the bride, bringing some birds, 
And on this pretext he did get his supper. 

And in his Murdered Woman he says — 

I Mars invoke, and mighty Victory, 
To favour this my expedition. 
I also call on Chaarephon — but then 
He 's sure to come, e'en if I call him not. 

And Machon the comic writer says — 

Once Chasrephon a lengthen'd journey took 

Out of the city to a wedding feast, 

And on his way met Diphilus the poet, 

Who greeted him — " Take my advice, Cbcerephon, 

And fasten four stout nails to your two cheeks ; 

Lest, while you shake your head in your long journey, . 

Tou should put both your jaws quite out of joint. 

And in another place he says — 

Chierephon once was purchasing some meat, 
And when the butcher was by chance, he says, 
Cutting him out a joint with too much bone, 
He said, butcher, don't weigh me that bone. 
Says he, The meat is sweet, indeed men say 
The meat is always sweetest near the bone. 
But Chserephon replied, It may be sweet, 
But still it weighs much heavier than I like. 

And Callimachus attributes to Chserephon a certain treatise, 
in the list which he gives, entitled, A Catalogue of all sorts of 
Things. And he writes thus : — " Those who have written 
about feasts : — Chasrephon in his Cyrebion ;" and then he 
quotes the first sentence — " Since you have often written to 
me j" and says that the work consisted of three hundred and 
seventy-five lines. And that Cyrebion was a parasite has 
been already mentioned. 

44. Machon also mentions Archephon the parasite, and 
says — 

There was a parasite named Archephon, 
Who, having sail'd from Attica to Egypt, 
Was ask'd by Ptolemy the king to supper. 
Then many kinds of fish which cling to rocks 
Were served up, genuine crabs, and dainty limpets ; 
And last of all appear'd a large round dish 
With three boil'd tench of mighty size, at which 
The guests all marvell'd ; and this Archephon 
Ate of the char, and mackerel, and mullets, 


Till he could eat no longer ; when he never 

Had tasted anything before more tender 

Than sprats and worthless smelts from the Phalerum ; 

But from the tench he carefully abstain'd. 

And this did seem a most amazing thing, 

So that the king inquired of Alcenor, 

Whether the man had overlooked the tench. 

The hunchback said ; No, quite the contrary, 

He was the first to see them, Ptolemy, 

But still he will not touch them, for this fish 

Is one he holds in awe ; and he's afraid 

And thinks it quite against his country's rules 

That he, while bringing nothing to the feast, 

Should dare to eat a fish which has a vote. 

45. And Alexis in his Wine-Bibber introduces Stratius the 
parasite as grumbling at the man who gives him his dinner, 
and speaking thus — 

I'd better be a parasite of Pegasus, 

Or the Boreadaa, or whoever else 

Is faster still, than thus to Demeas 

Eteobutadcs, the son of Laches, 

For he is not content to walk, but flies. 

And a little afterwards he says — 

A. Oh Stratius, dost thou love me? 

B. Aye, I do 
More than my father, for he does not feed me ; 
But you do give the best of dinners daily. 

A. And do you pray the gods that I may live ? 

B. No doubt I do ; for how should I myself 
Live if misfortune happen' d unto you 1 

And Axionicus the comic poet, in his Etrurian, mentions 
Gryllion the parasite in these words — ■ 

They cannot now make the excuse of wine, 
As Gryllion was always used to do. 

And Aristodemus, in the second book of his Memoranda Oi 
Laughable Things, gives the following list of parasites — 
Sqstratus the parasite of Antiochus the king, Evagoras the 
Hunchback, parasite of Demetrius Poliorcetes, and Phormio 
parasite of Seleucus. And Lynceus the Samian, in his Apoph- 
thegms, says — "Silanus the Athenian, when Gryllion the para- 
site of Menander the satrap was passing by in a superb robe, 
and accompanied by a great number of attendants, being asked 
who he was, said, " He is a jaw worthy of Menander." But 
Chcerephou the parasite, coming once to a wedding feast 

C. 47.] GYN.ECONOHI. 36.J 

without being invited, and sitting down the last of all, when 
the gymeconomi had counted those who were invited, and 
desired him to depart as having made the number of guests 
to exceed the legitimate number of thirty, said, ' Count us 
over again, and begin with me.' " 

46. And that it was a custom for the officers called gynse- 
conomi 1 to superintend the banquets, and to examine into the 
number of those who had been invited, and see whether it 
was in accordance with the law, we may learn from Timocles 
in his Litigious Man, where he says — 

Open the doors at once, that we may be 
More in the light against the gynoeeonomus 
Shall enter ana begin to count the guests, 
As he is bound to do by this new law, 
A marvellous statute. It were better far 
That he should ask who are without a dinner. 

And Menander says in his Cecryphalus — ■ 

Knowing that by some new law lately pas^'d, 
The cooks who minister at marriage feasts 
Have given in their names and are enroll'd 
In the books of the gynteconomi, 
So that they may the number learn of those 
Who are invited, lest a man should feast 
More than the legal number. 

And Philochorus, in the seventh book of his history of the 
Affairs of Attica, says — The gyuseconomi used, in conjunction 
with the judges of the Areopagus, to examine the parties in 
private houses, and at marriage feasts, and at all other fes- 
tivals and sacrifices. 

47. And Lynceus records the following sayings of Cory- 
dus : — " Once when a courtesan whose name was Gnome 
was supping with Corydus, the wine ran short, on which he 
desired every one to contribute two obols; and said that 
Gnome should contribute whatever the people thought fit. 
And once when Polyctor the harp-player was eating lentil 
porridge, and had' got a stone between his teeth, ' you 
unhappy man!' said Corydus, 'even a lentil strikes you."" 

1 We know little more of the gynaeconomi, or ywaiK^Koanoi as they 
were also called, than what is derived from this passage. It appears 
probable that they existed from the time of Solon ; though the duties hero 
attributed to them may not have formed a part of their original business. 
Vide Smith, Diet. Ant. in voc. 

VOL. 1. — ATII. C C 


And perhaps he is the same person whom Machon mentions; 
for he says — 

It seems that once a wretched harp-player, 

Being about to build himself a house, 

Begg'd of a friend to lend him a few stones ; 

And many more will I repay, he said, 

When I've display'd my art to all the people. 

And once, when somebody said to Corydus that he some- 
times kissed the neck, and the breasts, and even the navel 
(o^aAos) of his wife, " That is very wrong," said he ; " for 
even Hercules went from Omphale to Hebe." And Avhen 
Phyromachus dipped a piece of bread into some lentil por- 
ridge, and upset the dish, he said that it was right that he 
should be fined, because he did not know how to eat pro- 
perly, though he professed to. And once, at Ptolemy's table, 
when a ragout was carried round to the guests, but was 
finished before it came to him — " Ptolemy," said he, "am 
I drunk, or am I right in thinking that these dishes are car- 
ried round?" And when Chajrephon the parasite said that 
he was unable to stand much wine, he rejoined, "No, nor 
stand what is put into the wine either." And once, when at 
some entertainment Chserephon rose up from supper quite 
naked — "0 Chacrephon," said he, "you are just like a bottle, 
so that we can see how nearly full you are." And when 
Demosthenes received that goblet from Harpalus — "This 
man," said he, " who calls other men hard drinkers, has him- 
self swallowed a large cup." And, as he was in the habit of 
bringing dirty loaves to supper, once, when somebody else 
brought some which Avere blacker still, he said, " that he had 
not brought loaves, but the shades of loaves." 

48. And Philoxenus the parasite, who was surnamed 
Pternocopis, once was dining with Python, and olives (eAaai) 
were put on the table, and after a little while a dish of fish 
was brought; and he, striking the dish, said — 

Maari^iv 5' i\aav. 

And once, at supper, when the man who had invited him had 
set loaves of black bread before him, he said, " Do not give 
me too many, lest you should darken the room." And Pau- 
simachus said of a certain parasite who was maintained by 
an old woman, " That the man who lived with the old woman 
fared in exactly the contrary manner to the old woman her- 

C. 50.] PARASITES. 387 

self; for that he was always large." And he is the man of 
whom Machon writes in this manner : — 

They saj" that Moschion the water drinker 

Once, when he was with friends in the Lyceum, 

Seeing a parasite who was used to live 

Upon a rich old woman, said to him, 

" My friend, your fate is truly marvellous ; 

For your old dame does give you a big belly." 
And the same man, hearing of a parasite who was maintained 
by an old woman, and who lived in habits of daily intimacy 
with her, said — 

Xothing is strange henceforth, she brings forth nothing, 

But the man daily doth become big-bellied. 
And Ptolemy, the son of Agesarchns, a native of Megalopolis, 
in the second book of his history of Philopator, says that 
men to dine with the king were collected from every city, 
and that they were called jesters. 

49. And Posidonius of Apamea, in the twenty-third book 
of his histories, says, " The Celtag, even when they make war, 
take about with them companions to dine with them, whom 
they call parasites. And these men celebrate their praises 
before large companies assembled together, and also to pri- 
vate individuals who are willing to listen to them : they have 
also a description of people called Bards, who make them 
music ; and these are poets, who recite their praises with 
songs. And in his thirty-fourth book, the same writer speaks 
of a man whose name was Apollonius, as having been the 
parasite of Antiochus surnamed Grypus, king of Syria. And 
Aristodemus relates that Bithys, the parasite of king Lysi- 
machus, once, when Lysimachus threw a wooden figure of a 
scorpion on his cloak, leaped up in a great fright ; but pre- 
sently, when he perceived the truth, he said, " I, too, will 
frighten you, king ! — give me a talent." For Lysimachus 
was very stingy. And Agatharchides the Cnidian, in the 
twenty-second book of his history of Europe, says that An- 
themocritus the pancratiast was the parasite of Aristomachus, 
the tyrant of the Argives. 

50. And Timocles has spoken in general terms of parasites 
in his Boxer, when he calls them eiruriruot, in these words — 

You will find here some of the parasites ({iruririoi) 
AVho cat at other men's tables till they burst, 
That you might say they give themselves to athletes 
To act as quintain sacks. 

c o 2 


And Ph ere crates, in his Old Women, says — 

A. But you, my friend Smicythion, will not 

Get your food (iiria-LTi^ofiai) quicker. 

B. Who, I pray, is this 1 
A. I bring this greedy stranger everywhere, 

As if he were my hired slave or soldier. 

For those men are properly called kirirjirioi who do any service 
for their keep. Plato says, in the fourth book of his treatise 
on Politics, " And the c7rurmoc do these things, who do not. as 
others do, receive any wages in addition to their food." And 
Aristophanes says, in his Storks — 

For if you prosecute one wicked man, 
Twelve iiruririot will come against you, 
And so defeat you by their evidence. 

And Eubulus says, in his Daedalus — 

He wishes to remain an ima'trios 

Among them, and will never ask for wages. 

51. And Diphilus, in his Synoris (and Synoris is the name 
of a courtesan), mentioning Euripides (and Euripides is the 
name given to a particular throw on the dice), and punning 
on the name of the poet, says this at the same time about 
parasites : — 

A. You have escaped well from such a throw. 
S. You are right witty. 

A. Well, lay down your drachma. 
S. That has been done : how shall 1 throw Euripides ) 
A. Euripides will never save a woman. 

See you not how he hates them in his tragedies ? 
But he has always fancied parasites, 
And thus he speaks, you'll easily find the place : 
" For every rich man who docs not feed 
At least three men who give no contribution, 
Exile deserves and everlasting ruin." 
S. Where is that passage ? 

A. What is that to you ? 
'Tis not the play, but the intent that signifies. 

And in the amended edition of the same play, speaking of a 

parasite in a passion, he says — 

Is then the parasite angry 1 is he furious! 
Not he; he only smears with gall the table. 
And weans himself like any child from milk. 

And immediately afterwards he adds — 

A . Then you may eat, parasite. 

B. Just see 

a 52.] parasites. 3S9 

How lie disparages that useful skill. 
A. Well, know you not that all men rank a parasite 
Below a harp-player] 

And in the play, which is entitled The Parasite, he says — 

A surly man should never be a parasite. 
52. And Menander, in his Passion, speaking of a friend 
who had refused an invitation to a marriage feast, says — 

This is to be a real friend ; not one 

Who asks, time is dinner] as the rest do. 

And, Why should we not all at once sit down] 

And fishes for another invitation 

To-morrow and next day, and then again 

Asks if there's not a funeral feast to follow. 
And Alexis in his Orestes, Nicostratus in his Plutus, Me- 
nander in his Drunkenness, and in his Lawgiver, speak in 
the same way; and Philonides, in his Buskins, says — 

I being abstinent cannot endure 

Such things as these. 

But there are many other kindred nouns to the noun -trapd- 
o-iros : there is eVt'o-tro?, which has already been mentioned ; 
and ot/v-o'o-iTo?, and mTOKovpos, and at'roVtTo? ; and besides 
these, there is Kaxo'criTos and oAiyoo-cros : and Anaxandrides 
nses the Avord otKoVtros in his Huntsmen — 

A son who feeds at home (oiKo'cm-os) is a great comfort. 
And a man is called oikoVitos who serves the city, not for 
hire, but gratis. Antiphanes, in his Scythian, says — 

The otK&ffiros quickly doth become 

A regular attendant at th' assembly. 
And Menander says, in his Ring — 

We found a bridegroom willing to keep house (uIkgctitos) 

At his own charges, for no dowry seeking. 
And in his Harp-player he says — 

You do not get your hearers there for nothing (oiKoffirovs). 
Crates uses the word cVtcrirtos in his Deeds of Daring, 
He feeds his messmate ((iria-LTiov) while lie shivers thus 

In Megabyzus' house, and he will have 

Food for his wages. 
And he also uses the word in a peculiar sense in his Women 
dining together, where he says — 

It is a well-bred custom not to assemble 

A crowd of women, nor to feast a multitude ; 

But to make a domestic {oiKoa'novs) wedding feast. 


And the weird atTOKovpos is used by Alexis, iu his Woman 
sitting up all Night or the Weavers — 

You will be but a walking bread-devourer (<rn6iiovpos) 
And Menander calls a man who is useless, and who lives to no 
purpose, o-troKoupo?, in his Thrasyleon, saying — 

A lazy ever-procrastinating fellow, 

A onSnovpos, miserable, useless, 

Owning himself a burden on the earth. 
And in his Venal People he says — 

Wretch, you were standing at the door the while, 

Having laid down your burden ; while, for us, 

We took the wretched cnroKovpos in. 

And Crobylus used the word auroViTos (bringing one's own 
provisions), in The Man hanged — 

A parasite avroffiros, feeding himself, 

You do contribute much to aid your master. 

And Eubulus has the word kcik6Wos (eating badly, having no 
appetite), in his Ganymede — 

Sleep nourishes him since he's no appetite (naiMo-nos). 
And the word oAtyoVtros (a sparing eater) occurs in Phryni- 
chus, in his The solitary Man — 

What does that sparing eater (nKtyoaiTos) Hercules there I 
And Pherecrates, or Strattis, in his Good Men — 

How sparingly you eat, who in one day 

Swallow the food of an entire trireme. 
53. When Plutarch had said all this about parasites, De- 
mocritus, taking up the discourse, said, And I myself, ' like 
wood well-glued to wood,' as the Theban poet has it, will say 
a word about flatterers. 

For of all men the flatterer fares best, 
as the excellent Menander says. And there is no great dif- 
ference between calling a man a flatterer and a parasite. 
Accordingly, Lynceus the Samian, in his Commentaries, 
gives the name of parasite to Cleisophus, the man who is uni- 
versally described as the flatterer of Philip, the king of the 
Macedonians (but he was an Athenian by birth, as Satyrus 
the Peripatetic affirms, in his Life of Philip). And Lynceus 
says — "Cleisophus, the parasite of Philip, when Philip rebuked 
him for being continually asking for something, replied, ' I 
am very forgetful.' Afterwards, when Philip had given him 
a wounded horse, he sold him ; and when, after a time, the king 

C. 5-5.] PARASITES. 391 

asked him what had become of him, he answered, 'He was sold 
by that wound of his.' And when Philip laughed at him, and 
took it good-humouredly, he said, ' Is it not then worth my 
while to keep you V " And Hegesander the Delphian, in his 
Commentaries, makes this mention of Cleisophus : — " When 
Philip the king said that writings had been brought to him 
from Cotys, king of Thrace, Cleisophus, who was present, said, 
' It is well, by the gods.' And when Philip said, ' But what 
do you know of the subjects mentioned in these writings V he 
said, 'By the great Jupiter, you have reproved me with 
admirable judgment.' " 

54. But Satyrus, in his Life of Philip, says, " "When Philip 
lost his eye, Cleisophus came forth with him, with bandages 
on the same eye as the king ; and again, when his leg was 
hurt, he came out limping, along with the king. And if 
ever Philip ate any harsh or sour food, he would contract his 
features, as if he, too, had the same taste in his mouth. But 
in the country of the Arabs they used to do these things, not 
out of flattery, but in obedience to some law ; so that when- 
ever the king had anything the matter with any one of his 
limbs, the courtiers pretended to be suffering the same incon- 
venience : for they think it ridiculous to be willing to be 
buried with him when he dies, but not to pay him the com- 
pliment of appearing to be subject to the same sufferings as 
he is while alive, if he sustains any injury." But Nicolaus of' 
Damascus, — and he was one of the Peripatetic school, — in 
his very voluminous history (for it consisted of a hundred 
and forty-four books), in the hundred and eleventh book 
says, that Adiatomus the king of the Sotiani (and that is a 
Celtic tribe) had six hundred picked men about him, who 
were called by the Gauls, in their national language, Siloduri — 
which word means in Greek, Bound under a vow. " And the 
king has them as companions, to live with him and to die 
with him; as that is the vow which they all take. In return 
for which, they also share his power, and wear the same dress, 
and eat the same food ; and they die when he dies, as a, 
matter of absolute necessity, if the king dies of any disease ; 
or if he dies in war, or in any other manner. And no one 
can even say that any of them has shown any fear of death, 
or has in the least sought to evade it when the king is dead."' 

55. But Theopompus says, in the forty-fourth book of his 


Histories, that Philip appointed Thrasydams the Thessalian 
tyrant over all those of his nation, though a man who had 
but little intellect, but who was an egregious flatterer. But 
Arcadion the Achaean was not a flatterer, who is mentioned by 
the same Theppompus, and also by Duris in the fifth book of 
his History of Macedonian Affairs. Now this Arcadion hated 
Philip, and on account of this hatx*ed voluntarily banished 
himself from his country. And he was a man of the most 
admirable natural abilities, and numbers of clever sayings of 
his are related. It happened then once, when Philip was 
sojourning at Delphi, that Arcadion also was there ; and the 
Macedonian beheld him and called him to him, and said, 
How much further, Arcadion, do you mean to go by way 
of banishment 1 And he replied — 

Until I meet with men who know not Philip. 

But Phylarchus, in the twenty-first book of his History, says 
that Philip laughed at this, and invited Arcadion to supper, 
and that in that way he got rid of his enmity. But of Nice- 
sins the flatterer of Alexander, Hegesander gives the following 
account : — " When Alexander complained of being bitten by the 
flies and was eagerly brushing them off* a man of the name of 
Nicesias, one of his flatterers who happened to be present, said, 
— Beyond all doubt those flies will be far superior to all other 
flies, now that they have tasted your blood." And the same man 
says that Cheirisophus also, the flatterer of Dionysius, when 
he saw Dionysius laughing with some of his acquaintances, 
(but he was some way off himself, so that he could not hear 
what they were laughing at,) laughed also. And when Diony- 
sius asked him on what account he, who could not possibly 
hear what was said, laughed, said — I feel that confidence in 
you that I am quite sure that what has been said is worth 
laughing at. 

56. His son also, the second Dionysius, had numerous flat- 
terers, who were called by the common people Dionysiocolaces. 
And they, because Dionysius himself was not very sharp 
sighted, used to pretend while at supper not to be able to see 
very far, but they would touch whatever was near them as if 
they could not see it, until Dionysius himself guided their 
hands to the dishes. And when Dionysius spat, they would 
often put out their own faces for him to spit upon : and then 


licking off the spittle and even his vomit, they declared that 
it was sweeter than honey. And Timseus, in the twenty- 
second book of his Histories, says that Democles the flatterer 
of the younger Dionysius, as it was customary in Sicily to 
make a sacrifice from house to house in honour of the nymphs, 
and for men to spend the night around their statues when 
quite drunk, and to dance around the goddesses — Democles 
neglecting the nymphs, and saying that there was no use in 
attending to lifeless deities, went and danced before Diony- 
sius. And at a subsequent time being once sent on an embassy 
with some colleagues to Dion, when they were all proceeding 
in a trireme, he being accused by the rest of behaving in a 
seditious manner in respect of this journey, and of having 
injured the general interests of Dion} T sius, when Dionysius 
was very indignant, he said that differences had arisen between 
himself and his colleagues, because after supper they took a 
paean of Phrynichus or Stesichorus, and some of them took 
one of Pindar's and sang it • but he, with those who agreed 
■with him, went entirely through the hymns which had been 
composed by Dioi^sius himself. And he undertook to bring 
forward undeniable proof of this assertion. For that his 
accusers were not acquainted with the modulation of those 
songs, but that he on the contrary was ready to sing them all 
through one after the other. And so, when Dionysius was 
pacified, Democles continued, and said, " But you would do 
me a great favour, Dionysius, if you were to order any one 
of those who knows it to teach me the psean which you com- 
posed in honour of ^Esculapius; for I hear that you have 
taken great pains with that." 

And once, when some friends were invited to supper by 
Dionysius, Dionysius coming into the room, said, " 0, my 
friends, letters have been sent to us from the generals who 
have been despatched to Naples ;" and Democles interrupting 
him, said, " By the gods, they have done well, Dionysius." 
And he, looking upon him, said, " But how do you know 
whether what they have written is in accordance with my 
expectation or the contrary 1 ?" And Democles replied, "By 
the gods, you have properly rebuked me, Dionysius." 
Timseus also affirms that there was a man named Satyrus, who 
was a flatterer of both the Dionysii. 

57. And Hegesandcr relates that Hiero the tyrant was 


also rather weak in his eyes ; and that his friends who supped 
with him made mistakes in the dishes on purpose, in order to 
let him set them right, and to give him an opportunity of 
appearing clearer-sighted than the rest. And Hegesander says 
that Euclides, who was surnamed Seutlus, (and he too was a 
parasite,) once when a great quantity of sow-thistles (croy/cos) 
was set before him at a banquet, said, " Capaneus, who is in- 
troduced by Euripides in his Suppliant Women, was a very 
witty man — 

Detesting tables where there was too much pride (uynos). 
But those who were the leaders of the people at Athens, 
says he, in the Chremonidean war, nattered the Athenians, 
and said, "that everything else was common to all the Greeks; 
but that the Athenians were the only men who knew the 
road which leads to heaven." And Satyrus, in his Lives, 
says that Anaxarchus, the Eudsemonical philosopher, was one 
of the flatterers of Alexander; and that he once, when on a 
journey in company with the king, when a violent and 
terrible thunderstorm took place, so as to frighten everybody, 
said — " Was it you, Alexander, son of Jupiter, who caused 
tins'?" And that he laughed and said— "Not I; for I do 
not wish to be formidable, as you make me out ; you also 
desire me to have brought to me at supper the heads of 
satraps and kings." And Aristobulus of Cassandria says that 
Dioxippus the Athenian, a pancratiast, once when Alexander 
was wounded and when the blood flowed, said — 
'Tis ichor, such as flows from the blessed gods. 

5S. And Epicrates the Athenian, having gone on an em- 
bassy to the king, according to the statement of Hegesander, 
and having received many presents from him, was not 
ashamed to flatter the king openly and boldly, so as even to 
say that the best way was not to choose nine archons every 
year, but nine ambassadors to the king. But I wonder at the 
Athenians, how they allowed him to make such a speech 
without bringing him to trial, and yet fined Demades ten 
talents, because he thought Alexander a god ; and they put 
Evagoras to death, because when he went as ambassador to 
the king he adored him. And Tiinon the Phliasian, in the 
third book of his Siili, says that Ariston the Chian, an 
acquaintance and pupil of Zeno the Citiean, was a flatterer 


of Perseus the philosopher, because he was a companion of 
Antigonus the king. But Phylarchus, in the sixth book of 
his Histories, says that Nicesias the flatterer of Alexander, 
■when he saw the king in convulsions from some medicine 
which he had taken, said — " king, what must we do, when 
even you gods suffer in this manner ] " and that Alexander, 
scarcely looking up, said — "What sort of godsl I am afraid 
rather we are hated by the gods." And in his twenty-eighth 
book the same Phylarchus says that Apollophanes was a 
flatterer of Antigonus who was surnamed Epitropus, who 
took Lacedannon, and who used to say that the fortune of 
Antigonus Alexandrized. 

59. But Euphantus, in the fourth book of his Historic?-', 
says that Callicrates was a flatterer of Ptolemy, the third 
king of Egypt, who was so subtle a flatterer that he not 
only bore an image of Ulysses on his seal, but that he also 
gave his children the names of Telegonus and Anticlea. 
And Polybius, in the thirteenth book of his Histories, says 
that Heraclides the Tarentine was a flatterer of the Philip 
Avhose power was destroyed by the Romans; and that it was 
he who overturned his whole kingdom, xlnd in his four- 
teenth book, he says that Philo was a flatterer of Agathocles 
the son of (Enanthe, and the companion of the king Ptolemy 
Philopator. And Baton of Sinope relates, in his book about 
the tyranny of Hieronymus, that Thraso, who was surnamed 
Carcharus, was the flatterer of Hiei-onymus the tyrant of 
Syracuse, saying that he every day used to drink a great 
quantity of unmixed wine. But another flatterer, by name 
Usis, caused Thraso to be put to death by Hieronymus; and he 
persuaded Hieronymus himself to assume the diadem, and the 
purple and all the rest of the royal apparel, which Diony- 
sius the tyrant was accustomed to wear. And Agatharchides, 
in the thirtieth book of his Histories, says — " Ha;resippus the 
Spartan was a man of no moderate iniquity, not even putting 
on any appearance of goodness ; but having veiy persuasive 
flattering language, and being a very clever man at paying 
court to the rich as long as their fortune lasted. Such also 
was Heraclides the Maronitc, the flatterer of Seuthes the king 
of the Thracians, who is mentioned by Xenophon in the 
seventh book of the Anabasis. 

GO. But Theopompus, in the eighteenth book of his 
Histories, speaking of Nicostratus the Argive, and saying 


how he flattered the Persian king, writes as follows—" But 
how can we think Nicostratus the AVgive anything but a 
wicked man? who, when he was president of the city of 
Argos, and when he had received all the distinctions of 
family, and riches, and large estates from his ancestors, sur- 
passed all men in his flatteries and attentions to the king, 
outrunning not only those who bore a part in that expedition, 
but even all who had lived before ; for in the first place, he 
was so anxious for honours from the barbarian, that, wishing 
to please him more and to be more trusted by him, he 
brought his son to the king, a thing which no one else will 
ever be found to have done. And then, every day when he 
was about to go to supper he had a table set apart, to which 
lie gave the name of the Table of the King's Deity, loading it 
with meat and all other requisites; hearing that those who 
live at the doors of the royal palace among the Persians do 
the same thing, and thinking that by this courtier-like atten- 
tion he should get more from the king. For he was exceed- 
ingly covetous, and not scrupulous as to the means he 
employed for getting money, so that indeed no one was ever 
less so. And Lysimachus was a flatterer and the tutor of 
Attains the king, a man whom Callimachus sets down as a 
Theodorean, but Hermippus sets him down in the list of the 
disciples of Theophrastus. And this man wrote books also 
about the education of Attalus, full of every kind of adula- 
tion imaginable. But Polybius, in the eighth book of his 
Histories, says, " Cavarus the Gaul, who was in other respects 
a good man, was depraved by Sostratus the flatterer, who was 
a Chalcedonian by birth." 

61. Nicolaus, in the hundred and fourteenth book of his 
Histories, says that Andromachus of Carrhas was a flatterer of 
Licinius Crassus, who commanded the expedition against the 
Parthians ; and that Crassus communicated all his designs to 
him, and was, in consequence, betrayed to the Parthians by 
him, and so destroyed. But Andromachus was not allowed 
by the deity to escape unpunished. For having obtained, as 
the reward of his conduct, the sovereignty over his native 
place Carrhae, he behaved with such cruelty and violence that 
he was burnt with his whole family by the Carrhans. And 
Posidonius the Apamean, who was afterwards surnamed 
Ehodius, in the fourth book of his Histories, says that 
Hierax of Antioch, who used formerly to accompany the 


singers called Lysiodi on the flute, afterwards became a ter- 
rible flatterer of Ptolemy, seventh king of Egypt of that, 
name, who was also surnamed Euergetes; and that he had 
the very greatest influence over him, as also he had with 
Ptolemy Philometor, though he was afterwards put to death 
by him. And Nicolaus the Peripatetic states that Sosi pater 
was a flatterer of Mithridatcs, a man who was by trade a 
conjurer. And Theopompus, in the ninth book of his History 
of Grecian Affairs, says that Athenseus the Eretrian was a 
flatterer and servant of Sisyphus the tyrant of Pharsalus. 

6:2. The whole populace of the Athenians, too, was very 
notorious for the heiglit to which it pushed its flattery ; ac- 
cordingly, Demochares the cousin of Demosthenes the orator, 
in the twentieth book of his Histories, speaking of the 
flattery practised by the Athenians towards Demetrius Polior- 
cetes, and saying that lie himself did not at all like it, writes 
as follows — " And some of these things annoyed him greatly, 
as they well might. And, indeed, other parts of their conduct 
were utterly mean and disgraceful. They consecrated temples 
to Lesena Venus and Lamia Venus, and they erected altars and 
shrines as if to heroes, and instituted libations in honour of 
Burichus, and Adeimantus, and Oxythemis, his flatterers. And 
poems were sung in honour of all these people, so that even 
Demetrius himself was astonished at what they did, and said 
that in his time there was not one Athenian of a great or 
vigorous mind." The Thebans also flattered Demetrius, as 
Polemo relates in the treatise on the Ornamented Portico at 
Sicyon ; and they, too, ei'ected a temple to Lamia Venus. 
But she was one of Demetrius's mistresses, as also was 
Lescna. So that why should we wonder at the Athenians, 
who stooped even to become flatterers of flatterers, singing 
paeans and hymns to Demetrius himself? 

Accordingly Demochares, in the twenty-first book of his 
Histories, says — "And the Athenians received Demetrius when 
he came from Leucadia and Corcyra to Athens, not only with 
frankiucense, and crowns, and libations of wine, but they 
even went out to meet him with hymns, and choruses, and 
ithyphalli, and dancing and singing, and they stood in front of 
him in multitudes, dancing and singing, and saying that ho 
was the only true god, and that all the rest of the gods were 
cither asleep, or gone away to a distance, or were no gods at 

398 THE DEIPN0S0PH1STS. [c. VI- 

all. And they called him the son of Neptune and Venus, 
for he was eminent for beauty, and affable to all men with a 
natural courtesy and gentleness of manner. And they fell at 
his feet and addressed supplications and prayei's to him." 

63. Demochares, then, has said all this about the achilatory 
spirit and conduct of the Athenians. And Duris the Samian, 
in the twenty-second book of his Histories, has given the 
very ithyphallic hymn which they addressed to him — 

Behold the greatest of the gods and dearest 

Are come to this city, 
For here Demeter 1 and Demetrius are 

Present in season. 
She indeed comes to duly celebrate 

The sacred mysteries 
Of her most holy daughter— he is present 

Joyful and beautiful, 
As a god ought to be, with smiling face 

Showering his blessings round. 
How noble doth he look ! his friends around, 

Himself the centre. 
His friends resemble the bright lesser stars, 

Himself is Phoebus. 
Hail, ever-mighty Neptune's mightier son: 

Hail, son of Venus. 
For other gods do at a distance keep, 

Or have no ears. 
Or no existence ; and they heed not us — 

But you are present, 
.Not made of wood or stone, a genuine god. 

AVe pray to thee. 
First of all give us peace, dearest god — 

For you are lord of peace — 
And crush for us yourself, for you've the power, 

This odious Sphinx ; 
Which now destroys not Thebes alone, but Greece — 

The whole of Greece — 
I mean th' JStolian, who, like her of old, 

Sits on a rock, 
And tears and crushes all our wretched bodies. 

Nor can we him resist. 
For all th' JEtolians plunder all their neighbours; 

And now they stretch afar 
Their lion hands ; but crush them, mighty lord, 

Or send some Gidipus 
Who shall this Sphinx hurl down from off his precipice, 

Or starve him justly. 

1 Demeter, ArmvTiip, or as it is written in the text Ai^rpa. Ceres, the 
mother of Proserpine. 


64. This is -what was sung by the nation -which once fought 
at Marathon, and they sang it not only in public, but in 
their private houses — men who had once put a man to 
death for offering adoration to the king of Persia, and who 
had slain countless myriads of barbarians. Therefore, Alexis, 
in his Apothecary or Cratevas, introduces a person pledging 
one of the guests in a cup of wine, and represents him as 
saying — 

Boy, give a larger cup, and pour therein 

Four cyathi of strong and friendly drink, 

In honour of all present. Then you shall add 

Three more for love ; one for the victory, 

The glorious victory of King Antigonus, 

Another for the young Demetrius. 

* * -x- •;• 

And presently he adds — 

Bring a third cup in honour now of Venus, 

The lovely Yenus. Hail, my friends and guests ; 

I drink this cup to the success of all of you. 

65. Such were the Athenians at that time, after flattery, 
that worst of wild beasts, had inspired their city with frenzy, 
that city which once the Pythia entitled the Hearth of Greece, 
and which Theopompus, who hated them, called the Pryta- 
ncum of Greece ; he who said in other places that Athens 
was full of drunken flatterers, and sailors, and pickpockets,, 
and also of false witnesses, sycophants, and false accusers. 
And it is my opinion that it was they who introduced all the 
flattery which we have been speaking of, like a storm, or 
other infliction, sent on men by the gods; concerning which 
Diogenes said, very elegantly — " That it was much better to 
go es Ko'pctKas than e<? KoAaKa?, who eat up all the good men 
while they are still alive ;" and, accordingly, Anaxilas says, in 
his Young Woman — 

The flatterers are worms which prey upon 

All who have money ; for they make an entrance 

Into the heart of a good guileless man, 

And take their seat there, and devour it, 

Till they have drain' d it like the husk of wheat, 

And leave the shell; and then attack some other. 

And Plato says, in his Phaidrus — " Nature has mingled some 
pleasure which is not entirely inelegant in its character of a 
flatterer, though he is an odious beast, and a great injury 
to a state." And Theophrastus, in his treatise on Flattery, 


says that Myrtis the priest, the Argive, taking by the ear 
Cleonymus (who was a dancer and also a flatterer, and who 
often used to come and sit by him and his fellow-judges, and 
who was anxious to be seen in company with those who were 
thought of consideration in the city), and dragging him out 
of the assembly, said to him in the hearing of many people, 
You shall not dance here, and you shall not hear us. And 
Diphilus, in his Marriage, says — 

A flatterer destroys 

By his pernicious speeches 
Both general and prince, 

Both private friends and states ; 
He pleases for a while, 

But causes lasting ruin. 
And now this evil habit 

Has spread among the people, 
Our courts are all diseased, 

And all is done by favour. 

So that the Thessalians did well who razed the city which 
was called Colaceia (Flattery), which the Melians used to 
inhabit, as Theopompus relates in the thirtieth book of his 

06. But Phylarchus says, that those Athenians who settled 
in Lemnos were great flatterers, mentioning them as such in 
the thirteenth book of his History. For that they, wishing 
to display their gratitude to the descendants of Seleucus and 
Antiochus, because Seleucus not only delivered them when 
they were severely oppressed by Lysimachus, but also restored 
both their cities to them, — they, I say, the Athenians in 
Lemnos, not only erected temples to Seleucus, but also to 
his son Antiochus; and they have given to the cup, which at 
their feasts is offered at the end of the banquet, the name of 
the cup of Seleucus the Saviour. 

Now some people, perverting the proper name, call this 
flattery dpeo-Kcta, complaisance; as Anaxandrides docs in his 
Samian, where he says — 

For flattery is now complaisance call'd. 
But those who devote themselves to flattery are not aware 
that that art is one which flourishes only a short time. 
Accordingly, Alexis says in his Liar — 

A flatterer's life but a brief space endures, 
For no one likes a hoary parasite. 

C. 68.1 FLATTERERS. 401 

And Clearchus the Solensian, in the first book of his 
Amatory treatises, says — " No flatterer is constant in his 
friendship. For time destroys the falsehood of his pretences, 
and a lover is only a flatterer and a pretended friend on 
account of youth or beauty." One of the flatterers of Deme- 
trius the king was Adeimantus of Lampsacus, who having 
built a temple in Thrisc, and placed statues in it, called it the 
temple of Phila Venus, and called the place itself Philamm, 
from Phila the mother of Demetrius; as we are told by 
Dionysius the son of Tryphon, in the tenth book of his 
treatise on Names. 

. 67. But Clearchus the Solensian, in his book which is in- 
scribed Gergithius, tells us whence the origin of the name 
flatterer is derived ; and mentioning Gergithius himself, from 
whom the treatise has its name, he says that he was one of 
Alexander's flatterers ; and he tells the story thus — " That flat- 
tery debases the characters of the flatterers, making them apt 
to despise whoever they associate with ; and a proof of this is, 
that they endure everything, well knowing what they dare do. 
And those who are flattered by them, being puffed up by their 
adulation, they make foolish and empty-headed, and cause 
them to believe that they, and everything belonging to them, 
arc of a higher order than other people." And then pro- 
ceeding to mention a certain yoixng man, a Paphian by birth, 
but a king by the caprice of fortune, he says — " This young 
man (and he does not mention his name) used out of his 
preposterous luxury to lie on a couch with silver feet, with a 
smooth Sardian carpet spread under it of the most ex- 
pensive description. And over him was thrown a piece of 
purple cloth, edged with a scarlet fringe ; and he had three 
pillows under his head made of the finest linen, and of purple 
colour, by which he kept himself cool. And under his feet 
he had two pillows of the kind called Dorian, of a bright 
crimson colour; and on all this he lay himself, clad in a 
white robe. 

68. " And all the monaixhs who have at any time reigned 
in ( !yprus have encouraged a race of nobly-born flatterers as 
useful to them ; for they are a possession very appropriate to 
tyrants. And no one ever knows them (any more than they 
do the judges of the Areopagus), either how many they are, 
or who they are, except that perhaps somo of the most 

vol. I. — atii. D D 


eminent may be known or suspected. And the flatterers at 
Salamis are divided into two classes with reference to their 
families ; and it is from the flatterers in Salamis that all the 
rest of the flatterers in the other parts of Cyprus are derived ; 
and one of these two classes is called the Gergini, and the 
other the Promalanges. Of which, the Gergini mingle with the 
people in the city, and go about as eavesdroppers and spies 
in the workshops and the market-places ; and whatever they 
hear, they report every day to those who are called their 
Principals. But the Promalanges, being a sort of superior 
investigators, inquire more particularly iuto all that is re- 
ported by the Gergini which appears worthy of being investi- 
gated ; and the way in which they conduct themselves to- 
wards every one is so artificial and gentle, that, as it seems to 
me, and as they themselves allege, the very seed of notable 
flatterers has been spread by them over all the places at a 
distance. Nor do they pride themselves slightly on their 
skill, because they are greatly honoured by the kings ; but 
they say that one of the Gergini, being a descendant of those 
Trojans whom Teucer took as slaves, having selected them 
from the captives, and then brought and settled in Cyprus, 
going along -the sea- coast with a few companions, sailed to- 
wards ^Eolis, in order to seek out and re-establish the country 
of his ancestors; and that he, taking some Mysians to him- 
self, inhabited a city near the Trojan Ida, which was formerly 
called Gergina, from the name of the inhabitants, but is now 
called Gergitha. For some of the party being, as it seems, 
separated from this expedition, stopped in Cymsea, being by 
birth a Cretan race, and not from the Thessalian Tricca, as some 
have affirmed, — men whose ignorance I take to be beyond 
the skill of all the descendants of vEsculapius to cure. 

69. " There were also in this country, in the time of Glutus 
the Carian, women attaching themselves to the Queens, who 
were called flatterers ; and a few of them who were left 
crossed the sea, and were sent for to the wives of Artabazus 
and Mentor, and instead of KoAa/a'Scs were called K.\iyu.a/ades 
from this circumstance. By way of making themselves 
agreeable to those who had sent for them, they made a ladder 
(KXi/jLCLKia.) of themselves, in such a manner that there was a way 
of ascending over their backs, and also a way of descending, 
for their mistresses when they drove out in chai'iots : to such a 

C. 70.] FLATTERERS. 403 

pitch of luxury, not to say of miserable helplessness, did they 
bring those silly women by their contrivance. Therefore, 
they themselves, when they were compelled by fortune to 
quit that very luxurious way of living, lived with great hard- 
ship in their old age. And the others who had received these 
habits from us, when they were deprived of their authority 
came to Macedonia ; and the customs which they taught to 
the wives and princesses of the great men in that country by 
their association with them, it is not decent even to mention 
further than this, that practising magic arts themselves, and 
being the objects of them when practised by others, they did 
not spare even the places of the greatest resort, but they became 
complete vagabonds, and the very scum of the streets, polluted 
with all sorts of abominations. Such and so great are the evils 
which seem to be engendered by flattery in the case of all 
people who admit from then- own inclination and predisposi- 
tion to be flattered." 

70. And a little further Clearchus goes on as follows : — 
" But still a man may have a right to find fault with that 
young man for the way in which he used those things, as 
I have said before. For his slaves stood in short tunics 
a little behind the couch : and as there are now three men 
on whose account all this discussion has been originated, and 
as all these men are men who have separate names among us, 
the one sat on the couch close to his feet, letting the feet of 
the young man rest upon his knees, and covering them with 
a thin cloth ; and what he did further is plain enough, even 
if I do not mention it. And this servant is called by the 
natives Parabystus, because he works his way into the com- 
pany of those men even who do not willingly receive him, hj 
the very skilful character of his flatteries. The second was 
one sitting on a certain chair which was placed close to the 
couch ; and he, holding by the hand of the young man, as he 
let it almost drop, and clinging to it, kept on rubbing it, and 
taking each of his fingers in turn he rubbed it and stretch* d 
it, so that the man appeared to have said a very witty thing 
who first gave that officer the name of Sicya. 1 The third, 
however, was the most noble of all, and was called Theer (or 
the wild beast), who was indeed the principal person of the 
whole body, and who stood at his master's head, and shared 
1 fftKva, a cucumber. 


his linen pillows, lying upon them in a most friendly manner, 
And with his left hand he kept smoothing the hair of the 
young man, and with his right hand he kept moving up and 
down a Phocasan fan, so as to please him while waving it, 
without force enough to brush anything away. On which 
account, it appears to me, that some high-born god must have 
been angry with him and have sent a fly to attack the young- 
man, a fly like that with whose audacity Homer says that 
Minerva inspired Menelaus, so vigorous and fearless was it in 

" So when the young man was stung, this man uttered such 
a loud scream in his behalf, and was so indignant, that on ac- 
count of his hatred to one fly he banished the whole tribe of 
flies from his house : from which it is quite plain that he 
appointed this servant for this especial pm-pose." 

71. But Leucon, the tyrant of Pontus, was a different kind 
of man, who when he knew that many of his friends had been 
plundered by one of the flatterers whom he had about him, 
perceiving that the man was calumniating some one of his 
remaining friends, said, " I swear by the gods that I would 
kill you if a tyrannical government did not stand in need or 
bad men." And Antiphanes the comic writer, in his Soldier, 
gives a similar account of the luxury of the kings in Cyprus. 
And he represents one of them as asking a soldier these 
questions — 

A. Tell me now, you had lived some time in Cyprus? 
Say you not so ? 

B. Yes, all the time of the war. 

A. In what part most especially? tell me that. 

B. In Paphos, where you should have seen the luxury 
That did exist, or you could not believe it. 

A . What kind of luxury ? 

B. The king was fann'd 

AVhile at his supper by young turtle-doves 

And by nought else. 

A. How mean you? nevermind 

My own affairs, but let me ask you this. 
13. lie was anointed with a luscious ointment 

Brought up from Syria, made of some rich fruit 

Which they do say doves love to feed upon. 

They were attracted by the scent and flew 

Around the royal temples ; and had dared 

To seat themselves upon the monarch's head, 

But that the boys who sat around with sticks 

Did keep them at a slight and easy distance. 

C. 73 ] FLATTERERS. 400 

And so they did not. porch, but hover'd round, 
Neither too far nor yet too near, still fluttering, 
So that they raised a gentle breeze to blow 
Not harshly on the forehead of the king. 

72. The flatterer (koAo.£) of that young man whom we have 
been speaking of must have been a fia\aKOKo\a$, (a soft flat- 
terer,) as Clearchus says. For besides flattering such a man as 
that, he invents a regular gait and dress harmonizing with 
that of those who receive the flattery, folding his arms and 
wrapping himself up in a small cloak; on which account some 
men call him Paranconistes, and some call him a Repository 
of Attitudes. For really a flatterer does seem to be the very 
same person with Proteus himself. Accordingly he changes 
into nearly every sort of person, not only in form, but also 
in his discourse, so very varied in voice he is. 

But Androcydes the physician said that flattery had its 
name (KoAaKeia) from becoming glued (aTro tou TrpocrKoWacrOai) 
to men's acquaintance. But it appears to me that they were 
named from their facility ; because a flatterer will undergo 
anything, like a person who stoops down to carry another on 
his back, by reason of his natural disposition, not being 
annoyed at anything, however disgraceful it may he. 

And a man will not be much out who calls the life of 
that young Cyprian a wet one. And Alexis says that there 
were many tutors and teachers of that kind of life at Athens, 
speaking thus in his Pyraunus — 

I wish'd to try another style of life, 
Which all men are accustom'd to call wet. 
So walking three days in the Ceramicus, 
I found it may be thirty skilful teachers 
Of the aforesaid life, from one single school. 

And Crobylus says in his Female Deserter — 

The wetness of your life amazes me, 

For men do call intemperance now wetness. 

73. And Antiphanes, in his Lemnian Women, lays it down 
that flattery is a kind of art, where lie says — 

Is there, or can there be an art more pleasing, 
Or any source of gain more sure and gainful 
Than well-judged flattery ! Why does the painter 
Take so much pains and get so out of temper] 
Why does the farmer undergo such risks] 
Indeed all men are full of care and trouble. 
Hut life for us is full of fun and laughter. 


For where the greatest business is amusement. 

To laugh and joke and drink full cups of wine, 

Is not that pleasant 1 How can one deny ] 

'Tis the next thing to being rich oneself. 
But Menander, in his play called the Flatterer, has given 
us the character of one as carefully and faithfully as it was 
possible to manage it : as also Diphilus has of a parasite in 
his Telesias. And Alexis, in his Liar, has introduced a flat- 
terer speaking in the following manner — 

By the Olympian Jove and by Minerva 

I am a happy man. And not alone 

Because I'm going to a wedding dinner, 

But because I shall burst, an it please God. 

And would that I might meet with such a death. 
And it seems to me, my friends, that that fine epicure would 
not have scrupled to quote from the Omphale of Ion the 
tragedian, and to say — 

For I must speak of a yearly feast 

As if it came round every day. 
74. But Hippias the Erythraean, in the second book of his 
Histories of his own Country, relating how the kingdom of 
Cnopus was subverted by the conduct of his flatterers, says 
this — " When Cnopus consulted the oracle about his safety, 
the god, in his answer, enjoined him to sacrifice to the crafty 
Mercury. And when, after that, he went to Delphi, they Avho 
were anxious to put an end to his kingly power in order to 
establish an oligarchy instead of it, (and those who wished 
this were Ortyges, and Irus, and Echarus, who, because they 
were most conspicuous in paying court to the princes, were 
called adorers and flatterers,) they, I say, being on a voyage 
in company with Cnopus, when they were at a distance from 
land, bound Cnopus and threw him into the sea ; and then 
they sailed to Chios, and getting a force from the tyrants 
there, Amphiclus and Polytechnus, they sailed by night to 
Erythree, and just at the same time the corpse of Cnopus was 
washed up on the sea-shore at Erytlme, at a place winch is 
now called Leopodon. And while Cleonice, the wife of Cnopus, 
was busied about the offices due to the corpse, (and it was the 
time of the festival and assembly instituted in honour of Diana 
Stophea,) on a sudden there is heard the noise of a trumpet ; 
and the city is taken by Ortyges and his troops, and many 
of the friends of Cnopus are put to death; and Cleonice, hear- 
ing what had happened, fled to Colophon. 

ft 70.] THE TYRANTS OF CHIOS. 407 

75. " But Ortyges and his companions, establishing them- 
selves as tyrants, and having possessed themselves of the 
supreme power in Chios, destroyed all who opposed their pro- 
ceedings, and they subverted the laws, and themselves managed 
the whole of the affairs of the state, admitting none of the 
popular party within the walls. And they established a court 
of justice outside the walls, before the gates ; and there they 
tried all actions, sitting as judges, clothed in purple cloaks, 
and in tunics with purple borders, and they wore sandals with 
many slits in them during the hot weather • but in winter 
they always walked about in women's shoes ; and they let 
their hair grow, and took great care of it so as to have ringlets, 
dividing it on the top of their head with fillets of yellow and 
purple. And they wore ornaments of solid gold, like women, 
and they compelled some of the citizens to carry their litters, 
and some to act as lictors to them, and some to sweep the 
roads. And they sent for the sons of some of the citizens to 
their parties when they supped together • and some they 
ordered to bring their own wives and daughters within. And 
on those who disobeyed they inflicted the most extreme punish- 
ment. And if any one of their companions died, then 
collecting the citizens with their wives and children, they 
compelled them by violence to utter lamentations over the 
dead, and to beat their breasts, and to cry out shrilly and 
loudly with their voices, a man with a scourge standing over 
them, who compelled them to do so — until Hippotes, the 
brother of Cnopus, coming to Erythra? with an army at the 
time of a festival, the people of Erytlma) assisting him, 
set upon the tyrants, and having punished a great many of 
their companions, slew Ortyges in his flight, and all who were 
with him, and treated their wives and children with the very 
extremity of ill-usage, and delivered his country." 

70. Now from all this we may understand, my friends, of 
how many evils flattery is the cause in In; man life. For 
Theopompus, in the nineteenth book of his history of the 
Transactions of Philip, says, "Agathoeles was a slave, and one 
of the Penestas in Thcssaly, and as he had great influence 
with Philip by reason of his flattery of him, and because he 
was constantly at his entertainmeats dancing and making him 
laugh, Philip sent him to destroy the Perriwebi, and to govern 
all that part of the country. And the Macedonian constantly 


had this kind of people about him, -with whom he associated 
the greater part of his time, because of their fondness for 
drinking and buffoonery, and in their company he used to 
deliberate on the most important affairs." And Hegesander 
the Delphian gives a similar account of him, and relates how 
he sent a large sum of money to the men who are assembled 
at Athens at the temple of Hercules in Diomea, and who say 
laughable things ; and he ordered some men to write down 
all that was said by them, and to send it to him. And Thec- 
pompus, in the twenty-sixth book of his History, says "that 
Philip knowing that the Thessalians were an intemperate 
race, and very profligate in their way of living, prepared some 
entertainments for them, and endeavoured in every possible 
manner to make himself agreeable to them. For he danced 
and revelled, and practised every kind of intemperance and 
debauchery. And he was by nature a buffoon, and got 
drunk every day, and he delighted in those occupations which 
are consistent with such practices, and with those who are 
called witty men, who say and do things to provoke laughter. 
And he attached numbers of the Thessalians who were inti- 
mate with him to himself, still more by his entertainments 
than by his presents." And Dionysius the Sicilian used to do 
very neai-ly the same thing, as Eubulus the comic poet tells 
us in his play entitled Dionysius;— 

But he is harsh and rigorous to the solemn, 
But most good-huinour'd to all flatterers, 
And all who jest with freedom. For he thinks 
Those men alone are free, though slaves they be. 

77. And indeed Dionysius w r as not the only person who 
encouraged and received those who had squandered their 
estates on drunkenness and gambling and all such debauchery 
as that, for Philip also did the same. And Theopompus speaks 
of such of them in the forty-ninth book of his History, where 
he writes as follows: — "Philip kept at a distance all men 
who were well regulated in their conduct and who took care of 
their property ; but the extravagant and those who lived in 
gambling and drunkenness he praised and honoured. And 
therefore he not only took care that they should always have 
such amusements, but he encoui-aged them to devote them- 
selves to all sorts of injustice and debauchery besides. For 
what disgraceful or iniquitous practices were there to which 


these men were strangers, or what virtuous or respectable 
habits were there which they did not shun 1 Did they 
not at all times go about shaven and carefully made smooth, 
though they were men 1 And did not they endeavour to 
misuse one another though they had beards 1 And they used 
to go about attended by two or three lovers at a time ; and 
they expected no complaisance from others which they were 
not prepared to exhibit themselves. On which account a 
man might very reasonably have thought them not eraipoi 
but eratpat, and one might have called them not soldiers, but 
prostitutes. For though they were dv8po<p6voL by profession, 
they were avSporropvoi by practice. And in addition to all 
this, instead of loving sobriety, they loved drunkenness ; and 
instead of living respectably they sought every opportunity 
of robbing and murdering ; and as for speaking the truth, 
and adhering to .their agreements, they thought that conduct 
quite inconsistent with their characters ; but to perjure 
themselves and cheat, they thought the most venerable beha- 
viour possible. And they disregarded what they had, but 
they longed for what they had not ; and this too, though 
a great part of Europe belonged to them. For I think that 
the companions of Philip, who did not at that time amount 
to a greater number than eight hundred, had possession so 
far as to enjoy the fruits of more land than any ten thousand 
Greeks, who had the most fertile and large estates." And 
he makes a very similar statement about Dionysius, in his 
twenty-first book, when he says, " Dionysius the tyrant of 
Sicily encouraged above all others those who squandered 
their property in drunkenness and gambling and intemper- 
ance of that sort. For he wished every one to become ruined 
and ready for any iniquity, and all such people he treated 
with favour and distinction." 

78. And Demetrius Poliorcetes was a man very fond of 
mirth, as Phylarchus relates in the tenth book of his History. 
But in the fourteenth book he writes as follows : — " Deme- 
trius used to allow men to flatter him at his banquets, and to 
pour libations in his honour, calling him Demetrius the 
oidy king, and Ptolemy only the prefect of the fleet, and 
Lysimachus only a steward, and Seleucus only a superin- 
tendent of elephants, and in this way lie incurred no small 
amount of hatred." And Herodotus states that Amasis the 


king of the Egyptians was always a man full of tricks, and 
one who was used to turn his fellow feasters into ridicule ; 
and when he was a private man he says he was very fond of 
feasting and of jesting, and he was not at all a serious man. 
And ISIicolaus, in the twenty-seventh book of his History, says 
that Sylla the Roman general was so fond of mimics and 
buffoons, being a man very much addicted to amusement, 
that he gave such men several portions of the public land. 
And the satyric comedies which he wrote himself in his 
native language, show of how merry and jovial a temperament 
he was in this way. 

79. And Theophrastus, in his treatise on Comedy, tells us 
that the Tirynthians, being people addicted to amusement, 
and utterly useless for all serious business, betook themselves 
once to the oracle at Delphi in hopes to be relieved from 
some calamity or other. And that the God answered them, 
" That if they sacrificed a bull to Neptune and threw it into 
the sea without once laughing, the evil would cease." And 
they, fearing lest they should make a blunder in obeying 
the oracle, forbade any of the boys to be present at the sacri- 
fice ; however, one boy, hearing of what was going to be done, 
mingled with the crowd, and then when they hooted him and 
drove him away, " Why," said he, " are you afraid lest I 
should spoil your sacrifice?" and when they laughed at this 
question of his, they perceived that the god meant to show 
them by a fact that an inveterate custom cannot be 
remedied. And Sosicrates, in the first book of his History of 
Crete, says that the Phaostians have a certain peculiarity, for 
that they seem to practise saying ridiculous things from their 
earliest childhood ; on which account it has often happened 
to them to say very reasonable and witty things because 
of their early habituation : and therefore all the Cretans 
attribute to them preeminence in the accomplishment of 
raising a laugh. 

80. But after flattery, Anaxandrides the comic poet gives 
the next place to ostentation, in his Apothecary Prophet, 
speaking thus — 

Do you reproach me that I'm ostentatious? 
Why should you do so] for this quality 
Is far beyond all others, only flattery 
Excepted : that indeed is best of all. 


And Antiphanes speaks of what he calls a psornocolax, a 
flatterer for morsels of bread, in his Gerytades, when he says — 

You are call'd a whisperer and psornocolax. 
And Sannyrion says — 

What will become of you, you cursed psomocolaces. 
And Philemon says in his Woman made young again — 

The man is a psornocolax. 
And Philippides says in his E,enovation — 

Always contending and if/oi^oKoAaKeucor. 
But the word ko\u$ especially applies to these parasitical flat- 
terers ; for koAov means food, from which come the words 
(3ovk6\o<;, and Suo-koAos, which means difficult to be pleased 
and squeamish. And the word kolXCo. means that part of the 
body which receives the food, that is to say, the stomach. 
Diphilus also uses the word i/w^oKo'Aa^os in his Theseus, 
saying — 

They call you a runaway \f/w;xoK6\a<pos. 
81. When Democritus had made this speecb, and had 
asked for some drink in a narrow-necked sabrias, Ulpian 
said, And what is this sabrias? And just as Democritus 
was beginning to treat us all to a number of interminable 
stories, in came a troop of servants bringing in everything 
requisite for eating. Concerning whom Democritus, continu- 
ing his discourse, spoke as follows : — I have always, my 
friends, marvelled at the race of slaves, considering how 
abstemious they are, though placed in the middle of such 
numbers of dainties; for they pass them by, not only out of 
fear, but also because they are taught to do so ; I do not 
mean being taught in the Slave-teacher of Pherecrates, but by 
early habituation ; and without its being necessary to utter 
any express prohibition respecting such matters to them, 
as in the island of Cos, when the citizens sacrifice to Juno. 
For Macareus says, in his third book of his treatise on Coan 
Affairs, that, when the Coans sacrifice to Juno, no slave is 
allowed to enter the temple, nor does any slave taste any one 
of the things which are prepared for the sacrifice. And Anti- 
phanes, in his Dyspratus, 1 says — 

1 The exact meaning of this title is disputed, some translate it, 
" hard to sell," or " to be sold," others merely "miserable." 


'Tis hard to see around one savoury cakes, 
And delicate birds half eaten ; yet the slaves 
Are not allow' d to eat the fragments even, 
As say the women. 

And Epicrates, in his Dyspratus, introduces a servant express- 
ing his indignation, and saying — 

What can he •worse than, while the guests arc drinking, 

To hear the constant cry of, Here, boy, here ! 

And this that one may bear a chamberpot 

To some vain beardless youth ; and see around 

Half eaten savoury cakes, and delicate birds, 

Whose very fragments are forbidden strictly 

To all the slaves — at least the women say so ; 

And him who drinks a cup men call a belly-god; 

And if he tastes a mouthful of solid food 

They call him greedy glutton : 

from the comparison of which iambics, it is very "plain that 
Epicrates borrowed Antiphanes's lines, and transferred them 
to his own play. 

82. And Dieuchidas says, in his history of the Affairs of 
Megara — " Around the islands called Arsea? (and they are be- 
tween Cnidos and Symc) a difference arose, after the death of 
Triopas, among those who had set out with him on his expe- 
dition, and some returned home, and others remained with 
Phorbas, and came to Ialysus, and others proceeded with 
Periergus, and occupied the district of Cameris. And on 
this • it is said that Periergus uttered curses againt Phorbas, 
and on this account the islands were called Arseae. But 
Phorbas having met with shipwreck, he and Parthenia, the 
sister of Phorbas and Periergus, swam ashore to Iahysus, at the 
point called Schedia. And Thamneus met with them, as he 
happened to be hunting near Schedia, and took them to his 
own house, intending to receive them hospitably, and sent on 
a servant as a messenger to tell his wife to prepare everything 
necessaiy, as he was bringing home strangers. But when he 
came to his house and found nothing prepared, he himself 
put corn into a mill, and everything else that w r as requisite, 
and then ground it himself and feasted them. And Phorbas 
was so delighted with this hospitality, that when he was 
dying himself he charged his friends to take care that his 
funeral rites should be performed by free men. And so this 
custom continued to prevail in the sacrifice of Phorbas, for 
1 From apa, a curse. 

C. 84.1 THE MAEIANDTNI. 413 

none but free men minister at this sacrifice. And it is 
accounted profanation for any slave to approach it." 

83. And since among the different questions proposed by 
Ulpian, there is this one about the slaves, let us now our- 
selves recapitulate a few things which we have to say on the 
subject, remembering what we have in former times read 
about it. For Pherecrates, in his Boors, says — 

For no one then had any Manes, 1 no, 

Nor" home-born slaves ; but the free women themselves 

Did work at everything within the house. 

And so at morn they ground the corn for bread, 

Till all the streets resounded with the mills. 

And Anaxandrides, in his Anchises, says — 

There is not anywhere, my friend, a state 
Of none but slaves; but fortune regulates 
And changes at its will th' estates of men. 
Many there are who are not free to day, 
But will to-morrow free-men be of Sunium, 
And the day after public orators •, 
For so the deity guides each man's helm. 

84. And Posidonius, the stoic philosopher, says in the 
eleventh book of his History, " That many men, who are 
unable to govern themselves, by reason of the weakness of 
their intellect, give themselves up to the guidance of those 
who are wiser than themselves, in order that receiving from 
them care and advice, and assistance in necessary matters, 
they may in their turn requite them with such services as 
they are able to render. And in this manner the Marian- 
dyni became subject to the people of Heraclea, promising to 
act as their subjects for ever, if they would supply them with 
what they stood in need of; having made an agreement 
beforehand, that none of them would sell anything out of 
the territory of Heraclea, but that they would sell in that 
district alone. And perhaps it is on this account that 
Euphorion the epic poet called the Mariandyni Bringers of 
Gifts, saying — 

And they may well be call'd Bringers of Gifts, 
Fearing the stern dominion of their kings. 

And Callistratus the Aristophanean says that " they called 

the Mariandyni Suypocfaopoi, by that appellation taking away 

whatever there is bitter in the name of servants, just as the 

1 A slave's name. 

414 THE DE1PN0S0PHISTS. [b. VI. 

Spartans did in respect of the Helots, the Thessalians in the 
case of the Penestse, and the Cretans with the Clarotse. But 
the Cretans call those servants who are in their houses Chry- 
soneti, 1 and those whose work lies in the fields Amphamiotae, 
being natives of the country, but people who have been en- 
slaved by the chance of war ; but they also call the same 
people Clarotae, because they have been distributed among 
their masters by lot. 

And Ephorus, in the third book of his Histories, " The Cre- 
tans call their slaves Clarotse, because lots have been drawn for 
them ; and these slaves have some regularly recuiTing festi- 
vals in Cydonia, during which no freemen enter the city, but 
the slaves are the masters of everything, and have the right 
even to scourge the freemen." But Sosicrates, in the second 
book of his History of Cretan Affairs, says, " The Cretans call 
public servitude /uvoia, but the private slaves they call apha- 
miotae ; and the perioeci, or people who live in the adjacent 
districts, they call subjects. And Dosiadas gives a very 
similar account in the fourth book of his history of Cretan 

85. But the Thessalians call those Penestao who were not 
born slaves, but who have been taken prisoners in war. And 
Theoj)ompus the comic poet, misapplying the word, says — 

The wrinkled counsellors of a Penestan master. 
And Philocrates, in the second book of his history of the 
Affairs of Thessaly, if at least the work attributed to him is 
genuine, says that the Penestae are also called Thessalcecetae, 
or servants of the Thessalians. And Archemachus, in the 
third book of his history of the Affairs of Eubooa, says, " When 
the Boeotians had founded Arnaea, those of them who did not 
return to Boeotia, but who took a fancy to their new country, 
gave themselves up to the Thessalians by agreement, to be 
their slaves ; on condition that they should not take them 
out of the country, nor put them to death, but that they 
should cultivate the country for them, and pay them a yearly 
revenue for it. These men, therefore, abiding by their agree- 
ment, and giving themselves xip to the Thessalians, were 
called at that time Menestae ; but now they are called Penestae j 

1 Chrysoneti means bought with gold, from xpwds, gold, and uveo/Mu, 
to buy. OlaroixB means allotted, from KX-rjpow, to cast lots. It is not 
known what the derivation or meaning of Aphamiotce is. 

C. ST.] SLAVES. 415 

and many of them are richer than their masters. And Euri- 
pides, in his Phrixus, calls them Iairise, 1 in these words — 

Aarpis irevsffTus a/xos apxaioov 86p.coy. 

86. And Timaeus of Tauromenium, in the ninth book of 
his Histories, says, " It was not a national custom among the 
Greeks in former times to be waited on by purchased slaves f 
and he proceeds to say, " And altogether they accused Aris- 
totle of having departed from the Locrian customs ; for they 
said that it was not customary among the Locrians, nor 
among the Phocians, to^use either maid-servants or house- 
servants till very lately. But the wife of Philomelus, who 
took Delphi, was the first woman who had two maids to 
follow her. And in a similar manner Mnason, the com- 
panion of Aristotle, was much reproached among the Pho- 
cians, for having purchased a thousand slaves ; for they said 
that he was depriving that number of citizens of their neces- 
sary subsistence : for that it was a custom in their houses 
for the younger men to minister to the elder." 

87. And Plato, in the sixth book of the Laws, says, — " The 
whole question about servants is full of difficulty ; for of all 
the Greeks, the system of the Helots among the Lacedae- 
monians causes the greatest perplexity and dispute, some 
people affirming that it is a wise institution, and some con- 
sidering it as of a very opposite character. But the system 
of slavery among the people of Heraclea would cause less dis- 
pute than the subject condition of the Mariandyni ; and so too 
would the condition of the Thessalian Penestse. And if we con- 
sider all these things, what ought we to do with respect to the 
acquisition of servants ? For there is nothing sound in the 
feelings of slaves ; nor ought a prudent man to trust them in 
anything of importance. And the wisest of all poets says — 

Jove fix'd it certain that whatever day 
Makes man a slave, takes half his worth away. 
And it has been frequently shown by facts, that a slave is an 
objectionable and perilous possession ; especially in the fre- 
quent revolts of the Messenians, and in the case of those 
cities which have many slaves, speaking different languages, 
in which many evils arise from that circumstance. And also 
we may come to the same conclusion from the exploits and 
sufferings of all sorts of robbers, who infest the Italian coasts 
1 From Xarpeiw, to serve. 


as piratical vagabonds. And if any one considers all these cir- 
cumstances, he may well doubt what course ought to be pur- 
sued with respect to all these people. Two remedies now are 
left to us — either never to allow, for the future, any person's 
slaves to be one another's fellow-countrymen, and, as far as 
possible, to prevent their even speaking the same language : 
and he should also keep them well, not only for their sake, but 
still more for his own ; and he should behave towards them with 
as little insolence as possible. But it is right to chastise them 
with justice ; not admonishing them as if they were free 
men, so as to make them arrogant : and every word which 
we address to slaves ought to be, in some sort, a command. 
And a man ought never to play at all with his slaves, or jest 
with them, whether they be male or female. And as to the 
very foolish way in which many people treat their slaves, 
allowing them great indulgence and great licence, they only 
make everything more difficult for both parties : they make 
obedience harder for the one to practise, and authority harder 
for the others to exercise. 

88. Now of all the Greeks, I conceive that the Chians were 
the first people who used slaves purchased with mone}', as is 
related by Theopompus, in the seventeenth book of his His- 
tories ; where he says, — " The Chians were the first of the 
Greeks, after the Thessalians and Lacedaemonians, who used 
slaves. But they did not acquire them in the same manner 
as those others did ; for the Lacedaemonians and the Thes- 
salians will be found«to have derived their slaves from Greek 
tribes, who formerly inhabited the country which they now 
possess : the one having Achaean slaves, but the Thessalians 
having Perrhrcbian and Magnesian slaves ; and the one nation 
called their slaves Helots, and the others called them Pencstfe. 
But the Chians have barbarian slaves, and they have bought 
them at a price." Theopompus, then, has given this account. 
But I think that, on this account, the Deity was angry with 
the Chians ; for at a subsequent period they were subdued 
by their slaves. Accordingly, Nymphodorus the Syracusan, 
in his Voyage along the Coast of Asia, gives this account 
of them : — " The slaves of the Chians deserted them, and 
escaped to the mountains ; and then, collecting in great num- 
bers, ravaged the country-houses about; for the island is very 
rugged,, and much overgrown with trees. But, a little before 

C. 89.] DRIMACUS. 417 

our time, the Chians themselves relate, that one of their 
slaves deserted, and took up his habitation in the mountains ; 
and, being a man of great courage and very prosperous in his 
warlike undertakings, he assumed the command of the run- 
away slaves, as a king would take the command of an army ; 
and though the Chians often made expeditions against him, 
they were able to effect nothing. And when Drimacus (for 
that was the name of this runaway slave) found that they were 
being destroyed, without being able to effect anything, he 
addressed them in this language : ' Chians ! you who are 
the masters, this treatment which you are now receiving from 
your servants will never cea